Presentation on theme: "The Revolutionary War 20 th April 1792 - 1802 H/W How far was France successful during the Revolutionary War? When was France’s performance at its worst?"— Presentation transcript:
The Revolutionary War 20 th April H/W How far was France successful during the Revolutionary War? When was France’s performance at its worst? Best? When was the turning point?
Suc ces s Fail ure March 1792 April 1792 May 1792 June July 1792 Aug 1792 Sept 1792 Oct 1792 Nov 1792 Dec 1792 Jan 1793 Feb 1793 Marc h 1793 April 1793 May 1793 June 1793 July 1793 Aug 1793 Sept 1793 Oct 1793
February 1792Austria’s new Emperor, Francis II makes an alliance with Prussia. The new more Girondin government sees an opportunity for their advancement. March 1792 Leopold, died 1 st March, succeeded by Francis II. Brissotins/Girodins pro-war campaign + threat of invasion = Louis forced to dismiss Feuillant ministers = more radical government appointed = obeyed Assembly not King now. Doumouriez now Foreign Minister = war!!! 20 th April 1792France declare war on Austria. Only 7 voted against it. But army was ill- prepared = 6,000 offices had emigrated; lack of discipline; poorly trained volunteers. 29 th April 1792Defeats in the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) force the French forces to retreat and leave the borders open to invasion. May 1792Prussia joins Austria in the war. Lafayette requests (begs, by some accounts) the Assembly to make peace. 27 th May – Laws to deport refractory priests, disband King’s Guard and set up of a camp of National Guards/federes (men from the provinces their job was to protect Paris from invasion and a coup by generals). Louis vetoed these laws and instead dismisses pro-war Girondins (13 th June). are dismissed. This is seen as an attempt to undermine the war effort. 20 th June 1792 A journee 8,000 demonstrators, organised by the Cordeliers Club and calling themselves the sans-culottes, march on the palace of Tuilieres. Many were members of the National Guard. A dignified Louis refuses to remove veto or restore ministers despite being forced to wear a red cap of liberty and drink the nation’s health.
11 th July 1792Assembly issues ‘la patrie en danger’ (fatherland in danger) decree. This calls on all men to defend/support the war effort and declares that in the present situation the King’s sanction is unnecessary. Late July 1792C5,000 federes arrived in Paris. The federes had demanded that passive citizens be allowed into their regiments and also be given the vote. Federes more militant that Parisian National Guard – called for removal of Louis. Associated with “La Marseillaise” war song. Fearing violent uprisings the Girondin, unsuccessfully, urged Louis to recall dismissed ministers to prevent this from occurring. 27 th July – Robespierre – Jacobin club = speech “abandon constitution, overthrow Louis, replace Assembly with a National Convention (elected by universal suffrage) and have a ministerial purge. 1 st August 1792 The Austro-Prussian army announces the Brunswick Manifesto= not to conquer any French territory, restore Louis’s liberty, Paris to free Louis (they are to be collectively responsible for the safety of the royal family) if Tuileries is attacked and the royal family harmed then military execution of the city is threatened. It’s aim to help Louis actually resulted in the alienation of any remaining royalist support. The French turn against the monarchy, seen to be in league with the invaders. 3 rd August 1792 Parisian Mayor, Petion, demands abolition of monarchy. Assembly refuse – is the only course open an uprising? 9 th August 1792 The sans-culottes occupy the Hotel de Ville and set up a new revolutionary commune, which takes control until the election of a new assembly.
10 th August 1792 A journee sans-culottes and National Guards, together with 2000 federes attack the palace of Tuilieres. 600 Swiss Guards are killed. The King is taken into custody and the Legislative Assembly where he fled occupied. The Assembly is forced to recognise the Commune. Commune in charge of Paris but Legislative Assembly in charge of rest of country. 6 weeks before replaced by National Convention the Girondins were in charge of the Assembly. Danton = Minister of Justice. Passed radical measures e.g. deportation of refractory priests, Louis’ power suspended, all feudal dues abolished and no compensation to be paid, divorce legalised. The discovery of chest with incriminating papers- Marie Antoinette’s- including battle plans and tactics relayed to the Austrians provoked charges of treason. 11 th August 1792 Local authorities are granted the power to arrest counter-revolutionaries. Rumours of refractory cooperation with the Prussians spread and Marat calls for the executions of conspirators. August th August - Lafayette deserts to the Austrians. The Prussians cross the French frontier. By September they are at Verdun, the last major fortress before Paris. Elections for 749 seat convention held. In Paris all 24 members were pro commune. In general 180 Girondins, 300 Jacobins (Mountain/Montagnards) and 250 “plain” (initially supported the Girondins but will then support the Mountain.
2 nd September to 6 th September 1792 Them September Massacres. Rumours that ‘counter-revolutionaries’ were planning to escape and help the enemies of France led the sans-culottes to panic and act beyond the authorities. Marat called for the conspirators death. The sans-culottes begin massacring the inmates of prisons as traitors- up to 2000 are killed, though most are simply common criminals. The Girondins are horrified and turn from the Jacobins and the sans-culottes who support them. Though this act was not sanctioned, the sans-culottes were not punished and a precedent for violence ‘in defence of the revolution’ was set. 20 th September 1792 The French defeat the Prussians at Valmy. The Massacres end, though this victory appears to justify them. French on the offensive. September 1792A new assembly, the National Convention, is elected. Many royalist sympathisers were disenfranchised. Most members are bourgeoisie, favour a republic, want to win the war and desire enlightened reforms. All 24 of Paris’ members are Jacobins, supported by those from the provinces. 21 st September 1792 The Convention’s first decree is to abolish the monarchy and proclaim a republic. The King is now wholly irrelevant. November th November - Dumouriez defeats Austrians at Jemappes and occupies most of Belgium. First major battle won!!! 19 th – Decree of Fraternity – support those states who wanted to overthrow their rulers.
10 th -11 th December 1792 Something had to be done with Louis him : focus for foreign powers and a rallying point for the counter-revolution, Girondin tried to stop trial – failed. Tried to save Louis by saying his execution should be decided by a referendum (failed) – should be given a reprieve from death (failed) The following wanted a trial and execution: Robespierre, Girondins, Marat, Brissot, Danton, Montagnards (centre) and sans-culottes. However there would be opposition from peasants, refractory priests who still believed in divine right. In the end Louis was indicted as a tyrant. Voting by “appel nominal” (publically declare vote) 693 voted he was guilty. 387 – death, 288 – prison. Vote against reprieve by January 1793Declaration stating that the Rhine, Alps and Pyrenees were Frances. 21 st January 1793Louis XVI is executed 22 nd January 1793Declaration asserts the unity of France and the need for ‘active surveillance of domestic enemies’ and the sacrifice of personal opinions regarding the execution of the King. 1 st February 1793 March 1793 France declares was on Britain and Holland. Levy of 300,000 troops declared. War declared on Spain (March – September. 1 st Coalition emerges – anti French alliance).
11 th March 1793 Vendee rebellion. (long term causes: taxation, civil constitution, nationalisation of church land, monarchist nobles). 30,000 troops sent to Vendee in May to deal with rebellion. March th March: Dumouriez defeated at Neerwinden by the Austrians. Made an agreement that he would march on Paris and dissolve the convention and restore the constitution. But the army didn’t support him and so Dumouriez deserted. This weakened the Girondin who has supported Dumouriez. Belgium lost Fighting on French soil again 26 th June 1793Austrians defeated at Fleures and Belgium was recaptured Summer 1793War turns against France. Spain invaded in the south, Britain and Austrian in the north (France was only saved by a military blunder by the two allies – B turned west while A turned east.) 16 th October 1793French defeat the Austrians at Wattignies. This was partly due to Lazare Carnot – reorganised the army, re-established discipline and led by example.