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1 Presenting the Research Problem Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

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Presentation on theme: "1 Presenting the Research Problem Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Presenting the Research Problem Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

2 2 Components of Chapter 1  Title  Introduction  Problem Statement  Hypothesis  Definitions  Assumptions and limitations  Significance Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

3 3 Considerations When Choosing the Title  Written last, not first  Must have a title for proposal (may be provisional)  Purpose of the title Conveys focus of the study Conveys focus of the study  Problems with titles Too long or too short Too long or too short Useless words Useless words Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

4 4 Example of a Poor Title “An Investigation of a Survey and Analysis of the Influence of PL on the Attitudes, Teaching Methodology, and Evaluative Techniques of Randomly Selected Male and Female Physical Education Teachers in Public High Schools in Cornfield County, State of Confusion” Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

5 5 Better Title  PL ’s Influence on Physical Education Teachers’ Attitudes, Methodology, and Evaluations”  Effect of X on Y Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

6 6 Questions to ask When Contemplating a Title 1. Does the title precisely identify the area of the problem? 2. Is the title clear, concise, free from jargon, and adequately descriptive to permit indexing the study in its proper category? 3. Does the title identify the key variables and provide some information about the scope of the study? Baumgartner and Hensley, 2006 Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

7 7 Questions to ask When Contemplating a Title, cont’d 4. Are unnecessary words, such as “a study of,” “an investigation of,” and “an analysis of” avoided? 5. Do nouns, as opposed to adjectives, serve as the key words in the title? 6. Have words been selected that will aid computerized retrieval systems? 7. Are the most important words at the beginning of the title? Baumgartner and Hensley, 2006 Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

8 8 Menulis Pendahuluan  How to write a good introduction Demonstrate the point of the study Demonstrate the point of the study Omit technical jargon and products Omit technical jargon and products Know who you are writing for Know who you are writing for Write introduction after the problem and hypotheses Write introduction after the problem and hypotheses  Lead the reader on a journey (3 paragraphs) 1. Broad intro 2. Prior research 3. What is missing and your purpose Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

9 9  General Introduction (paragraph 1)  Cardiorespiratory fitness is generally recognized as a major component of physical fitness. Indeed, cardiorespiratory fitness is the most significant component of physical fitness in the relationship to health. Direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) is the single best measure of cardiorespiratory fitness or aerobic capacity (Åstrand & Rodahl, 1986; Mitchell, Sproule, & Chapman, 1958; Taylor, Buskirk & Henschel, 1955). However, direct measurement is time-consuming, requires extensive laboratory equipment, and does not lend itself to testing large number of subjects in field settings. Because of the limitations of direct measures, numerous field tests have been developed to estimate VO 2 max Dolgener et al. (1994) Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎ Pendahuluan yng Baik

10 10  Background Information (paragraph 2)  Prediction of VO 2 max from field tests requires performing at either a maximal or submaximal effort, commonly running, stepping, or bicycling. Recently, Kline, Porcari, Hintermeister et al. (1987) developed a submaximal field test for predicting VO 2 max using a 1-mile walk protocol. This test, which has become known as the Rockport Fitness Walking Test (RFWT), was developed on a broad age range (30-69 years) of males and females who were heterogeneous in terms of aerobic capacity. These data indicate that the regression equations developed by Kline, Porcari, Hintermeister et al. are valid for adults between the ages of 30 and 69 years. The RFWT has been cross-validated in samples of subjects 65 to 79 years old (Fenstermaker, Plowman, & Looney, 1992; O’Hanley et al., 1987) and 30 to 39 years old (Zwiren, Freedson, Ward, Wilke, & Rippe, 1991). Dolgener et al. (1994) Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎ Pendahuluan yng Baik

11 11  Lead-In to purpose (paragraph 3)  However, the Kline, Porcari, Hintermeister et al. (1987) equations have not been validated for use with groups younger than those in the original sample. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to… Dolgener et al. (1994) Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎ Pendahuluan yng Baik

12 12 Menulis Permasalahan Penelitian  Problem statement – a specific, definitive statement that specifies the question or issue to be investigated in a research study (Baumgartner & Hensley, 2006)  The problem statement should be a single sentence that describes the problem  What is the problem statement for the previous slides? Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

13 13 Contoh Rumusan Tujuan  The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological factors related to indicators of eating disorders among college female cheerleaders in Iowa.  The purpose of this study is to identify the general patterns of leisure participation of selected urban Chinese youth.  The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of color (green, blue, red, and white) on the performance of a controlled target accuracy task.  The primary purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of the Fire PALS program on fire and life safety knowledge and behavioral intent of elementary school teachers. Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

14 14 Identifikasi Variabel  Define independent, categorical (moderator), dependent, control, and extraneous variables Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

15 15 Menyusun Hipotesis  Research hypotheses Expected results based on theory or experience Expected results based on theory or experience Stated as outcomes Stated as outcomes  Null hypotheses (assumed) No significant differences or relationships No significant differences or relationships  What for previous intro? Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

16 16 Membuat Riset-Problem & Hipotesis yang jelas-lugas  Operational definitions Key terms with specific meaning Key terms with specific meaning  Examples of terms needing operational definitions: Strength Strength Experienced Experienced Fatigue Fatigue Learning Learning Obesity Obesity Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎

17 17  Assumptions Participants will adhere to instructions (refrain from exercise; follow prescribed diet, etc.) Participants will adhere to instructions (refrain from exercise; follow prescribed diet, etc.)  Limitations Possible shortcomings Possible shortcomings Weaknesses of the study Weaknesses of the study Aspects the investigator cannot control Aspects the investigator cannot control Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎ Membuat Riset-Problem & Hipotesis yang jelas-lugas

18 18  Delimitations Characteristics imposed by the researcher Characteristics imposed by the researcher Scope of the study Scope of the study Type of research participantType of research participant Number of participantsNumber of participants Measures to be collectedMeasures to be collected Instruments utilized for testingInstruments utilized for testing Time and duration of the studyTime and duration of the study SettingSetting Type of intervention or treatmentType of intervention or treatment Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎ Membuat Riset-Problem & Hipotesis yang jelas-lugas

19 19  Significance of the study? Basic and applied research Basic and applied research Seeking gaps in the research Seeking gaps in the research What has NOT been done? What has NOT been done? Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎ Membuat Riset-Problem & Hipotesis yang jelas-lugas

20 Tesis vs. Journal Article  Thesis assumes a novice researcher  Purpose, hypotheses, limitations, etc. are explicitly stated  Publishers must printing contain costs; only essential information appears in print No hypothesis No hypothesis No limitations No limitations No delimitations No delimitations 20 Sumber: faculty.fullerton.edu/.../KNES%20510%20R...‎


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