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Spices & Herbs.

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Presentation on theme: "Spices & Herbs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Spices & Herbs

2 Difference between spice and herb?
No clear distinction Herbs usually leaves (sometimes seeds), usually from temperate-origin plants Spices usually flowers, fruits, or bark of tropical-origin plants

3 spice Part of plant used Black pepper Dried fruits (peppercorns) Ginger Rhizome (underground stem) Nutmeg Seed Mace Covering of nutmeg seeds Cloves Unopened flower buds Cassia and Cinnamon Bark Cardamom Fruits, seeds Turmeric Rhizome Sesame Seeds

4 Herbs Usually aromatic leaves Used in cooking
Also, in shampoos, cosmetics, soaps, medicines, aromatherapy (e.g., Vicks vaporub, with camphor, menthol, & eucalyptus oils) See Table 17a

5 Spices & herbs Scents & flavors usually due to unique “essential oils”; i.e., to secondary compounds, especially isoprenoids (terpenes). Natural plant function in pollinator & fruit/seed-disperser attraction. And/or plant protection from herbivores, & pathogens (mostly fungi, bacteria). Most of these secondary compounds have anti-microbial activities.

6 “spice” Derives from the Latin word species, meaning specific kind, and later, goods or merchandise. Plants that Changed History, Joan Elma Rhan, 1982

7 First use of spices & herbs
Origins pre-date ancient Greeks & Romans, etc. Today we use spices & herbs primarily to make good food taste even better. In the days before refrigeration, spices were used to hide the taste and odor of less-than-fresh food, and to prolong the freshness of food (especially in warm climates). Today, some perfumes, soaps, and lotions are lightly scented with spices & herbs. In the days before people took frequent baths, spices/herbs were used as deodorants. Those who could afford to do so had spices/herbs sown or tucked into their clothes to hide their body odors. Plants that Changed History, Joan Elma Rhan, 1982

8 Early Spices Orient/Old World New World
cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, black pepper, ginger, cloves, cardamom, anise, caraway, mustard, saffron New World allspice, chilies & paprika, vanilla

9 Ancient History Egypt Greeks Romans Arabs & Middle East
After fall of Rome and during the Dark Ages (ca AD) Lost access to spices from the Orient Trade between the empires of Asia and Rome

10 Why were spices popular for trading?
it was very lucrative transported easily improved food & health many diverse uses for most spices very popular with the upper classes spicy food considered classy, sign of wealth

11 Spice Trade, post-dark ages
Crusades in 1096: Europeans are out fighting in the Middle East and taste exotic spices and want to bring them back. 1180’s: Pepperer’s guild, predecessor to herbalist and physicians. Middle Ages: spices valuable trade item used to pay bills, taxes. 1300: Polo brothers travel to China and bring back tales of spices. By 1300’s: spice trade was a legitimate profession.

12 Papal Race for Spice Islands
During the late 15th century, the popes favorites Spain and Portugal After that, Pope issued a decree to divide the world between Spain and Portugal from Pole to Pole Portugal got the EAST, Spain got the WEST

13 Age of Exploration onset of an “age of exploration” that lasted almost 500 years Columbus discovered America in 1492 didn’t know the size of the Earth or about the Pacific Ocean Charles V and King of Spain sent Magellan on an expedition to reach the Spice Islands westward route through the South Seas and Spice Islands

14 Were Columbus and Magellan voyages “failures” ?
Neither won for Spain the easy access to spices that she wanted. Columbus never found the spices or the lands he sought. Magellan’s expedition reached the Spice Islands, but the route across the Pacific Ocean was much too long and much too dangerous to be practical then. Plants that Changed History, Joan Elma Rhan, 1982

15 What spice trade accomplished
New lands were discovered, and the question of whether the world was spherical or flat was finally decided. New plants and animals were discovered; some of them were transported to continents where they had never been before, but where the climate was suitable. People’s diets became more varied and better balanced. Europeans, whose homelands were beginning to be overpopulated, colonized the newly discovered lands, some of which had plenty of space. Generally, this worked out well for the Europeans, but rather badly for the natives of the colonized countries. For better or worse, the search for species brought together the civilizations that had developed separately in the ancient worlds. They would never be isolated again. Plants that Changed History, Joan Elma Rhan, 1982

16 Imperialism Portugal, via colonies and outposts, dominated spice trading for ca. 100 years (16th century). Thereafter, the Dutch, especially, and British took control of spice trading. Dutch took over the Indonesia & Ceylon Dutch East India company England took over India, Singapore, Hong Kong British East India company

17 A quick survey of representatives
Spices & Herbs A quick survey of representatives

18 Piper nigrum (black & white pepper)
Climbing vine native to India and East Indies; in Piperaceae (pepper) family Berries picked green, darken & shrivel upon drying. Biting flavor due to volatile oils, flavor dissipates after grinding. White pepper – berries ripen on vine, outer hull removed. The most widely used spice today.

19 Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon)
Parts used- oil & bark Evergreen tree native to India & Sri Lanka; in Laurel family Properties- Astringent, stimulant, anti-infective, anti-fungal, digestive aid One of the oldest and most valuable spices Related spice, called cassia, from C. cassia.

20 Eugenia caryophyllata (clove)
Parts Used: closed flower buds Active Compounds:  Clove oil is 60 to 90 percent eugenol, which is the source of its anesthetic and antiseptic properties. An evergreen tree, 15 to 30 feet tall; in Myrtaceae (Myrtle) family Native to the Spice Islands and the Philippines, but also grown in India, Sumatra, Jamaica, the West Indies, Brazil, and other tropical areas.

21 Myristica fragans (nutmeg & mace)
Part used- dried kernel of the seed. Tree is about 25 feet high, has a greyish-brown smooth bark, abounding in a yellow juice. Native to Spice Islands; Myristicaceae (nutmeg) family Fruit is source of 2 spices, nutmeg & mace. Mace is derived from the net-like aril that is wrapped around the pit. Within the pit is a single seed, the source of nutmeg.

22 Zingiber officinale (ginger)
Member of “ginger” family Perennial native to tropical Asia Plant part used = Rhizome name from Sanskrit word stringa-vera, which means “with a body like a horn”, as in antlers. In English pubs and taverns in the nineteenth century, bar-keepers put out small containers of ground ginger, for people to sprinkle into their beer — the origin of ginger ale.

23 Curcuma longa (turmeric)
Member of “ginger” family Perennial native to tropical Asia Part used: rhizome Culinary uses (e.g., Middle East & India) Dyes uses too (yellow)

24 Crocus sativus (saffron)
Member of “Iris” family From ‘zafaran’ in Arabic From 3-parted Stigma of flower Dried by slow roasting Imparts delicate & distinct taste & color Used in French, Spanish, Middle Eastern & Indian cooking Each saffron crocus flower has 3 stigmas Ca. 80,000 flowers (240,000) stigmas to make a pound of saffron 12 days to pick cost is > $250 per ounce (so most costly spice) 1444: any merchant caught selling adulterated saffron in Bavaria was burned alive

25 Capsicum species (hot & sweet peppers)
Members of tomato family (Solonaceae) Many are cultivars of Capsicum annum E.g., bell pepper & cayenne Four other common species E.g., C. clilense includes habenero and C. fructescens includes tabasco pepper Many varieties Origin = New World; used by 9000 y. ago “Hot” due to seven related alkaloids, including capsaicin (mostly in seeds & fruit)

26 Scoville ratings (for pepper “hotness”)
16,000,000: Pure capsaicin 100, ,000: Habanero 30,000-50,000: Cayenne pepper 5,000-23,000: Serrano pepper 2,500-5,000: Tabasco sauce /Jalapeno 1,000-2,000: Poblano pepper Pepperoncini pepper Ca. 0: Sweet Bell pepper measure of the hotness of a chilli pepper. capsaicin (8-methyl N-vanillyl 6-nonenamide) is the active component of chili peppers (Capsicum). It is an irritant to mammalian epithelial cells and produces a burning sensation in the mouth, which some people enjoy. Plants produce the compound to deter predation. It is classified among the secondary metabolites

27 Vanilla planifolia (vanilla)
flavoring comes from the seed pod, or the ‘bean’ of the vanilla plant member of orchid family (Orchidaceae); perennial vine behind saffron and cardamom, vanilla is 3rd most expensive spice non-culinary uses, including aromatizing perfumes, cigars, & liqueurs Europeans prefer the bean, while N. Americans the extract extract made by percolating alcohol & water through chopped cured beans Vanilla planifolia is the orchid that yields the vanilla flavoring of commerce. Vanilla was introduced to Cortez, and Europe, by Montezuma in It grew to be a favorite flavor for sweets as it still is today. The orchid is a vine and is commercially cultivated throughout the tropics with Madasgar being a major producer. The flowers last only one day and must be hand-pollinated to produce a seedpod, the "vanliia bean". After the seedpods are mature in five or so months they are harvested and go through a curing process that dries them while retaining the maximum amount of essential oils. There are about 60 or so species of Vanilla found throughout the tropical Americas including Florida and the Bahamas. All are vines, several are leafless. Most of the flowers are of only botanical interest especially because of their short-lived nature and vining growth habit. If you do decide to try growing Vanilla start it in your normal potting mix and be sure to provide a support for it to climb on. Moderate light and warm temperatures are required. Some growers in warm regions have Vanilla climbing the supports of the orchid house.

28 Herbs

29 Bee balm Monarda fistulosa
Kick a cold Breathe easy Help control oily skin Cook with a taste of native America Oily skin: make home potion, combine ¼ c bruised fresh leaves with 1 c boiling water, cover, and steep for 10 min. Strain & stir in juice of 1 lemon; refrigerate for up to 1 week and use as facial splash 3 x per day, esp in summer after cleansing

30 Borage Borago officinalis
The hero’s herb Help heal the heart Squelch stubborn skin inflammations eczema Create stellar salads After heart surgery – borage leaf combined with hawthorne berries in boiling water to make a tea. At least known that the hawthorne berry has positive effects on the heart. Borage seeds contain gamma linolenic acid (GLA) that gives oil made into capsules or applied topically Salads: young leaves taste like cucumber, can use instead of lettuce in sandwiches; older leaves give cool cucumber flavor to soup, stems taste like cucumber also, flowers make charming edible garnishes

31 Catnip Nepeta cataria Calm after a storm Take the sting out of stress
Make a cat happy Enjoy a roman salad What attracts cats to catnip is a volatile oil that contains comounds similar to those that make the herb valarian a sedative A tea is soothing and relaxin Catnip seeds look like poppy seeds and be used as a substitute for them, adding a minty flavor to quick breads, pastry fillings, and muffins Fresh leaves taste like very strong mint, and can be added to green salads

32 Chamomile Matricaria sp.
Better than counting sheep Beat anxiety and insomnia Relieve indigestion Soothe irritated skin The author drank chamomile tea before tests, which allowed her to focus her mind and think clearly Chamomile contains volatile oil compounds that act as a mild sedative, helping to relieve anxious feelings Some armatherapists mix half chamomile & half lavendar as a claming combination Can help releave sore gums; use as a mouthwash Dab cool tea over eyes to perk tired, puffy undereye area

33 Alliums (Lily family) (onion group)
Onion- A. cepa Garlic- A. sativum Leeks- A. porrum Shallots- A. ascalonicum Chives- A. schoenprasum Most rich in volatile sulfur-containing compounds Culinary & medicinal uses Among oldest cultivated plants

34 Onions Originated in Asia
Ancient Egyptians worshipped the onion, believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternity. Of all the vegetables that had their images created from precious metals by Egyptian artists, only the onion was made out of gold. Ranks sixth among the world's leading vegetable crops. You can get rid of onion breath by eating parsley. Yellow onions make up more than 75% of the worlds production of onions. The official state vegetable of Georgia is the Vidalia onion. The official state vegetable of Texas is the Texas Sweet onion. According to the National Onion Association, onion consumption in the U.S. has increased approximately 50% over the past 20 years.

35 Chives Onion benefits without tears
Help lower blood cholesterol levels Help reduce blood pressure Help prevent certain types of cancer Similar benefits as with other members of the Allium family

36 Garlic Culinary, medicinal, and religious use dates back more than 6000 years. Chicago got it's name from the American Indian word for the wild garlic that grew around Lake Michigan - "chicagaoua". California produces more than 250 million pounds of garlic each year. One farm in Monterey County (near Gilroy, "The Garlic Capital of the World") plants 2000 acres of garlic and produces almost 25 million pounds annually. There is an all-garlic restaurant in Stockholm where they offer a garlic cheesecake. There is an all-garlic restaurant in San Francisco where they offer a garlic ice cream. The name of the place is a nickname for garlic...The Stinking Rose!

37 ‘raw’ garlic Prevent & cure infection
1 clove contains substances equivalent to 100,000 units of penicillin (1/5 avg dose) Help prevent cancer & heart disease Make lean foods taste robust Eat sprig of fresh tarragon for temporary relief of garlic breath or ‘odorless garlic’ in capsules Must eat 1-3 fresh cloves per day for at least 3 mo before any positive effects show up Helps regulate blood sugar levels You have to eat it raw for its health benefits because heat may destroy some of it’s health benefits

38 “purple cone flower” Echinacea purpurea
Fight off colds and flu Heal minor cuts & scratches Give your immune system a shot in the arm Compound echinsin, shown to be antiviral that behaves similarly to interferon Echinacoside has antibiotic properties To treat minor cuts & scratches, mix echinacea tincture drop for drop with pure castor oil and apply to wound. Can be used on adults children, dogs and cats. Can sooth insect bites help facial blemishes heal For colds & flu, add drops of extract into water or tea 2x per day for adults

39 Evening primrose Oenothera biensis
Petals open at night Soothes PMS and menopause symptoms Help prevent high blood pressure Smooth & soften dry skin Active compound: gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) GLA found in evening primrose oil, made from the seeds. Medicinal doses range from mg per day. Women with breast cancer should not take evening primrose because of the phyto-estrols it contains

40 Feverfew Chrysanthemum parthenium
Sooth a migraine Repel insects in the garden pyrethrin Keep bees at bay 7/10 migraine suffers reported less frequent migraines & less intense pain, and reduced nausea and vomiting. 1980’s study of 250 patients, 70% of feverfew group reported improvement in relief of migraines. One theory is that the herb contains a compound that stops blood vessel spasm from occurring. Migraines first contract the blood vessels and then dilate them. Contains compound called pyrethrin – natural insect repellent

41 English lavender (L. officinalis or L. vera)
Create an herbal antiseptic Relax and rejuvenate mind and body Help normalize oily skin

42 Mustard (Brassicaceae)
White & yellow, Brassica alba; black (brown), Brassica nigra. Volatile oil derived from sinigrin/sinalbin & enzyme, myrosin. Mustard plants produce about 1,000 pounds of seeds per acre. In one year at New York's Yankee Stadium, more than 1,600 gallons plus 2,000,000 individual packets of mustard are consumed. Most of the mustard seeds used in Dijon, France are actually grown in the United States and Canada. Canada produces about 90 percent of the world's supply of mustard seeds. Over 700 million pounds of mustard are consumed worldwide each year. The Mustard Museum is in Mount Horeb, Wisconsin. world's largest collection of mustards, with over 3,500 varieties.

43 Horseradish (Amoracia rusticana; Brassica Family)
prized for its medicinal and gastronomic qualities for centuries. Same volatile oil as mustard Did you know that . . . Horseradish is still planted and harvested mostly by hand? Sales of bottled horseradish began in 1860, making it one of the first convenience foods? In the American South, horseradish was rubbed on the forehead to relieve headaches? (Some folks still swear by it.) Horseradish is added to some pickles to add firmness and "nip"? Before being named "horseradish," the plant was known as "redcole" in England and as "stingnose" in some parts of the U.S.? Horseradish has only 2 calories a teaspoon, is low in sodium and provides dietary fiber? Researchers at M.I.T. claim that the enzyme "horseradish peroxidase" removes a number of pollutants from waste water? Germans still brew horseradish schnapps some also add it to their beer?

44 Parsley Petroselinum crispum
Related to wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) (in the Umbel family, along with carrots, celery, dill, parsnips, fennel, caraway, anise, coriander, cumin, poison hemlock) Has low levels of same toxin as the wild species Many of these look gorgeous in the garden. 1 c minced fresh parsley contains more beta carotene than a large carrot, almost 2x as much vitamin C as an orange, more Ca than a cup of milk, and 20 x as much ion as one serving of liver.

45 St John’s wort Hypericum perforatum
Relieve aches & pains arthritis, rheumatism, sciatica Find herbal help for depression Have soft silky hair Red color of oil from hypericin Got its name because ethe herb begins to bloom around birthday of Saint John, which is June 24. Wort is middle English word for ‘herb’ Oil used for aches & pains Hypericin contains monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, useful in treating depression

46 Speedwell Veronica arvenis
Calm a cough Leptandrine, acts as expectorant Mix with Chinese licorice root to balance bitter flavor Soften tough calluses

47 Tarragon Artemisia dracunculus
Give high blood pressure the boot Discover possible link in cancer prevention Compound = rutin K comparison: 3 oz chicken, considered rich source of K contains 195 mg

48 Yarrow Achillea millefollium
Famous fever fighter Help heal cuts & scratches Smooth stressed skin Stimulate the compost heap Herb has wildly different chmical composition epdning on variety, where it is grown, the season, the soil and the weather. For fever – take as hot tea ….it will induce sweat. It helps lower body temperature by dilating blood vessels near the skin’s surface.

49 Mint Family (Lamiaceae)
Native to Mediterranean region Includes thyme, sages, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, savory, hyssops, basil, the various mints, catnip, and horehound. Common garden mint is spearmint, not peppermint . Square stems & aromatic simple leaves with oil glands.

50 Peppermint Mentha piperita
Soothe your stomach Refresh itchy skin Cool spicy foods Active ingredient: menthol Menthol clears congestion in head East Indian Ayurvedic herbalists recommend peppermint tea to clear ‘emotional congestion’; saying the herb is sattvic, or uplifting. Some bicycle racers in the Tour de France drink a combination of tea of peppermint and rosemary prior to racing each day

51 Lemon balm Melissa officinalis
Help relieve high blood pressure Digestive aid Volatile oil, eugenol, which calms the gastrointestinal tract Add a lemon lift to foods Drinking tea causes slight dilation of blood vessels, helping to lower blood presure

52 Rosemary Rosemary officinalis
De-stress the stomach rosmaricine Help heal a headache Have shiny hair Use as hair rinse Compound called rosmaricine seems to relieve headaches the same way as aspirin without irritating the stomach. Some reachers say rosmaricine has property “smooth muscle activity” which means it can smooth and soothe the digestive system 1 T dried rosemary contains 42 mg Ca

53 Sage Salvia officinalis
Sore gum soother Subdue a sore throat Refresh skin after shaving Boost flavor of low-fat foods Camphor & other volatile oils Camphor has antiseptic properties, which which combined with astringent action of sage’s tannin, helps treat sore gums and mouth ulcers. Make a mouthwash with 1 t fresh sage or ½ t dried in 1 c hot water, covered for 4 min. Swirl in ¼ t salt and 1 t cider vinegar. Swish in mouth while still hot; gargle for sore throat, but spit out when through

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