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1 Health Module 7. 2 DISCLAIMER This material was produced under grant number SH-22248-1 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Health Module 7. 2 DISCLAIMER This material was produced under grant number SH-22248-1 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Health Module 7

2 2 DISCLAIMER This material was produced under grant number SH-22248-1 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

3 3 Objectives After this module you should be able to – identify the most common health hazards – take the necessary steps to avoid and control those hazards

4 4 Health Hazards Chemical Hazards – hydrogen sulfide – silica – hexavalent chromium Physical Hazards – noise – temperature extremes Biological Hazards – bloodborne pathogens – staph/MRSA

5 5 OSHAct of 1970 The purpose of the OSHAct is to “assure, so far as possible, every man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources.”

6 6 HazCom Why should chemical hazards be communicated? – Exposure Risk: about 32 million workers are potentially exposed to chemical hazards – Number of Chemicals: about 650,000 chemical products exist; hundreds of new ones are introduced annually – Health Effects: may include heart ailments, central nervous system damage, kidney and lung damage, sterility, cancer, burns, and rashes – Safety Hazards: potential to cause fires, explosions, or other serious accidents

7 7 Purpose of HazCom The purpose of OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard is to – “… ensure employers and employees know about work hazards and how to protect themselves so that the incidence of illnesses and injuries due to hazardous chemicals is reduced.” Label Program SDS Hazard Communication Program Container Labeling Safety Data Sheet

8 8 Why a Written Program? Employers: program ensures that all employers receive the information they need to inform and train their employees Employees: program provides necessary hazard information to employees

9 9 Labeling Containers of hazardous chemicals entering the workplace must be labeled with – identity of chemical – appropriate hazard warnings message, picture, or symbol hazards of chemical target organs affected – name and address of responsible party legible in English, may have other languages

10 10 NFPA Label National Fire Protection Association The higher the number (max is 4), the greater the hazard Check the SDS

11 11 what’s in the bucket? labels on secondary containers like this must legibly identify the contents and the hazards

12 12 Multi-Employer Workplaces When other employers have employees on site that may be exposed, the program must include – methods to provide contractor employees with on-site access to SDS’s – methods used to inform other employers of precautionary measures for normal and emergency situations – the employer’s chemical labeling system

13 13 Safety Data Sheet (SDS) Prepared by chemical manufacturer, distributor, or importer and describes – chemical composition of product – physical hazards, such as fire and explosion – health hazards – symptoms of exposure – routes of exposure – precautions for safe handling and use – emergency and first aid procedures – control measures – AND MUCH MORE

14 14 SDS’s should be kept in a location(s) that can be easily accessed at all times

15 15 read the label and SDS before using identify what it is and what type of health issues are present

16 16 DOT HM-126 Applies to workers involved in shipping and packing hazardous materials for transport If your job involves such activities, you will be trained on DOT HM-126; things like – shipping papers, labeling, packaging, and markings – loading, segregating, and placards – properties, classifications, and emergency response actions

17 17 Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S) Other names include sour gas, sewer gas, stink damp Flammable, colorless gas that is toxic at extremely low concentrations Smells like rotten eggs even at low concentrations Causes a worker to quickly loose the sense of smell Heavier than air and can accumulate in low-lying areas

18 18 Hydrogen Sulfide PPMEffectTime 10[this is the PEL]8 hours 50 – 100 mild irritation of the eyes and throat 1 hour 150olfactory nerve paralysis1½ hours 200 – 300significant irritation1½ hours 500 – 700 unconsciousness, dizziness, death 15 – 30 minutes > 1000 unconsciousness, death, cessation of respiration a few minutes

19 19 H 2 S Monitoring Active monitoring for H 2 S gas and good planning and training programs for workers are the best ways to prevent injury and death

20 20 1910 Subpart Z 1910.1000 Air Contaminants – includes Z-Tables, worker exposure rates for specific listed substances – worker exposure must not exceed these limits PEL = permissible exposure limit

21 21 1910.1000(a) Table Z-1 Types of exposure limits – time weighted average (TWA) – short-term exposure limit (STEL) – ceiling limit (C) Two common units of measure for limits – parts per million (ppm) – milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m 3 )

22 22 Steps to Protect Workers Anticipate potential hazards Recognize potential hazards Evaluate exposure and risk Control exposure and risk

23 23 Routes of Exposure Inhalation – airborne contaminants Absorption – through the skin or eyes Ingestion – eating – drinking Injection – high-pressure sprays into skin or eyes

24 24 Controls Engineering controls (remove hazard) – process change, chemical substitution – ventilation, shielding, guarding – requires little or no worker action

25 25 Controls Administrative controls (manage exposure) – worker rotation, procedures, training – controlled access areas – requires worker action Personal protective equipment (PPE) – respirators, gloves, clothing – requires individual worker action – last line of defense

26 26 what’s the health hazard? identify what it is and what type of health issues are present

27 27 warning signs can alert workers to workplace hazards workers should be made aware of hazardous areas and be prepared to enter such areas

28 28 Health Effects of Silica Silicosis – irreversible but preventable – most commonly associated with silica dust Other possible effects – lung cancer – some auto-immune diseases

29 29 silica exposure during fracing operations has been an important concern workers should wear a NIOSH-approved respirator for respirable dust; additionally, water can suppress the dust

30 30 Corrective Action: repair air conditioning for cab so that operator can close windows and prevent dust from entering cab can you identify the hazard?

31 31 Hexavalent Chromium A toxic form of chromium metal, generally not naturally occurring Used in many industrial applications, primarily for its anti-corrosive properties Can be generated when welding on stainless steel and metal structures coated with chromate paint Used in electroplating (chrome plating)

32 32 Welding Work Practices Keep your head out of the welding plume Use local exhaust ventilation when available

33 33 Noise Exposure Limits duration per day, hourssound level, dBA slow response 1287.5 1088 890 692 495 397 2100 1 ½102 1105 ½110 ¼ or less115

34 34 Noise Exposure Examples

35 35 Audiometric Testing If you are exposed to 85 dBA or greater, you might be required to take a baseline audiometric test within 6 months of exposure and annually thereafter You must avoid excessive noise 14 hours prior to taking an audiometric test

36 36 Audiogram

37 37 Factors Leading to Heat Stress High temperature and humidity Direct sun or heat Limited air movement Physical exertion Poor physical condition Some medicines Inadequate tolerance for hot workplaces

38 38 extreme temperatures are just as hazardous as anything else at the workplace

39 39 Heat Stress

40 40 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Know the signs/symptoms of heat-related illness, detect them in your co-workers Block out direct sun or other heat sources Use cooling fans or air conditioning Drink water, 1 cup every 15 minutes Wear lightweight, light colored clothes Avoid alcohol, caffeinated drinks, or heavy meals Rest periodically in a cool area

41 41 Cold Stress The harmful effects of hypothermia, frost bite, and trench foot may arise for any worker exposed to high winds and cold temperatures Wet conditions increase these effects Hypothermia is when the body’s temperature dips to 95°F or below – symptoms are fatigue, uncontrolled shivering, slurred speech, irritability, bluish skin, and clumsiness

42 42 Preventing Cold Stress Personal protective clothing (3 layers) – outside layer to block the wind – middle layer of wool or synthetic fabric – inner layer of cotton to allow ventilation Cover hands and face Use an on-site source of heat such as air jets, radiant heaters, or warm contact plates

43 43 Bloodborne Pathogens Avoid contact with blood or other potentially infectious material (OPIM); i.e. – certain body fluids, tissues Use latex gloves or CPR barrier kits Practice universal precautions on everyone, even if you are sure they don’t have infections Report all exposures as soon as possible

44 44 Staph/MRSA Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria commonly carried on skin or in the nose of healthy people Cause skin infections – minor: pimples or boils – major: serious infections such as surgical wound and bloodstream infections and pneumonia Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is antibiotic-resistant

45 45 keep the change house as orderly as possible; disinfect frequently

46 46 proper hygiene is key to the prevention of illnesses

47 47 Applicable Standards 1910.95 Occupational Noise Exposure 1910 Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances 1926.52 Occupational Noise Exposure 1926 Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances

48 48 Your Employer is Responsible For Managing the HazCom program and training employees Provide the appropriate PPE necessary to protect against chemical, physical, and biological health hazards Providing a system to control or warn against an H 2 S release

49 49 You Are Responsible For Reading the label or SDS or asking your supervisor if you are unsure of the hazard Wearing appropriate PPE when necessary to protect against chemical, physical, and biological health hazards Taking the steps necessary to prevent heat- or cold-stress Practicing proper hygiene to prevent the spread of infections

50 50 Case Study A 46-year-old was changing a gas-flow measuring device where high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) was present. When the worker failed to check in at 5pm, a co- worker was sent to check on him, he found that the hydrogen sulfide alarm system in the area had been set off and the worker lying dead.

51 51 Always Remember Ensure containers are properly labeled If you are not sure about a chemical, read the SDS Wear the appropriate respirator when welding, mixing chemicals, or in dusty environments Wear hearing protection were required Practice universal precautions around blood, OPIM, needles, razor blades

52 52 Memory Check 1.What are the 4 routes of entry of chemicals into the body? a.ears, eyes, nose, and mouth b.nose, mouth, eyes, and skin c.swallowing, inhaling, smoking, and drinking d.inhalation, absorption, ingestion, and injection

53 53 Memory Check 2.What information can be found on an SDS? a.signs/symptoms of exposure b.protective equipment to wear c.first-aid measures d.all of the above

54 54 Memory Check 3.An SDS an acronym for Safety Data Sheet b.should be on file for hazardous chemicals used, stored, and produced on site c.provides information for handling and storing chemicals d.all of the above

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