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Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Presented at Electric Utilities Environmental Conference.

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Presentation on theme: "Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Presented at Electric Utilities Environmental Conference."— Presentation transcript:

1 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Presented at Electric Utilities Environmental Conference (EUEC) Phoenix, AZ February 3 rd, 2010 Presented by Daniel Roesler Principal Investigator and Field Engineer Clean Air Engineering, Inc.

2 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 Why Spike? SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 difficult to measure SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 validation sources don’t exist Measurement Techniques –Based on theory –Have not been validated –May contain biases for common situations SO 3 H 2 SO 4 (vapor) H 2 SO 4 (mist) Dale A. Lundgren, Paul Urone and Thomas Gundersn, "A Stack Gas Sulfate Aerosol Measurement Problem", In Workshop Proceedings on Primary Sulfate Emissions from Combustion Sources, Volume 1, EPA-600/ tia, (August 1978), pp

3 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 Measurement Techniques Manual Methods, Including Controlled Condensation (8, 8A, CleanAir 8B, etc.) Continuous Methods (TDL, FTIR, etc.)

4 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 Dynamic Spiking Concept Dual controlled condensation sampling trains: –One Spiked –One Unspiked Generate SO 3 on demand using platinum catalyst Inject a known amount of SO 3 into spiked train probe tip Compare spiked train recovery to unspiked train recovery Determine method bias based on spike recovery

5 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 SO 3 Generation SO 3 generation via platinum catalyst Catalyst contained inside probe SO 3 generated just prior to injection

6 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 SO 3 Generation Testing

7 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 SO 3 Generation Conditions

8 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 Spiking Probe

9 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 FTIR Detection of SO 3 SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 reacted with FTIR windows, creating buildup of interference that overshadowed SO 2 and SO 3 peaks Only relative accuracy and stability measurements Lacked reference spectra for low concentrations of SO 3

10 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 Spike Recovery

11 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 Conclusion Yes! We can reliably generate a known amount of SO 3 spike within a ±20% range. Yes! We can capture that SO 3 spike using controlled condensation in a field setting.

12 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 What’s Next Make dynamic spiking available for SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 testing immediately (patent pending) Further develop alternative catalyst –Shrink the ±20% recovery range to ±5% –Remove the need for seasoning and pre-ramping Create low level SO 3 reference spectra for FTIR Validate other SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 measurement techniques using SO 3 generation and spiking system, such as new ASTM SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 method

13 Determining the Accuracy of SO 3 /H 2 SO 4 Measurements: Development of a Field Spiking Procedure Copyright 2010 Clean Air Engineering, Inc.EUEC 2010 Questions? Special Thanks This presentation will be available online at


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