2Difference between spice and herb? No clear distinctionHerbs usually leaves (sometimes seeds), usually from temperate-origin plantsSpices usually flowers, fruits, or bark of tropical-origin plants
3spicePart of plant usedBlack pepperDried fruits (peppercorns)GingerRhizome (underground stem)NutmegSeedMaceCovering of nutmeg seedsClovesUnopened flower budsCassia and CinnamonBarkCardamomFruits, seedsTurmericRhizomeSesameSeeds
4Herbs Usually aromatic leaves Used in cooking Also, in shampoos, cosmetics, soaps, medicines, aromatherapy (e.g., Vicks vaporub, with camphor, menthol, & eucalyptus oils)See Table 17a
5Spices & herbsScents & flavors usually due to unique “essential oils”; i.e., to secondary compounds, especially isoprenoids (terpenes).Natural plant function in pollinator & fruit/seed-disperser attraction.And/or plant protection from herbivores, & pathogens (mostly fungi, bacteria).Most of these secondary compounds have anti-microbial activities.
6“spice”Derives from the Latin word species, meaning specific kind, and later, goods or merchandise.Plants that Changed History, Joan Elma Rhan, 1982
7First use of spices & herbs Origins pre-date ancient Greeks & Romans, etc.Today we use spices & herbs primarily to make good food taste even better.In the days before refrigeration, spices were used to hide the taste and odor of less-than-fresh food, and to prolong the freshness of food (especially in warm climates).Today, some perfumes, soaps, and lotions are lightly scented with spices & herbs.In the days before people took frequent baths, spices/herbs were used as deodorants. Those who could afford to do so had spices/herbs sown or tucked into their clothes to hide their body odors.Plants that Changed History, Joan Elma Rhan, 1982
8Early Spices Orient/Old World New World cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, black pepper, ginger, cloves, cardamom, anise, caraway, mustard, saffronNew Worldallspice, chilies & paprika, vanilla
9Ancient History Egypt Greeks Romans Arabs & Middle East After fall of Rome and during the Dark Ages (ca AD)Lost access to spices from the OrientTrade between the empires of Asia and Rome
10Why were spices popular for trading? it was very lucrativetransported easilyimproved food & healthmany diverse uses for most spicesvery popular with the upper classesspicy food considered classy, sign of wealth
11Spice Trade, post-dark ages Crusades in 1096: Europeans are out fighting in the Middle East and taste exotic spices and want to bring them back.1180’s: Pepperer’s guild, predecessor to herbalist and physicians.Middle Ages: spices valuable trade item used to pay bills, taxes.1300: Polo brothers travel to China and bring back tales of spices.By 1300’s: spice trade was a legitimate profession.
12Papal Race for Spice Islands During the late 15th century, the popes favoritesSpain and PortugalAfter that, Pope issued a decree to divide the world between Spain and Portugal from Pole to PolePortugal got the EAST, Spain got the WEST
13Age of Explorationonset of an “age of exploration” that lasted almost 500 yearsColumbus discovered America in 1492didn’t know the size of the Earth or about the Pacific OceanCharles V and King of Spain sent Magellan on an expedition to reach the Spice Islandswestward route through the South Seas and Spice Islands
14Were Columbus and Magellan voyages “failures” ? Neither won for Spain the easy access to spices that she wanted.Columbus never found the spices or the lands he sought.Magellan’s expedition reached the Spice Islands, but the route across the Pacific Ocean was much too long and much too dangerous to be practical then.Plants that Changed History, Joan Elma Rhan, 1982
15What spice trade accomplished New lands were discovered, and the question of whether the world was spherical or flat was finally decided.New plants and animals were discovered; some of them were transported to continents where they had never been before, but where the climate was suitable.People’s diets became more varied and better balanced. Europeans, whose homelands were beginning to be overpopulated, colonized the newly discovered lands, some of which had plenty of space.Generally, this worked out well for the Europeans, but rather badly for the natives of the colonized countries.For better or worse, the search for species brought together the civilizations that had developed separately in the ancient worlds. They would never be isolated again.Plants that Changed History, Joan Elma Rhan, 1982
16ImperialismPortugal, via colonies and outposts, dominated spice trading for ca. 100 years (16th century).Thereafter, the Dutch, especially, and British took control of spice trading.Dutch took over the Indonesia & CeylonDutch East India companyEngland took over India, Singapore, Hong KongBritish East India company
17A quick survey of representatives Spices & HerbsA quick survey of representatives
18Piper nigrum (black & white pepper) Climbing vine native to India and East Indies; in Piperaceae (pepper) familyBerries picked green, darken & shrivel upon drying.Biting flavor due to volatile oils, flavor dissipates after grinding.White pepper – berries ripen on vine, outer hull removed.The most widely used spice today.
19Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) Parts used- oil & barkEvergreen tree native to India & Sri Lanka; in Laurel familyProperties- Astringent, stimulant, anti-infective, anti-fungal, digestive aidOne of the oldest and most valuable spicesRelated spice, called cassia, from C. cassia.
20Eugenia caryophyllata (clove) Parts Used: closed flower budsActive Compounds: Clove oil is 60 to 90 percent eugenol, which is the source of its anesthetic and antiseptic properties.An evergreen tree, 15 to 30 feet tall; in Myrtaceae (Myrtle) familyNative to the Spice Islands and the Philippines, but also grown in India, Sumatra, Jamaica, the West Indies, Brazil, and other tropical areas.
21Myristica fragans (nutmeg & mace) Part used- dried kernel of the seed.Tree is about 25 feet high, has a greyish-brown smooth bark, abounding in a yellow juice.Native to Spice Islands; Myristicaceae (nutmeg) familyFruit is source of 2 spices, nutmeg & mace.Mace is derived from the net-like aril that is wrapped around the pit.Within the pit is a single seed, the source of nutmeg.
22Zingiber officinale (ginger) Member of “ginger” familyPerennial native to tropical AsiaPlant part used = Rhizomename from Sanskrit word stringa-vera, which means “with a body like a horn”, as in antlers.In English pubs and taverns in the nineteenth century, bar-keepers put out small containers of ground ginger, for people to sprinkle into their beer — the origin of ginger ale.
23Curcuma longa (turmeric) Member of “ginger” familyPerennial native to tropical AsiaPart used: rhizomeCulinary uses (e.g., Middle East & India)Dyes uses too (yellow)
24Crocus sativus (saffron) Member of “Iris” familyFrom ‘zafaran’ in ArabicFrom 3-parted Stigma of flowerDried by slow roastingImparts delicate & distinct taste & colorUsed in French, Spanish, Middle Eastern & Indian cookingEach saffron crocus flower has 3 stigmasCa. 80,000 flowers (240,000) stigmas to make a pound of saffron12 days to pickcost is > $250 per ounce(so most costly spice)1444: any merchant caught selling adulterated saffron in Bavaria was burned alive
25Capsicum species (hot & sweet peppers) Members of tomato family (Solonaceae)Many are cultivars of Capsicum annumE.g., bell pepper & cayenneFour other common speciesE.g., C. clilense includes habenero and C. fructescens includes tabasco pepperMany varietiesOrigin = New World; used by 9000 y. ago“Hot” due to seven related alkaloids, including capsaicin (mostly in seeds & fruit)
26Scoville ratings (for pepper “hotness”) 16,000,000: Pure capsaicin100, ,000: Habanero30,000-50,000: Cayenne pepper5,000-23,000: Serrano pepper2,500-5,000: Tabasco sauce/Jalapeno1,000-2,000: Poblano pepperPepperoncini pepperCa. 0: Sweet Bell peppermeasure of the hotness of a chilli pepper.capsaicin (8-methyl N-vanillyl 6-nonenamide) is the active component of chili peppers (Capsicum). It is an irritant to mammalian epithelial cells and produces a burning sensation in the mouth, which some people enjoy. Plants produce the compound to deter predation. It is classified among the secondary metabolites
27Vanilla planifolia (vanilla) flavoring comes from the seed pod, or the ‘bean’ of the vanilla plantmember of orchid family (Orchidaceae); perennial vinebehind saffron and cardamom, vanilla is 3rd most expensive spicenon-culinary uses, including aromatizing perfumes, cigars, & liqueursEuropeans prefer the bean, while N. Americans the extractextract made by percolating alcohol & water through chopped cured beansVanilla planifolia is the orchid that yields the vanilla flavoring of commerce. Vanilla was introduced to Cortez, and Europe, by Montezuma in It grew to be a favorite flavor for sweets as it still is today. The orchid is a vine and is commercially cultivated throughout the tropics with Madasgar being a major producer. The flowers last only one day and must be hand-pollinated to produce a seedpod, the "vanliia bean". After the seedpods are mature in five or so months they are harvested and go through a curing process that dries them while retaining the maximum amount of essential oils.There are about 60 or so species of Vanilla found throughout the tropical Americas including Florida and the Bahamas. All are vines, several are leafless. Most of the flowers are of only botanical interest especially because of their short-lived nature and vining growth habit. If you do decide to try growing Vanilla start it in your normal potting mix and be sure to provide a support for it to climb on. Moderate light and warm temperatures are required. Some growers in warm regions have Vanilla climbing the supports of the orchid house.
29Bee balm Monarda fistulosa Kick a coldBreathe easyHelp control oily skinCook with a taste of native AmericaOily skin: make home potion, combine ¼ c bruised fresh leaves with 1 c boiling water, cover, and steep for 10 min. Strain & stir in juice of 1 lemon; refrigerate for up to 1 week and use as facial splash 3 x per day, esp in summer after cleansing
30Borage Borago officinalis The hero’s herbHelp heal the heartSquelch stubborn skin inflammationseczemaCreate stellar saladsAfter heart surgery – borage leaf combined with hawthorne berries in boiling water to make a tea. At least known that the hawthorne berry has positive effects on the heart.Borage seeds contain gamma linolenic acid (GLA) that gives oil made into capsules or applied topicallySalads: young leaves taste like cucumber, can use instead of lettuce in sandwiches; older leaves give cool cucumber flavor to soup, stems taste like cucumber also, flowers make charming edible garnishes
31Catnip Nepeta cataria Calm after a storm Take the sting out of stress Make a cat happyEnjoy a roman saladWhat attracts cats to catnip is a volatile oil that contains comounds similar to those that make the herb valarian a sedativeA tea is soothing and relaxinCatnip seeds look like poppy seeds and be used as a substitute for them, adding a minty flavor to quick breads, pastry fillings, and muffinsFresh leaves taste like very strong mint, and can be added to green salads
32Chamomile Matricaria sp. Better than counting sheepBeat anxiety and insomniaRelieve indigestionSoothe irritated skinThe author drank chamomile tea before tests, which allowed her to focus her mind and think clearlyChamomile contains volatile oil compounds that act as a mild sedative, helping to relieve anxious feelingsSome armatherapists mix half chamomile & half lavendar as a claming combinationCan help releave sore gums; use as a mouthwashDab cool tea over eyes to perk tired, puffy undereye area
33Alliums (Lily family) (onion group) Onion- A. cepaGarlic- A. sativumLeeks- A. porrumShallots- A. ascalonicumChives- A. schoenprasumMost rich in volatile sulfur-containing compoundsCulinary & medicinal usesAmong oldest cultivated plants
34Onions Originated in Asia Ancient Egyptians worshipped the onion, believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternity. Of all the vegetables that had their images created from precious metals by Egyptian artists, only the onion was made out of gold.Ranks sixth among the world's leading vegetable crops.You can get rid of onion breath by eating parsley.Yellow onions make up more than 75% of the worlds production of onions.The official state vegetable of Georgia is the Vidalia onion.The official state vegetable of Texas is the Texas Sweet onion.According to the National Onion Association, onion consumption in the U.S. has increased approximately 50% over the past 20 years.
35Chives Onion benefits without tears Help lower blood cholesterol levelsHelp reduce blood pressureHelp prevent certain types of cancerSimilar benefits as with other members of the Allium family
36GarlicCulinary, medicinal, and religious use dates back more than 6000 years.Chicago got it's name from the American Indian word for the wild garlic that grew around Lake Michigan - "chicagaoua".California produces more than 250 million pounds of garlic each year. One farm in Monterey County (near Gilroy, "The Garlic Capital of the World") plants 2000 acres of garlic and produces almost 25 million pounds annually.There is an all-garlic restaurant in Stockholm where they offer a garlic cheesecake.There is an all-garlic restaurant in San Francisco where they offer a garlic ice cream. The name of the place is a nickname for garlic...The Stinking Rose!
37‘raw’ garlic Prevent & cure infection 1 clove contains substances equivalent to 100,000 units of penicillin (1/5 avg dose)Help prevent cancer & heart diseaseMake lean foods taste robustEat sprig of fresh tarragon for temporary relief of garlic breath or ‘odorless garlic’ in capsulesMust eat 1-3 fresh cloves per day for at least 3 mo before any positive effects show upHelps regulate blood sugar levelsYou have to eat it raw for its health benefits because heat may destroy some of it’s health benefits
38“purple cone flower” Echinacea purpurea Fight off colds and fluHeal minor cuts & scratchesGive your immune system a shot in the armCompound echinsin, shown to be antiviral that behaves similarly to interferonEchinacoside has antibiotic propertiesTo treat minor cuts & scratches, mix echinacea tincture drop for drop with pure castor oil and apply to wound. Can be used on adults children, dogs and cats. Can sooth insect bites help facial blemishes healFor colds & flu, add drops of extract into water or tea 2x per day for adults
39Evening primrose Oenothera biensis Petals open at nightSoothes PMS and menopause symptomsHelp prevent high blood pressureSmooth & soften dry skinActive compound: gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)GLA found in evening primrose oil, made from the seeds. Medicinal doses range from mg per day.Women with breast cancer should not take evening primrose because of the phyto-estrols it contains
40Feverfew Chrysanthemum parthenium Sooth a migraineRepel insects in the gardenpyrethrinKeep bees at bay7/10 migraine suffers reported less frequent migraines & less intense pain, and reduced nausea and vomiting. 1980’s study of 250 patients, 70% of feverfew group reported improvement in relief of migraines. One theory is that the herb contains a compound that stops blood vessel spasm from occurring. Migraines first contract the blood vessels and then dilate them.Contains compound called pyrethrin – natural insect repellent
41English lavender (L. officinalis or L. vera) Create an herbal antisepticRelax and rejuvenate mind and bodyHelp normalize oily skin
42Mustard (Brassicaceae) White & yellow, Brassica alba; black (brown), Brassica nigra.Volatile oil derived from sinigrin/sinalbin & enzyme, myrosin.Mustard plants produce about 1,000 pounds of seeds per acre.In one year at New York's Yankee Stadium, more than 1,600 gallons plus 2,000,000 individual packets of mustard are consumed.Most of the mustard seeds used in Dijon, France are actually grown in the United States and Canada. Canada produces about 90 percent of the world's supply of mustard seeds.Over 700 million pounds of mustard are consumed worldwide each year.The Mustard Museum is in Mount Horeb, Wisconsin.world's largest collection of mustards, with over 3,500 varieties.
43Horseradish (Amoracia rusticana; Brassica Family) prized for its medicinal and gastronomic qualities for centuries.Same volatile oil as mustardDid you know that . . .Horseradish is still planted and harvested mostly by hand?Sales of bottled horseradish began in 1860, making it one of the first convenience foods?In the American South, horseradish was rubbed on the forehead to relieve headaches? (Some folks still swear by it.)Horseradish is added to some pickles to add firmness and "nip"?Before being named "horseradish," the plant was known as "redcole" in England and as "stingnose" in some parts of the U.S.?Horseradish has only 2 calories a teaspoon, is low in sodium and provides dietary fiber?Researchers at M.I.T. claim that the enzyme "horseradish peroxidase" removes a number of pollutants from waste water?Germans still brew horseradish schnapps some also add it to their beer?
44Parsley Petroselinum crispum Related to wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) (in the Umbel family, along with carrots, celery, dill, parsnips, fennel, caraway, anise, coriander, cumin, poison hemlock)Has low levels of same toxin as the wild speciesMany of these look gorgeous in the garden.1 c minced fresh parsley contains more beta carotene than a large carrot, almost 2x as much vitamin C as an orange, more Ca than a cup of milk, and 20 x as much ion as one serving of liver.
45St John’s wort Hypericum perforatum Relieve aches & painsarthritis, rheumatism, sciaticaFind herbal help for depressionHave soft silky hairRed color of oil from hypericinGot its name because ethe herb begins to bloom around birthday of Saint John, which is June 24. Wort is middle English word for ‘herb’Oil used for aches & painsHypericin contains monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, useful in treating depression
46Speedwell Veronica arvenis Calm a coughLeptandrine, acts as expectorantMix with Chinese licorice root to balance bitter flavorSoften tough calluses
47Tarragon Artemisia dracunculus Give high blood pressure the bootDiscover possible link in cancer preventionCompound = rutinK comparison: 3 oz chicken, considered rich source of K contains 195 mg
48Yarrow Achillea millefollium Famous fever fighterHelp heal cuts & scratchesSmooth stressed skinStimulate the compost heapHerb has wildly different chmical composition epdning on variety, where it is grown, the season, the soil and the weather.For fever – take as hot tea ….it will induce sweat. It helps lower body temperature by dilating blood vessels near the skin’s surface.
49Mint Family (Lamiaceae) Native to Mediterranean regionIncludes thyme, sages, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, savory, hyssops, basil, the various mints, catnip, and horehound.Common garden mint is spearmint, not peppermint .Square stems & aromatic simple leaves with oil glands.
50Peppermint Mentha piperita Soothe your stomachRefresh itchy skinCool spicy foodsActive ingredient: mentholMenthol clears congestion in headEast Indian Ayurvedic herbalists recommend peppermint tea to clear ‘emotional congestion’; saying the herb is sattvic, or uplifting. Some bicycle racers in the Tour de France drink a combination of tea of peppermint and rosemary prior to racing each day
51Lemon balm Melissa officinalis Help relieve high blood pressureDigestive aidVolatile oil, eugenol, which calms the gastrointestinal tractAdd a lemon lift to foodsDrinking tea causes slight dilation of blood vessels, helping to lower blood presure
52Rosemary Rosemary officinalis De-stress the stomachrosmaricineHelp heal a headacheHave shiny hairUse as hair rinseCompound called rosmaricine seems to relieve headaches the same way as aspirin without irritating the stomach. Some reachers say rosmaricine has property “smooth muscle activity” which means it can smooth and soothe the digestive system1 T dried rosemary contains 42 mg Ca
53Sage Salvia officinalis Sore gum sootherSubdue a sore throatRefresh skin after shavingBoost flavor of low-fat foodsCamphor & other volatile oilsCamphor has antiseptic properties, which which combined with astringent action of sage’s tannin, helps treat sore gums and mouth ulcers. Make a mouthwash with 1 t fresh sage or ½ t dried in 1 c hot water, covered for 4 min. Swirl in ¼ t salt and 1 t cider vinegar. Swish in mouth while still hot; gargle for sore throat, but spit out when through