Presentation on theme: "Ratuagung’11 Referensi : CARLINER, SAUL. 2003. Training Design Basics. American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) Press."— Presentation transcript:
Ratuagung’11 Referensi : CARLINER, SAUL Training Design Basics. American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) Press.
The six basic issues about which you need information as you embark on a training project Some effective ways to track down this information.
Kata kuci : the request itself the business need underlying the project the desired performance the tasks the learners and the influences on them the constraints on the project.
The first step in analyzing the needs underlying a request to develop a course is restating the request. When restating the training request, use the exact words that the sponsor has used. Starting the project by using the exact same words that the sponsor used is a way of letting him or her know that you listened carefully to the request and understood exactly the sponsor's meaning. Few things build trust the way that type of listening does.
Begin each course by identifying the business goal before you have even determined which content to include. In practical terms, this means that a training program is most likely to have impact if it addresses a revenue or cost problem that the business currently faces and if the use of the information taught in the course is tied to the measurements of effectiveness for the staff of the organization.
Business Goal Training Projects Relevant to the Business Goal Generating Revenue Some proposed training programs are associated with efforts to generate revenue for the organization. Containing Expenses Some proposed training programs are intended to increase staff productivity, reduce the number of errors, or increase self-sufficiency (so users do not need costly, in-person help). Complying With Regulations Some proposed training programs are required by government, industry, or corporate guidelines.
The difference between current performance and the ideal performance is called the performance gap. Effective training bridges the performance gap. Ultimately, an effective training program must close the performance gap by affecting the way that learners perform their jobs.
identify the specific process (or processes) that learners must follow to achieve ideal performance. The tasks fall into three categories: Psychomotor tasks are those performed by hand or some other physical activity. Cognitive tasks are performed mentally, such as choosing the right model of computer to meet a customer's needs or matching symptoms with a diagnosis. Attitudinal, or affective, tasks are associated with learners' attitudes. Usually, affective tasks are redefined as cognitive or psychomotor tasks.
To design training so that it will be able to close a performance gap, it is necessary to collect a variety of information about the learners, including the following : Demographic data: This category of information includes items such as job title, length of experience, assumed knowledge, sex (if relevant), language skills (if relevant), cultural affiliations (if appropriate), and similar information. Previous knowledge: If learners have previous experience with the subject matter of the proposed course or with related material, describe it. Influences affecting the learners: Some influences may come from the business, such as a recent reorganization that results in new work for a group. Some of these influences are cultural.
Product Constraints. These constraints affect what you can present and how you can present it. Software/Technical Constraints. Sometimes, you must also use certain software (called authoring tools) to create courses because your organization already owns licenses for certain software or because a sponsor requested its use. Business Constraints. The third set of constraints for your consideration. Constraints of Corporate Culture and the Learning Environment. The last set of constraints is one that you should not include in a report to sponsors.
Course structure: Sometimes organizations establish a standard structure for certain types of courses. Editorial guidelines: Also called style guidelines, these constraints affect the use of terminology, punctuation, and grammar. Design guidelines: These constraints affect the design of slides and workbooks. Most corporations want a "family look" to everything they publish, so that material produced by many different groups within a company looks similar. Other standards and guidelines: In some cases, your training program must resemble other courses or materials used by the organization.
word processor (such as Microsoft Word or Corel WordPerfect) presentation program (such as Microsoft PowerPoint) desktop publishing program (such as QuarkXpress) graphics program (such as Adobe Illustrator or Photoshop) specialized software (such as software for capturing screenshots).
the drop-dead deadline for completing the project the not-to-exceed budget staff who must participate in the design and development effort.
communication strategies within the organization: Do people communicate directly and, if so, what are the channels, or do they communicate indirectly, and if so, how? attitude toward the subject matter: Does the organization embrace it or will people avoid it? Be honest, even though the sponsor will tell you that everyone welcomes the content. project history: Is the organization notorious for last-minute changes? If so, be prepared because it will happen again. learning environment for self-study courses: Where will learning occur? Is that environment conducive to learning? If not, what needs to change? Are there opportunities in the work environment to tie learning to work? Do managers and co- workers support learning ? If so, how? If not, what do they do?
1. Talk, Conduct formal interviews with as many people who have information to share as possible. Typically, these people include stakeholders, such as the sponsor, SMEs, and prospective learners. 2. Focus Groups, Focus groups are a special type of interview, in which you interview eight to 12 demographically similar people at a single time. The focus group usually lasts two hours and can cover between three and five questions. 3. Experience,One of the ways to learn about a subject is to experience it. An efficient way of doing so is by following people through their daily routines from the start of the workday until the end. This method is called "A Day in the Life" because it literally follows a day in the life of a worker. 4. Read, In many cases, you do not need to conduct new research to uncover the information needed to start a training project—you merely need to find existing research. Therefore, one of the most valuable sources of content is the documents already available about the situation. Read anything that might provide useful insights into the content or the learners: reports, plans, policies, user's guides, memos and other correspondence, trade magazines, and even other training programs.
keep an open mind as you explore needs. If you enter a needs analysis with the solution already designed, then you will not ask the questions that might help you come up with the intervention best matched to meet the needs. In the same way, keep an open mind about the answers to the questions. Rather than entering this process for the purpose of confirming your answers, enter it to learn