2 Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Demand Supply MENUDemandWants,Needs And DemandFaktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi DemandSupplyFaktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi supply
3 Demand function To demand something, you must: • Want it • Be able to afford it• Have a definite plan to buy it (Wonderling, 2005)
4 Demand functionWants are the unlimited desires or wishes that people have for goods and services.How many times have you thought that you would like something ‘if only you could afford it’ or ‘if it weren’t so expensive’?When we make choices, scarcity guarantees that many – perhaps most – of our wants will never be satisfied.Demand reflects our plans about which wants to satisfy.
5 Demand function Need Wants Demand Demand adalah hubungan antara harga barang dan jumlah permintaan barang
6 Demand functionPermintaan adalah keinginan yang disertai kemampuan untuk membeli barang dan jasa pada tingkat harga dan waktu tertentu.The term ‘demand’ is used to describe the amount of money purchasers are prepared to pay for a commodity.
7 Demand function Hal Penting dalam Permintaan: Kuantitas yang diminta merupakan kuantitas yang diinginkanKeinginan konsumen disertai oleh kemampuan serta kesediaan untuk membeli (Permintaan efektif)Kuantitas yang diminta dinyatakan dalam satuan waktu
8 The law of demand The law of demand states: Other things remaining the same (Ceteris Paribus), the higher the price of a good, the smaller is the quantity demanded.
10 Demand curve and demand schedule Before going any further, you need to understand a critical distinction between demand and quantity demanded.The term demand refers to the entire relationship between the quantity demanded and the price of a good, illustrated by the demand curve and the demand schedule.The term quantity demanded refers to the exact quantity demanded at a particular price, or a particular point on a demand curve.
11 Demand curve and demand schedule A table that shows the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demandedDemand Curve :A graph of the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded
13 A Change in demandWhen any factor that influences buying plans, other than the price of the good, there is a change in demand.Figure 2 illustrates one such change – an increase in demand. When demand increases, the demand curve shifts to the right and the quantity demanded is greater at each prices.
14 Figure 2: An increase in demand New demand schedule (Walkman £30)Price (£/tape)Quantity (millions of tapes/week)A’17.8B’25.9C’34.7D’44.2E’53.8EE’5Price (£ per tape)DD’4Demand for tapes (Walkman £30)CC’3BB’2Demand for tapes (Walkman £125)AA’112345678Quantity (millions of tapes /week)
16 Factors Influencing demand 1 Prices of related goodsThe quantity of any goods and services that consumers plan to buy depends in part on the price of related goods and services. There are two types: substitutes and complements.
17 2 IncomeOther things remaining the same, when income increases, consumers buy more of most goods, and when income decreases, they buy less of most goods .Goods for which demand increases as income increases are called normal goods.Goods for which demand decreases when income increases are called inferior goods.
18 3 Expected future prices If the price of a good is expected to rise in the future, and if the good can be stored, the opportunity cost of obtaining the good for future use is lower now than it will be when the price has increased.So people substitute over time. They buy more of the good before the expected price rise and the demand for the good increases
19 4 PopulationDemand also depends on the size and the age structure of the population.Other things remaining the same, the larger the population, the greater is the demand for all goods and services, and the smaller the population, the smaller is the demand for all goods and services.
20 5 PreferencesPreferences are an individual’s attitudes towards and tastes for goods and services .Preferences are shaped by past experience,genetic factors, advertising information, religious beliefs, and other cultural and social factors.
21 Changes in the factors that influence buyers’ plans cause either: a movement along the demand curve, ora shift of the demand curve
22 1. Movement along the demand curve If the price of a good changes but everything else remains the same, there is a movement along the demand curve.For example, if the price of a tape changes from £ 3 to £ 5, the result is a movement along the demand curve, from point C to point E in figure 1.The negative slope of the demand curve reveals that a decrease in the price of a good or service increases the quantity demanded – the law of demand
23 2. A shift of the demand curve If the price of a good remains constant but some other influence on buyers’ plans changes, there is a change in demand for that goodFigure 2 illustrates such a shift
24 SupplyJumlah barang dan jasa yang bersedia dan dapat ditawarkan oleh Produsen kepada konsumen pada setiap tingkat harga selama periode tertentuQuantity supplied : the amount of a good that sellers are willing and able to sell
25 Hukum Supply Law of supply : “the claim that, other things equal, the quantity supplied of a good rises when the price of the good rises”
27 Faktor2 yang mempengaruhi perubahan supply 1. Pricethe quantity supplied rises as the price rises and falls as the price falls,So we say that the quantity supplied is positively related to the price of the good
28 2. Input PriceTo produce its output of ice cream, Student Sweets uses various inputs: cream, sugar, flavoring, ice-cream machines, the buildings in which the ice cream is made, and the labor of workers to mix the ingredients and operate the machines.When the price of one or more of these inputs rises, producing ice cream is less profitable, and your firm supplies less ice cream.If input prices rise substantially, you might shut down your firm and supply no ice cream at all.
29 3. TechnologyThe technology for turning the inputs into ice cream is yet another determinant of supply. The invention of the mechanized ice-cream machine, for example, reduced the amount of labor necessary to make ice cream.By reducing firms’ costs, the advance in technology raised the supply of ice cream
30 4. ExpectationsThe amount of ice cream you supply today may depend on your expectations of the future.For example, if you expect the price of ice cream to rise in the future, you will put some of your current production into storage and supply less to the market today.
31 SUPPLY SCHEDULE Supply Schedule : a table that shows the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity supplied
33 Market SupplyThe market supply is the sum of the two individual or more supplies.Market supply depends on all those factors that influence the supply of individual sellers, such as the prices of inputs used to produce the good, the available technology, and expectations.In addition, the supply in a market depends on the number of sellers
34 Gambar 1: Kurva supplySP2Price ($)P1Q1Q2Quantity
35 Kesetimbangan pasar (Market equilibrium) DefinisiSituasi dimana harga terbentuk pada:Jml demand thd barang=Jml barang yg disupply
36 Gambar 2: Pasar barang ….. Price ($) Market Equilibrium P1 Q1 Quantity DQ1Quantity
37 Tugas KELOMPOKJelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan Excess Demand dan Excess Supply beserta contoh ?Jelaskan hal-hal yang menyebabkan Excess Demand dan Excess Supply terjadi ?Jelaskan penggolongan pembeli dan penjual di pasar ?Jelaskan peranan pemerintah dalam pembentukkan harga pasar?