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By: Nesreen Fakhr Planning & Writing a Well Structured Essay.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Nesreen Fakhr Planning & Writing a Well Structured Essay."— Presentation transcript:

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2 By: Nesreen Fakhr Planning & Writing a Well Structured Essay

3 Planning _____________I_____________ ↓ Brainstorming Outlining

4 Brainstorming What is brainstorming? This is a step that occurs after choosing a topic, as you start to generate the ideas. What are the benefits of brainstorming? It can make you start writing quickly & saves time in later stages of writing. Types of brainstorming technique _____________________________ ↓ ↓ ↓ Listing/Bulleting Freewriting Clustering/Mapping/ Webbing

5 Clustering/Mapping/Webbing

6 Outline This stage appears after choosing the topic and generating ideas by brainstorming. In this stage you arrange the ideas you generated by brainstorming in the form of an outline. What is an outline? An outline is a formal plan for a paragraph or an essay. In an outline you write the main points and the sub points in the order in which you plan to write about them. How to form an outline? Step 1: divide the ideas that you generated by brainstorming into groups after crossing out any irrelevant item. Step 2: write a topic sentence for each group. Step 3: arrange the main points and the sub points in each group.

7 Sample outline I. Introduction A. Thesis statement II. Body A. Point 1 1. Supporting Information 2. Supporting Information B. Point 2 1.Supporting Information 2.Supporting Information III. Conclusion/Summary A. Restatement of the thesis statement. B. Summary of supporting information C. Conclusion reached

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20 What can be learnt from this activity The importance of brainstorming The importance of evaluating the ideas The importance of planning

21 Writing a well developed essay Introduction Body paragraph 1 Body Paragraph 2 Conclusion

22 Sample Essay 1

23 Learning something new can be a scary experience. One of the hardest things I've ever had to do was learn how to swim. I was always afraid of the water, but I decided that swimming was an important skill that I should learn. I also thought it would be good exercise and help me to become physically stronger. What I didn't realize was that learning to swim would also make me a more confident person. New situations always make me a bit nervous, and my first swimming lesson was no exception. After I changed into my bathing suit in the locker room, I stood timidly by the side of the pool waiting for the teacher and other students to show up. After a couple of minutes the teacher came over. She smiled and introduced herself, and two more students joined us. Although they were both older than me, they didn't seem to be embarrassed about not knowing how to swim. I began to feel more at ease. Things were not quite that easy for me, but the teacher was very patient. After a few more weeks, when I seemed to have caught on with my legs, she taught me the arm strokes. Now I had two things to concentrate on, my arms and my legs. I felt hopelessly uncoordinated. Sooner than I imagined, however, things began to feel "right" and I was able to swim! It was a wonderful free feeling - like flying, maybe - to be able to shoot across the water. We got into the pool, and the teacher had us put on brightly colored water wings to help us stay afloat. One of the other students, May, had already taken the beginning class once before, so she took a kickboard and went splashing off by herself. The other student, Jerry, and I were told to hold on to the side of the pool and shown how to kick for the breaststroke. One by one, the teacher had us hold on to a kickboard while she pulled it through the water and we kicked. Pretty soon Jerry was off doing this by himself, traveling at a fast clip across the short end of the pool. Learning to swim was not easy for me, but in the end my persistence paid off. Not only did I learn how to swim and to conquer my fear of the water, but I also learned something about learning. Now when I am faced with a new situation I am not so nervous. I may feel uncomfortable to begin with, but I know that as I practice being in that situation and as my skills get better, I will feel more and more comfortable. It is a wonderful, free feeling when you achieve a goal you have set for yourself.

24 Now try it yourself before checking the answer

25 Learning something new can be a scary experience. One of the hardest things I've ever had to do was learn how to swim. I was always afraid of the water, but I decided that swimming was an important skill that I should learn. I also thought it would be good exercise and help me to become physically stronger. What I didn't realize was that learning to swim would also make me a more confident person. New situations always make me a bit nervous, and my first swimming lesson was no exception. After I changed into my bathing suit in the locker room, I stood timidly by the side of the pool waiting for the teacher and other students to show up. After a couple of minutes the teacher came over. She smiled and introduced herself, and two more students joined us. Although they were both older than me, they didn't seem to be embarrassed about not knowing how to swim. I began to feel more at ease. We got into the pool, and the teacher had us put on brightly colored water wings to help us stay afloat. One of the other students, May, had already taken the beginning class once before, so she took a kickboard and went splashing off by herself. The other student, Jerry, and I were told to hold on to the side of the pool and shown how to kick for the breaststroke. One by one, the teacher had us hold on to a kickboard while she pulled it through the water and we kicked. Pretty soon Jerry was off doing this by himself, traveling at a fast clip across the short end of the pool. Things were not quite that easy for me, but the teacher was very patient. After a few more weeks, when I seemed to have caught on with my legs, she taught me the arm strokes. Now I had two things to concentrate on, my arms and my legs. I felt hopelessly uncoordinated. Sooner than I imagined, however, things began to feel "right" and I was able to swim! It was a wonderful free feeling - like flying, maybe - to be able to shoot across the water. Learning to swim was not easy for me, but in the end my persistence paid off. Not only did I learn how to swim and to conquer my fear of the water, but I also learned something about learning. Now when I am faced with a new situation I am not so nervous. I may feel uncomfortable to begin with, but I know that as I practice being in that situation and as my skills get better, I will feel more and more comfortable. It is a wonderful, free feeling when you achieve a goal you have set for yourself.

26 Another Sample Essay

27 I first believe that abortion should remain legal because there are many people who have financial problems, which create many problems in a baby's life. Financial problems result in malnutrition and unhealthy living environments, which could cause a premature death for the baby and leave the parent traumatized. For example, in the 1950's, when I was growing up, abortion was illegal. My next-door neighbor was extremely poor; however, she was pregnant. She had little income and many bills. Despite her financial problems, she had no choice but to have the baby. After a few months, the baby died from sudden infant death syndrome because the mother was unable to afford proper nutrients to feed her baby. As a result, my next-door neighbor had a nervous breakdown and was institutionalized. If abortion were legal, she could have prevented this dramatizing experience. Although there are many debates as to whether or not abortion should be outlawed, I believe that financial problems, rape, and life threatening complications during childbirth are adequate reasons to keep abortion legal. If my neighbor would have had an abortion, she could have been spared a lifetime of torment and self-blame. Furthermore, if Rose would not have had an abortion, then surely her child would have had severe mental defects and suffered greatly traveling with Rose into darkness. Last, the ten-year-old child from the book would have been spared being sent to a foster home if his mother would have listened to the doctors and had the abortion in the first place. As you can see, abortion truly can have positive affects by saving lives in more than one way.

28 Over the years abortion has been a very controversial topic. It is all the more controversial because there is no clear answer as to whether or not abortion is morally right. As a result of this ambiguity, the argument as to whether or not abortion should remain legal continues. For many people, abortion should be illegal because to them it is murder. On the other hand, many people believe that it should remain legal because of issues such as freedom of choice. Despite the many controversies of abortion, I believe that abortion should remain legal because many people have financial problems, incidents of rape, and predictions that the mother may have life threatening complications during the labor. I further believe that abortion should remain legal because of uncontrollable situations like rape. Rape can cause the mother to have many mental complications. Consider the movie The Cider House Rules. In the movie, Rose Rose's father, Mr. Rose, rapes her, and she becomes pregnant. Consequently, Rose becomes very depressed. During the time period of this movie, abortion was also illegal. Either way, Rose has an illegal abortion. Rose, after the abortion, kills her father, and disappears into darkness. Now, imagine the kind of life Rose's baby would have had if Rose did not have an abortion.

29 I finally believe that abortion should be kept legal because of predictions that the mother may die giving birth. A mother who is told that she is going to die giving birth may already have three kids and/or a husband. The children would probably suffer very much if their mother died during childbirth. To illustrate, I read a book that was about a mother who was about to have a second child. The mother already had a child who was ten years old. The doctors told the mother that there are complications in her womb, and if she goes through with the labor she may die. The doctors tried to convince her that an abortion would be best, but she refused. The mother did go into labor and dies. She left her ten-year-old son behind, and the ten-year-old son had no choice but to be placed in foster care. Should the mother have had the abortion, then she could have survived and raise her son.

30 Now try it yourself before checking the answer

31 Over the years abortion has been a very controversial topic. It is all the more controversial because there is no clear answer as to whether or not abortion is morally right. As a result of this ambiguity, the argument as to whether or not abortion should remain legal continues. For many people, abortion should be illegal because to them it is murder. On the other hand, many people believe that it should remain legal because of issues such as freedom of choice. Despite the many controversies of abortion, I believe that abortion should remain legal because many people have financial problems, incidents of rape, and predictions that the mother may have life threatening complications during the labor. I first believe that abortion should remain legal because there are many people who have financial problems, which create many problems in a baby's life. Financial problems result in malnutrition and unhealthy living environments, which could cause a premature death for the baby and leave the parent traumatized. For example, in the 1950's, when I was growing up, abortion was illegal. My next-door neighbor was extremely poor; however, she was pregnant. She had little income and many bills. Despite her financial problems, she had no choice but to have the baby. After a few months, the baby died from sudden infant death syndrome because the mother was unable to afford proper nutrients to feed her baby. As a result, my next-door neighbor had a nervous breakdown and was institutionalized. If abortion were legal, she could have prevented this dramatizing experience.

32 I further believe that abortion should remain legal because of uncontrollable situations like rape. Rape can cause the mother to have many mental complications. Consider the movie The Cider House Rules. In the movie, Rose Rose's father, Mr. Rose, rapes her, and she becomes pregnant. Consequently, Rose becomes very depressed. During the time period of this movie, abortion was also illegal. Either way, Rose has an illegal abortion. Rose, after the abortion, kills her father, and disappears into darkness. Now, imagine the kind of life Rose's baby would have had if Rose did not have an abortion. I finally believe that abortion should be kept legal because of predictions that the mother may die giving birth. A mother who is told that she is going to die giving birth may already have three kids and/or a husband. The children would probably suffer very much if their mother died during childbirth. To illustrate, I read a book that was about a mother who was about to have a second child. The mother already had a child who was ten years old. The doctors told the mother that there are complications in her womb, and if she goes through with the labor she may die. The doctors tried to convince her that an abortion would be best, but she refused. The mother did go into labor and dies. She left her ten-year-old son behind, and the ten-year-old son had no choice but to be placed in foster care. Should the mother have had the abortion, then she could have survived and raise her son.

33 Although there are many debates as to whether or not abortion should be outlawed, I believe that financial problems, rape, and life threatening complications during childbirth are adequate reasons to keep abortion legal. If my neighbor would have had an abortion, she could have been spared a lifetime of torment and self-blame. Furthermore, if Rose would not have had an abortion, then surely her child would have had severe mental defects and suffered greatly traveling with Rose into darkness. Last, the ten-year-old child from the book would have been spared being sent to a foster home if his mother would have listened to the doctors and had the abortion in the first place. As you can see, abortion truly can have positive affects by saving lives in more than one way.

34 References Oshima, A. & Hogue, A. Introduction to Academic Writing: Second Ed. New York, USA. Addison Wesley Longman, Developed-And-Organized-Argumentative-Essay-5- Paragraphs/1q_254oa/ Developed-And-Organized-Argumentative-Essay-5- Paragraphs/1q_254oa/

35 Thank you


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