Presentation on theme: "Atoms, Molecules, and Ions"— Presentation transcript:
1Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter 2Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
2Early Atomic Theory History Democritus – “Atomos” (has idea of atoms)John Dalton & His LawsJ.J. Thompson – Discovered electronRutherford – Discovered Nucleus in atom
3Dalton’s Atomic Theory Elements are made up of atomsAtoms of each element are identical. Atoms of different elements are different.Compounds are formed when atoms combine. Each compound has a specific number and kinds of atom.Chemical reactions are rearrangement of atoms. Atoms are not created or destroyed.
4Dalton’s LawsConservation of Mass – Matter cannot be created or destroyedLaw of Definite Proportion- compounds have a constant composition.The react in specific ratios by mass.Water always has 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom.
5Law of Multiple Proportions- When two elements form more than one compound, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with one gram of the first can be reduced to small whole numbers.
6What?! Water (H2O)has 8 g of oxygen per 1.0 g of hydrogen. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has 16 g of oxygen per 1.0 g of hydrogen.16/8 = 2/1The ratios of the masses of oxygen is small whole number.
7Example 2:Sulfur and oxygen react to form both SO2 and SO3. In SO2 there are 32.02g of sulfur and 32.00g of oxygen. In SO3, 32.06g of sulfur are combined with 48.00grams of oxygen.What is the ratio of the weights of oxygen that combine with 32.06g of sulfur?b) How does this illustrate the law of multiple proportions?
8SO g Oxygen = g O g SulfurSO g Oxygen = g32.06 g SulfurShows law of multiple proportions because ratio of 1.497g/0.999g = 1.5 ratioWhich is 3/2 ratio!
9- + Thomson’s Experiment J. J. Thomson- used Cathode ray tubes Voltage source-+Passing an electric current makes a beam appear to move from the negative to the positive end.
10Thomson’s Experiment Voltage source + - By adding an electric field, he found that the moving pieces were negative
11Thomsom’s Model Found the electron. Couldn’t find positive (for a while).Said the atom was like plum pudding.A bunch of positive stuff, with the electrons able to be removed.
13Millikan’s Experiment X-raysX-rays give some electrons a charge.
14Millikan’s Experiment Some drops would hoverFrom the mass of the drop and the charge onthe plates, he calculated the mass of an electron
15Rutherford’s Experiment Used uranium to produce alpha particles.Aimed alpha particles at gold foil by drilling hole in lead block.Since the mass is evenly distributed in gold atoms alpha particles should go straight through.Used gold foil because it could be made atoms thin.
26Using Atomic Number and Mass Numbers to determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons 19 KMass #39Element SymbolAtomic #Number of Protons = Atomic number = 19 protonsNumber of Neutrons = Mass # - Atomic #= 39 – 19 = 20 neutronsNumber of electrons = # protons = 19 electrons(In a neutral atom!)
27How Can Atoms of the Same Element be Different? Isotopes — Atoms of the same element that have different number of neutronsSince neutrons do not have a charge, adding more does not affect the atom.This only adds to the mass of the atom (increases mass number).Each particle in the nucleus has a mass of one. That means The number of particles in the nucleus = Mass NumberThe number of electrons will still be the same as the protons.
28Ions — Atoms of the same element that have a different number of electrons than protons. Having more or less electrons creates an imbalance in the charge of the atom.The number in the charge is how many more or less electrons there are.If there are more protons than electrons, then the charge is positive. (Loss of electrons)If there are more electrons than protons, the charge is negative. (Gain of electrons)
29Ions Protons Neutrons Electrons 8 10 -2 8 O Charge 8 168 OCharge8ProtonsNeutronsElectrons8(-2 )charge means that there was a gain of 2 electrons, so you add 2 to the number of protons.10
30Practice – Finding the number of p+, no and e- 1.)56 Ba3.)17 Cl* (-) charge means add to p+38-1142568656172118p+ ___ no___ e-___p+ ___ no_____ e-___2.)13 Al+34.)27 Co2760131410p+ ___ no___ e-___2733p+ ___ no___ e-___27* (+) charge means subtract from p+