Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 What’s So Special About Literature?"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 1 What’s So Special About Literature? Who in here has FB?Show the FB page – “Read Aloud” and websiteGrowing Up With Literature, 6eBy: Walter E. Sawyer
2Definition“Children’s literature is good quality trade books for childrenfrom birth to adolescence,covering topics of relevance and interests to children of those ages,through prose and poetry, fiction and nonfiction.”A trade book, by design and content, is primarily for the purpose of entertainment and information. Trade books are often referred to as library books and story books. They are different from textbooks, which are for the purpose of instruction.Source: Lynch-Brown, C. & Tomlinson, C. (2005). Essentials of Children’s Literature, 5th edition. Chapter 1. Learning about children and their literature.) p. 3.
3Content Topic: Manner: experiences of childhood set in the past, present, or future (e.g., enjoying birthday parties, anticipating adulthood, getting a new pet, enduring siblings, and dealing with family situations);things that are of interest to children (e.g., dinosaurs, Egyptian mummies, world records)Manner:stories are told in a forthright, humorous, or suspenseful manner (stories that are told in nostalgic or overly sentimental terms are inappropriate)
4Quality Quality of writing: “The best children’s books offer readers enjoyment as well as memorable characters and situations and valuable insights into the human condition.”Quality of writing:originality and importance of ideasimaginative use of languagebeauty of literary and artistic styleP 4. and from this website:
5Values of Literature to Children The Personal ValueenjoymentImagination and inspirationvicarious experienceunderstanding and empathycultural heritagemoral reasoningliterary and artistic preferences
6Values of Literature to Children The Academic Valueimproving reading skillsdeveloping writing voice and stylelearning content-area knowledgepromoting art appreciation
7Current Trends in Children’s Literature Increased numbers of adults reading children’s books, primarily because of the Harry Potter phenomenon.Increasing dominance of illustration in children’s books. Readers are becoming more visually oriented as they spend more time watching television and playing video games and spend less time reading. Fewer full-length novels and more short, high-interest, low-reading-level novels begins written for 10- to 14-year-olds.Rapid growth of technology in all areas of publishing. As schools adopt computerized management reading programs, reading and books become less a means to enjoyment and discovering new information and more a matter of gaining points.An increase in the publication of bilingual books to accommodate the rapid increase in second language learner students.Increased merchandising of book-related paraphernalia, such as games, craft kits, cookbooks, dolls, and doll accessories.based on Lynch-Brown, C. & Tomlinson, C. (2005). Essentials of Children’s Literature, 5th edition. Chapter 1. Learning about children and their literature.) and
8LiteratureAdults who work with young children must foster a relationship with literature in their own lives.A person cannot teach children to love reading and literature without possessing that same love.Children are perceptive; they can often spot false enthusiasm.Do you love to read? Why or why not? Questions from Creative CurriculumOne of my warmest childhood memories is of my mother reading to me. Another happy memory is of my sixth-grade teacher, Mrs. Algirereading a chapter a day from The Wind in the Willows (Twain). The books sheread that year helped pass the time in the afternoons after lunch. Each day webegged her to read one more chapter or even just two more pages because we couldnot wait to find out what happened next.Do you have similar memories of your parents’ and teachers’ reading to you?Reader’s Time Line (see IM)Give personal examples. New Year’s resolutions. Living without cable.Defend or refute: The United States is a “nation that reads.” (# 2)
9An Early StartWhen children come to school already reading or with a deep interest in reading, certain critical facts can often be found:They usually had books at home.They observed adults reading.They were read to by adults.They had someone to talk to about books, reading, and literature.
10Television and Literature The television program is in control.The presentation proceeds at a predetermined paceLittle or no interaction with the viewer.BookOne can set one’s own pace.The voice can give lines different emotions.The illustrations can be studied, discussed, and touched.Anything in the book can be reread, lingered over, or returned to.Information transfer can be more effective than with television programs where the information is gone when the program is over.Media and technology are coming at us at an ever increasing speed and in greater abundance than ever before. When the amount of information is too great and the speed too rapid, the full meaning is lost.Research has found TV viewing by young children is at an all time high. Children 2-5 watch an average of twenty-five hours of TV per week plus another seven hours of DVDs video games and computers. This is what NAEYC says:10A NCAC ACTIVITY AREAS: PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TWO YEARS AND OLDER(7) When screen time, including television, videos, video games, and computer usage is provided, it shall be: (a) Offered only as a free-choice activity, (b) Used to meet a developmental goal, and (c) Limited to no more than a total of two and a half hours per week, per child. UsageBackground television disrupts children’s play. Background TV is increased by one to two hours per day for children who attend home-based daycare centers as opposed to center-based care.Unlike TV, literature forces children to actively visualize or imagine the story!
11What effect does viewing television violence have on children? Brain research has shown that regular viewing of television violence is related to:attention problemsaggressive behavioracceptance of violence as a problem solving tool, and as a regular part of lifeunrealistically heightened fear of violence to oneselfShows like Sesame Street actually improve children’s literacy skills compared with those who do little or no viewing. However, children who view extended amounts of cartoons and general entertainment do more poorly with literacy skills.A large amount of TV viewing over an extended period of time can negatively influence the development of brain networks.The issue is not a matter of literature being positive and technology being negative. Rather, it is more a problem of balance. Both may be used for helping children develop in appropriate ways.
12The Value of Literature Books can help to inform and explain much about the natural world that children see around them.Books may be read prior to an experience to prepare children for the new learning.They may also be read after the experience to clarify misunderstandings, to provide still more information, or to reinforce the learning.Reading is a springboard to further discussion.Children can also learn about other cultures through literature.Young children frequently share the reading with an adult, providing an opportunity to discuss the story and to clarify concerns or questions
13The Value of Literature (cont.) Helps children make sense of the world.Often helps children better able to achieve an accurate understanding of something (example, the beach).Books enable children to have more meaningful experiences.Allows time to reflect on experiences, resulting in deeper learning and understanding.Books keep introducing new and fascinating topics. They encourage children to ask more questions and to seek more answers.The most important value is the love of books and the personal enjoyment they can bring.Books should be chosen and read frequently.“Tips for Teachers” on page 5.
14Self-EsteemThrough books, children can identify with others like themselves.They can see how others deal with similar problems.Children can be encouraged to talk about difficult issues.Helps children define their feelings and develop a sense of self.Reading about others who are attempting to make sense of similar situations can bring hope.What are some examples of these situations?September 12th book -Parts of the book -Article -
15Tolerance of OthersLiterature can help children understand how they fit in and how important it is to relate to others.Through literature, children can grow up appreciating many different people and cultures.This leads to the development of empathetic relationships and a reduction in bias.
16The Human ConnectionThere is a personal interaction between the child and reader.The sound and rhythm of language can be slowed down, sped up, made louder, or made to express emotions.The illustrations and photographs in the book can be touched, studied, discussed, and returned to as the story goes along.
17Developmentally Appropriate Practices Knowledge of child development and learningThis knowledge helps adults to develop materials and plan activities that will be healthy, engaging, and challenging to children.Capabilities and interests of childrenThis is necessary in order to adapt and respond to individual children.Cultural environmentEnables adults to develop meaningful learning experiences that are also respectful of the social and cultural environments of the children.Look on page 11 for some great questions.
18What does “reading” really mean? Reading is the gaining of meaning from a written text.In this view, children begin the process of learning to read from the moment of birth.Reading is intertwined with other language modes (i.e., oral language, listening, writing) in such a way that it does not normally exist as a single skill.Children learn to read by reading, even if an adult does some or most of the reading for them at the initial stages.The reader brings background experiences to the reading that influences the understanding the reader has of the text.The average adult reader has mastered approximately 50,000 words by sight without ever sounding out most of them. Discuss how important it is to build on background knowledge.
19Characteristics of a Holistic Approach A holistic approach assumes that children are developing literacy since the moment of birth, no single approach to literacy is the “right” one, caregivers and parents are important participants in children’s literacy development, and reading is a tool for making sense of the world. A holistic approach is characterized as one which…Uses whole textsUses children’s literature as a key component to literacy developmentShared reading, guided reading, repeated readings, and re-creating stories in playIs child centeredValues parent involvementHolistic is also known as: whole language and/or whole child approachIn a traditional approach, word attack and comprehension are taught in isolation. The skills may or may not be practiced in a real text. Children are expected to put the isolated skills together in order to read.Shared reading is explained on the bottom of page 15 and top of page 16. Model!!!Children come to understand phonic relationships more effectively when they are learned as a part of the reading process rather than as isolated units in workbooks.Why aren’t phonics enough to help a child learn to read? (# 9)
21Literacy CurriculumResearch identifies three key aspects of a literate environment:Support for the success of the learner.This means children should have an environment with a variety of printed materials, story times, centers, field trips, and community visitors.A focus on learning language.Children must be invited to read and write. Literature sharing is a key tool to be used for this purpose.Opportunities to explore language.With an abundance of reading and writing opportunities available, children will be able to develop different strategies for different situations. This will provide them with more opportunities to make language decisions.
22Reading Skills Semantics – refers to the meanings that words possess. Understanding the meanings of words is critical to true reading.Syntax – refers to the word orderPragmatics – refers to the practical functions of language.Things such as tone of voice and the degree of formality.Learning to read is important and necessary for all children. Reading occurs best after children have developed a love of stories and an interest in reading.
23Reading Skills (cont.) Awareness of early literacy skills: Phonological awarenessAlphabet knowledgePrint awarenessVocabularyChildren need to playfully explore and engage in activities involving reading, writing, and learning letters and sounds. Children need to see their family members reading books and magazines, writing lists, browsing the internet, answering s, etc. From their environment, children learn whether literacy is valued and important!Early literacy – skills and knowledge that come before and lead up to conventional reading and writing.Phonological awareness – is the consciousness that the stream of spoken language is made of smaller units or chunks of sound. It develops on a continuum. (Show the continuum) The most difficult level is phonemic awareness, or recognizing that spoken words are made up of individual sounds called phonemes. English has 44 phonemes that are represented by the 26 letters of the alphabet either alone or in combination. For example, sh or th. Bat has three phonemes /b/ /a/ /t/.Alphabet knowledge – the understanding that there is a systematic relationship between letters and sounds, and that all spoken language can be represented by a set of agreed-on symbols called letters. Children may not master the alphabetic principle in preschool, but knowing the alphabet at kindergarten entry is one of the strongest predictors of success in reading during first grade.Print Awareness/Concepts of Print – the beginning of knowledge about written language.Vocabulary – the number of words a person knows and uses when listening or speaking. Pronouns, prepositions, adverbs, adjectives, and other parts of speech. Children should grow their vocabularies by 3,000 words a year, so they need to learn 15 new words a day.Although all of these skills are useful to emergent readers; it is not developmentally appropriate to teach them directly to kindergartners and younger children. Governmental legislation encouraging or requiring such still does not make it developmentally appropriate. When these stills are taught it should always be in relation to a meaningful text or story rather than as isolated skills. The skills of reading are taught in the context of literature. Introducing, teaching, and learning would include adult-child interactions using storybooks.
24Realistic Expectations The key problems with the increased use of standardized tests:First, competency tests can move one’s thinking away from the fact that all children have individual differences. By setting a uniform standard, the tests demand that schools attempt to fit all students into the same mold.Secondly, the tests tend to force the curriculum downward so that children will be sure to be ready when it is time to take the tests. Younger and younger children, therefore, are presented more and more learning that was previously delayed until they were older.They discriminate against those from multicultural and lower socioeconomic backgrounds and tend to test only what can be quantified.Important characteristics such as problem solving and excitement about reading are ignored.Finally, the tests have encouraged more retentions, failures, developmental kindergartens, and delays of entering schools.Children need realistic expectations. Goals, when they are reached, can provide satisfactions and a sense of self-worth. If they are set too high they can lead to frustration, anger, and a sense of failure. If set too low they can encourage a lack of effort and a tendency to be satisfied with mediocrity.Read the highlighted parts on page 21.Defend or refute: Preschool children who are capable of learning the alphabet and word lists should learn them at that time. (# 5)
25Authors and Illustrators Learning about the personal life and thoughts of an author or illustrator can be a powerful motivation for reading that author’s book.If resources are available, a day with an author can be a tremendously rewarding experience for children and adults alike.“Author studies” make students realize they are real people and this is their job.View author videos.Discuss Lester Laminack
26Summary Literature derives its value from three things: First, it informs and excites children about the world in which they live.Second, it contributes to developing a positive self-image and the acceptance of others.Finally, literature serves to help children connect to both the people sharing a story with them and the people within the story.