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A Chemist’s “Dozen”

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The particles that make up matter (ions, atoms, and molecules) are extremely small Only large amounts of these particles can be weighed. In order to simplify these large numbers we use the mole 1Mole = x particles ▪ Particles can be atoms, molecules, ion, bananas, lollipops, etc.

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1Mole = x particles Particles can be atoms, molecules, ion, bananas x is known as Avogadro’s Number Amedeo Avagadro

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How does the mole get this specific value? The value of the mole is equal to the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure carbon-12. ▪ 12g C = 1 mole C atoms = x C atoms This definition gives a relationship between mass (grams) and the number of atoms (Avagadro’s number)

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A Road Map Grams Atoms Mole Gram formula mass Molar Mass x Avagadro’s Number Remember: The Molar Mass is the sum of the weights of each element in the compound. NH 3 would be 1(14)+3(1)= 17 g/mol

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E.g. How many atoms are in one mole of pennies? 1 mole pennies x pennies = x pennies 1 mole pennies Avagadro’s Number

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E.g. How many grams are in 1 mole of sodium? 1 mol Na 23 g Na = 23 grams sodium 1 mol Na This is the Gram Formula Mass (gfm) ratio

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E.g. How many molecules are in 13 grams of H 2 SO 4 ? Solve in two steps. 13 g H 2 SO 4 1 mol H 2 SO x molecules H 2 SO 4 = 98 g H 2 SO 4 1 mol H 2 SO 4 = x molecules H 2 SO 4 Gfm Avagadro’s Number

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E.g. How many moles are in 31 atoms of copper? 31 atoms 1 mol = x moles copper x Avagadro’s Number

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