# “A structural analysis review” Lecture 6 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

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“A structural analysis review” Lecture 6 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

Prefered terms by experts 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

Typology of Code-switching Equivalence constraint Free morpheme constraint Shana Poplack (1980) 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

“Equivalence Constraint (EC)”  Code-switches tend to occur at points where the juxtaposition of L1 and L2 items does not ‘violate a syntactic rule of either language’ Apa yang dia claim? what does he claim?  The Equivalence Constraint claims that there is linear order and structural hierarchy in code-switched utterances. No problem, ke mana dia pergi. No problem, where does she go 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

Free Morpheme Constraint (FMC)  The Free Morpheme Constraint proposes that code-switches will not occur within a word such as between two affixes, and a stem and an affix. * saya yang meng-organize-kan ini  - siapa yang meng-order buku ini ?  - ada yang ber-honeymoon di pulau itu  08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

FMC  The Free Morpheme Constraint suggests that switching is possible anywhere except between a bound morpheme and a stem - dia kelihatan ill-feel - biasanya hari minggu adiknya off - You kelihatan loyo, take a rest saja hari ini 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

Typology of Code-mixing InsertionAlternation Congruent Lexicalization Pieter Muysken (2000) 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

“Insertional CM”  Structural characteristics of insertions proposed by Muysken (2000) are that they are usually single, content words (such as nouns and adjectives)  The word order of the sentence displays a nested a b a structure. This means that the elements preceding and following the insertion are grammatically related. 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

A B A … a … … b … … a …  Amir sudah dua step ketinggalan di belakang  Tak banyak anggota yang posting tulisan “Example of Insertion CM” A = L1 B = L2 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

 Alternation occurs when several constituents are mixed in a sequence. Discourse particles and adverbs are analyzed as alternations.  Alternation is observed to display a non- nested A...B...A structure, which means that the elements preceding and following the ‘switched string’ are not ‘structurally’ related.  In alternation, a sentence begins with language A and ends in language B or the way round. “Alternational CM” 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

ABAB … a … … b …  For you know, kami selalu konsisten.  Jangan sampai terlambat, Okay?  Apapun tindakannya, it must be crime. “Example of Alternation CM” 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

“Congruent Lexicalization”  Considerable contact between typologically not-so-distant language pairs may lead to ‘congruent lexicalization’ (CL).  The theory of CL characterizes the convergence of two grammatical systems into one that can take place.  In CL, the grammar of the sentence is shared either fully or in part by the two languages. 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

A / B …a… …b… …a… …b… Bahasa has no CL with English because both are not a language in one family.. This may happen for a non-distant language pairs. “Example of CL” 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

Conclusion  Poplack proposed two constraints of Code-switching: free morpheme constraint and equivalent constraint.  Muysken proposed three types of Code- mixing: Insertion, Alternation, and Congruent Lexicalization. 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

Thank you 08 April 2013By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.

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