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PLACE VALUE What do we mean by place value? Key words – units digits tenths hundredths tens hundreds thousands thousandths decimal fractions biggest smallest.

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Place value Place Value The value of where digits is in the number, such as units, tens hundreds, etc. Example: in 352, the place value of the 5 is tens. Example: in 17.591, the place of 9 is hundredths.

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327 In the number 327: the "7" is in the Units position, meaning just 7 (or 7 "1"s), the "2" is in the Tens position meaning 2 tens (or twenty), and the "3" is in the Hundreds position, meaning 3 hundreds. As we move left, each position is 10 times bigger! Example: hundreds are 10 times bigger than tens.... and...

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……and….. As we move right, each position is 10 times smaller - from hundreds tens and units. But what if we continue past Units? What is 10 times smaller than Units? 1 / 10 ths (Tenths) are!

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Decimal point we must first write a decimal point, so we know exactly where the Units position is: Three hundred twenty seven and four tenths – and that is a Decimal Number! - But we usually say three hundred twenty seven point four.

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Decimal point We can continue with smaller and smaller values, from tenths, to hundredths, and so on, like in this example:

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Large and small Large and Small So, our Decimal System lets us write numbers as large or as small as we want, using the decimal point. Digits can be placed to the left or right of a decimal point, to indicate values greater than one or less than one. The decimal point is the most important part of a Decimal Number. Without it, we would be lost... and not know what each position meant. 17.591

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On the left of the decimal point is a whole number (17 for example). As we move further left, every place gets 10 times bigger. The first digit on the right means tenths (1/10). As we move further right, every place gets 10 times smaller (one tenth as big).

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See decimals on a number line

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Ways to think about decimals Ways to think about Decimal Numbers...... as a Whole Number Plus Tenths, Hundredths, etc You could think of a decimal number as a whole number plus tenths, hundredths, etc:

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Example 1: What is 2.3 ? On the left side is "2", that is the whole number part. The 3 is in the "tenths" position, meaning "3 tenths", or 3/10 So, 2.3 is "2 and 3 tenths

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Example 2: What is 13.76 ? On the left side is "13", that is the whole number part. There are two digits on the right side, the 7 is in the "tenths" position, and the 6 is the "hundredths" position So, 13.76 is "13 and 7 tenths and 6 hundredths"

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... as a Decimal Fraction Or, you could think of a decimal number as a Decimal Fraction. A Decimal Fraction is a fraction where the denominator (the bottom number) is a number such as 10, 100, 1000, etc. (in other words a power of ten.

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Decimal as a fractions So 2.3 would look like this 23 10 And 13.76 would look like this 1376 100

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... as a Whole Number and Decimal Fraction Or, you could think of a decimal number as a Whole Number plus a Decimal Fraction. So 2.3 would look like 2 and 3 10 And 13.76 13 and 76 100

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Numbers Key words- counting zero negative positive integer natural numbers

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……………..so what are numbers? Whole Numbers are simply the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,... (and so on) No Fractions!

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Counting numbers Counting Numbers are Whole Numbers, but without the zero. So they are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,... (and so on).

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Natural numbers "Natural Numbers" can mean either "Counting Numbers" {1, 2, 3,...}, or "Whole Numbers" {0, 1, 2, 3,...}, depending on the subject.

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Integers Integers are like whole numbers, but they also include negative numbers... but still no fractions allowed! allowed!

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allowed! So, integers can be negative {-1, -2,-3, -4, -5,... }, positive {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,... }, or zero {0} We can put that all together like this: Integers = {..., -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,... } (But numbers like ½, 1.1 and 3.5 are not integers)

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Recap on numbers…. NameNumbersExamples Whole Numbers{ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,... }0, 27, 398, 2345 Counting Numbers{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,... }1, 18, 27, 2061 Integers {... -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,... } -15, 0, 27, 1102

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Ordering numbers What do we mean by ordering numbers? List words that order numbers

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Ascending – climb a mountain Ascending descending highest lowest biggest smallest To put numbers in order, place them from lowest (first) to highest (last). This is called "Ascending Order" (think of ascending a mountain From lowest to the highest

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Descending – go down the mountain Sometimes you want the numbers to go the other way, from highest down to lowest, this is called "Descending Order" (think of a "steep descent") From highest to the lowest

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Descending order Place 3, 18, 35, 9, 81, 33, 14, 77, 89, 36 in descending order.

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Ascending order Place 12, 1, 11, 19, 6, 7, 14, 8 and 2 in ascending order.

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Ordering decimals Ordering decimals can be tricky. Because often we look at 0.42 and 0.402 and say that 0.402 must be bigger because there are more digits. But no! We can use this method to see which decimals are bigger: Set up a table with the decimal point in the same place for each number. Put in each number. Fill in the empty squares with zeros. Compare using the first column on the left If the digits are equal move to the next column to the right until one number wins.

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Have a go at ascending – climbing up Example: Put the following decimals in ascending order: 1.506, 1.56, 0.8

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Ascending 1.506, 1.56, 0.8 Units Deci mal Point TenthsHundredthsThousandths 1.506 1.56 0.8

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Fill in the empty squares with zeros: Units Deci mal Point TenthsHundredthsThousandths 1.506 1.560 0.800

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Smallest first So 0.8 is the smallest – lowest in order to climb up to the highest

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Why do you need to know any of this? Sometimes we need to find values or answers to calculations. In order to do this we need to recognise that numbers need to placed in some sort of order to solve problems and find the answers. We might need to add or subtract (take away) multiply and divide. We might need to find the highest or lowest of something for a specific task or job.

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What other words could we use?

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Increase decrease

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