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A Sensitivity Study of Radiant Energy During Snowmelt in Small Canopy Gaps: The quest for the radiative minima and more... Timothy E. Link - University.

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Presentation on theme: "A Sensitivity Study of Radiant Energy During Snowmelt in Small Canopy Gaps: The quest for the radiative minima and more... Timothy E. Link - University."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Sensitivity Study of Radiant Energy During Snowmelt in Small Canopy Gaps: The quest for the radiative minima and more... Timothy E. Link - University of Idaho John Pomeroy - University of Saskatchewan Robert Lawler - U.S. Forest Service Chad Ellis - Silvatech Consulting Ltd. Danny Marks – USDA ARS Richard Essery - University of Edinburgh

2 Outline Motivation & background Radiation in forest gaps Measurements Modeling Scaling up... Future directions and challenges

3 Motivation Snow is a major water source 50% - 90% in western U. S. watersheds Declining in many areas Improve melt prediction in complex terrain Can forest management conserve snow? Gap thinning Homogeneous thinning

4 Shortwave DominatedLongwave Dominated Snow in Forests

5 Canopy Effects Summary ↓ SWE ↓ Shortwave Radiation ↑ Longwave Radiation ↓ Wind Speed...and hence: Loss of forest canopy should: 1. Increase snow !! 2. Accelerate melt !!! In forests, relative to open areas... Not always so!!!

6 Canopy Gaps... a.k.a “cold holes” (Berry & Rothwell, 1992) are “open”, and so... - Accumulate more snow but... - Are dark and cold Wolf Creek Experimental Basin, Yukon Territory High Noon in November

7 Some history... Church Geog. Rev.

8 More history... Golding & Swanson Can. J. For. Res.

9 More history... Golding & Swanson Wat. Resour. Res.

10 More history... Berry & Rothwell Can. J. For. Res.

11 and so the question is... How does radiation vary as function of position, gap size, season, and latitude ? Optimal density and pattern to minimize radiation to snow?

12 Methods Radiation measurements Physically-based models Sensitivity experiments

13 Radiation Measurements measuring sunshine in a campground in winter...

14 Simple Model Performance Shortwave Radiation Text Lawler & Link, Hyd. Proc., 2011

15 Model Performance: Longwave Radiation Lawler & Link, Hyd. Proc., 2011

16 GAP POSITION, SIZE, AND SEASON Simulated Radiation Regimes

17 Gap Radiation Regimes Lawler & Link, Hyd. Proc., 2011 February 1 ~47° N latitude

18 Gap Radiation Regimes February 1, ~47° N latitude Proportion Lawler & Link, Hyd. Proc., 2011

19 Gap Radiation Regimes May 1, ~47° N latitude Proportion Lawler & Link, Hyd. Proc., 2011

20 Snow Depth Trends ~47° N latitude

21 GAP SIZE, SEASON, AND LATITUDE Simulated Radiation Regimes: Another View…

22 Gap Radiative Regimes Instantaneous, Gap Center

23 Data Analysis Daily Incoming Radiation

24

25 longwave-dominated shortwave-dominated

26 Data Analysis Daily Incoming Radiation

27 Link et al., in prep.

28

29 Gaps on Slopes North and South Ellis et al., WRR, in press

30 Gaps on Slopes East and West Ellis et al., WRR, in press

31 Conclusions (so far!) Radiative minima occur in gaps Optimal size: 1-2 H at ~45° latitude Snow can be retained on the landscape Melt can be desynchronized on slopes Canopy gap microclimates are distinct Implications: Water resource prediction & enhancement Climate change adaptation Monitoring site assessment Fire hazard risk reduction Avalanche initiation Vegetation regeneration

32 The Marmot Creek Legacy Marmot Creek Research Basin Alberta, Canada Cedar River Watershed Washington, USA Cedar River Watershed Washington, USA

33 Future Directions: Discrete Tree Model Images courtesy of Dr. Richard Essery

34 Future Directions - How does radiation vary as function of canopy density, pattern, slope, and... - Optimal density and pattern to minimize radiation to snow?

35 The Quest for More… ~4H gap ~1H gap Seasonal effects ? Productive melt conditions Comprehensive snow energetics ? Climatological variability ? Spatial Temporal (Intra and inter-annual) Depositional effects ? Sublimation vs. meltwater drip Deportment of infiltrated water?

36 Thank You ! Questions ?

37

38 Approach: Modeling Seyednasrollah et al., In review. JGR - Atmospheres.

39 Example Results: Discrete Tree Model Essery et al., J. Hydromet.

40 In Summary... Forests can have higher radiation than open High latitudes, mid-winter, north slopes Gaps can have lowest radiation amounts During melt !! Distinct at high latitudes North slopes are like high latitudes


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