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Harry Potter and the not so simple world of genetics.

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Presentation on theme: "Harry Potter and the not so simple world of genetics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Harry Potter and the not so simple world of genetics

2 Rules of Inheritance Some traits follow the simple rules of Mendelian inheritance of dominant and recessive genes. Complex traits follow different patterns of inheritance that may involve multiple genes and other factors. For example: – Incomplete domiance – Codominance – Multiple alleles – Polygenic inheritance

3 Incomplete dominance Incomplete dominance results in a phenotype that is a blend of a heterozygous allele pair. Ex: red flower + blue flower = purple flower If the dragons in Harry Potter have the fire- power alleles F (strong fire) and F’ (no fire) that follow incomplete dominance, what are the phenotypes for the following dragon-fire genotypes? – FF : - F’F’ – FF’

4 Incomplete dominance Incomplete dominance results in a phenotype that is a blend of a heterozygous allele pair. Ex: red flower + blue flower = purple flower If the dragons in Harry Potter have the fire- power alleles F (strong fire) and F’ (no fire) that follow incomplete dominance, what are the phenotypes for the following dragon-fire genotypes? – FF : strong fire- F’F’: no fire – FF’: some fire

5 Practice problems for incomplete dominance If a Hungarian Horntail (strong fire) is mated with a Peruvian Vipertooth (no fire) what will the offspring have in terms of its fire power?

6 Practice problems for incomplete dominance If a Hungarian Horntail (strong fire) is mated with a Peruvian Vipertooth (no fire) what will the offspring have in terms of its fire power? F F F’

7 Practice problems for incomplete dominance If a Hungarian Horntail (strong fire) is mated with a Peruvian Vipertooth (no fire) what will the offspring have in terms of its fire power? F F F’FF’ F’FF’

8 Practice problems for incomplete dominance If a Hungarian Horntail (strong fire) is mated with a Peruvian Vipertooth (no fire) what will the offspring have in terms of its fire power? Phenotypes: – Strong fire: – Some fire: – No fire: F F F’FF’ F’FF’

9 Codominance Codominance results in a phenotype that shows both traits of an allele pair. – Ex: red flower + white flower = Red and white spotted flower In Harry Potter, there are merpeople who live in Black Lake that is around the school. The Merpeople have tail colors that are codominant between green and blue. Their possible genotypes and phenotypes are: Genotypes:Phenotypes:

10 Codominance Codominance results in a phenotype that shows both traits of an allele pair. – Ex: red flower + white flower = Red and white spotted flower In Harry Potter, there are merpeople who live in Black Lake that is around the school. The Merpeople have tail colors that are codominant between green and blue. Their possible genotypes and phenotypes are: Genotypes:Phenotypes: – BBblue tail – GGgreen tail – BGblue & green tail (both traits)

11 Codominance If a merman with a blue tail meets a mermaid with a green tail and they have merbabies, what are the possible genotype and phenotype frequencies?

12 Codominance If a merman with a blue tail meets a mermaid with a green tail and they have merbabies, what are the possible genotype and phenotype frequencies? BB G G

13 Codominance If a merman with a blue tail meets a mermaid with a green tail and they have merbabies, what are the possible genotype and phenotype frequencies? BB GBG G

14 Codominance If 2 Merpeople with blue and green tails have merbabies, what are the phenotypes and genotypes of the children? BG B G

15 Codominance If 2 Merpeople with blue and green tails have merbabies, what are the phenotypes and genotypes of the children? BG BBBBG G GG

16 Codominance If 2 Merpeople with blue and green tails have merbabies, what are the phenotypes and genotypes of the children? Phenotypes: Blue: Green: Blue and green: BG BBBBG G GG

17 Multiple Alleles Multiple alleles have more than 2 variations EX: human blood types have 3 different allele variants, A, B and O GenotypesPhenotypes AA, AO A blood type AB AB blood type BB, BOB blood type OO O blood type

18 Multiple Alleles: Human Blood types If Lily and James have A (AO) and B (BB) blood types, what are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of their children?

19 Multiple Alleles: Human Blood types If Lily and James have A (AO) and B (BB) blood types, what are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of their children? AO B B

20 Multiple Alleles: Human Blood types If Lily and James have A (AO) and B (BB) blood types, what are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of their children? AO BABBO BABBO

21 Multiple Alleles: Human Blood types If Lily and James have A (AO) and B (BB) blood types, what are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of their children? – Phenotypes: A: B: AB: O: AO BABBO BABBO

22 Multiple Alleles: Human Blood types If Lily and James have A (AO) and B (BB) blood types, what are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of their children? – Genotypes: AB- BO- AO BABBO BABBO

23 Epistasis One allele masks the effects of another Ex: Dudley has a labrador retriever. (Dudley is so mean he stays in the doghouse for the whole series though) In labs, the dominant allele (E) determines whether the skin will have pigment. The dominant allele (B) determines how dark it is.

24 Epistasis One allele masks the effects of another Ex: Dudley has a labrador retriever. (Dudley is so mean he stays in the doghouse for the whole series though) In labs, the dominant allele (E) determines whether the skin will have pigment. The dominant allele (B) determines how dark it is. GenotypePigment eeBb, eebb, eeBB EEbb, Eebb EEBB, EeBB, EEBb, EeBb

25 Polygenic Inheritance More than one pair of genes influencing a trait Examples: – skin color (approx 3 but discussion of more) – eye color – Height

26 Polygenic Inheritance More than one pair of genes influencing a trait Examples: – skin color (approx 3 but discussion of more) – eye color – Height Hagrid’s father was a wizard and his mother was a giantess. The normal heights are approxiamtely 20 feet for a giant and 5-6 feet for a wizard. Hagrid is approximately 12 feet tall.

27 Polygenic Inheritance More than one pair of genes influencing a trait Eye color in humans is polygenic inheritance, but it has multiple alleles. B=brown (codominant with green) G= green (codominant with brown) b= blue (recessive to both brown and green) Assuming Lily has green eyes (GG) and James has hazel (BG) what will their children have?

28 Polygenic Inheritance More than one pair of genes influencing a trait Eye color in humans is polygenic inheritance, but it has multiple alleles. B=brown (codominant with green) G= green (codominant with brown) b= blue (recessive to both brown and green) Assuming Lily has green eyes (GG) and James has hazel (BG) what will their children have? GG B G

29 Polygenic Inheritance More than one pair of genes influencing a trait Eye color in humans is polygenic inheritance, but it has multiple alleles. B=brown (codominant with green) G= green (codominant with brown) b= blue (recessive to both brown and green) Assuming Lily has green eyes (GG) and James has hazel (BG) what will their children have? Hazel: Green: GG BBG GGG

30 Sex-Linked Traits 46 chromosomes in the human body: set into 23 pairs (22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes). In most animals, the sex chromosomes are X and Y chromosomes with the Y being smaller (X is longer than the Y) Male: XY Female: XX

31 Sex-Linked Traits Male determines the sex of the offspring Chance is for either sex A recessive gene has no matching gene on the Y chromosome. More sex linked disorders are found in males.

32 Sex linked traits In a calico cat, the X’s that control the different colors are turned on in different cells, reason for the black and orange pigments (so only girl calico cats!) Harry had a calico cat when he was a baby that Voldemort killed when he killed Harry’s parents

33 Sex linked traits Sex-linked disorders are those that are carried on the X chromosome. Examples are: – Red-green colorblindness – Baldness – Hemophillia

34 Sex-linked traits So if Harry is colorblind and married Ginny who is not, what are the chances that they will have a colorblind child? Ginny’s phenotype: Harry’s phenotype:

35 Sex-linked traits So if Harry is colorblind and married Ginny who is not (and neither are her parents), what are the chances that they will have a colorblind child? Ginny’s phenotype: Harry’s phenotype: XnY XN

36 Sex-linked traits So if Harry is colorblind and married Ginny who is not (and neither are her parents), what are the chances that they will have a colorblind child? Colorblind girls: Colorblind boys: Carrier girls: Normal Girls: Normal Boys: XnY XN XNXn XNY XN XNXn XNY

37 To close out the genetics unit, I hope you have had fun with the Harry Potter theme, enjoy this wrap up What do the kids of Ron and Hermonie and Harry and Ginny actually look like?


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