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PENCEMARAN UDARA DAN SAMPLING POLUTAN UDARA Oleh Sudrajat Program S-2 Ilmu Lingkungan UNMUL Samarinda 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "PENCEMARAN UDARA DAN SAMPLING POLUTAN UDARA Oleh Sudrajat Program S-2 Ilmu Lingkungan UNMUL Samarinda 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 PENCEMARAN UDARA DAN SAMPLING POLUTAN UDARA Oleh Sudrajat Program S-2 Ilmu Lingkungan UNMUL Samarinda 2010

2 Contaminants are : 1.Products or substances other than product manufactured 2.Foreign products 3.Particulate matter 4.Micro-organisms 5.Endotoxins (degraded micro-organisms) Cross-contamination is a particular case of contamination  What are Contaminants ?

3 Particle sizes Airborne Contaminants

4 Bioaerosol Sampling Analysis by non-culture-based methods (e.g. spore trap, Air-O-Cell™ cassette) – Identification and quantitation of (non- viable) particulate matter, including fungal spores, hyphae, etc. – Predominant individual genera and / or species identified relative rank or relative prevalence indoor / outdoor ratio

5 The BioCassette TM

6 Types of Biological Samples

7 Gambar Fungi mikroskopis Stachybotrys

8 Sumber-sumber & Penyebab kualitas udara yg buruk Kimiawi Biologis Fisika Psikososial

9 Sumber-sumber Biologis Pollen Mold / Fungus Bacteria Viruses By-products of microbes Epithelial cells – Pet dander – Human skin particles Dust mites Insects (& insect parts) – Roaches

10 Sumber biologis Air pada Pipa / daerah gelap dan lembab – Humidity / microbial growth / trigger illness & allergies – Humidity / dust mite growth  causes asthma / allergies

11 Sterile Swabs

12 Types of Biological Samples Air Viable or “Culture-based” – Employs the use of an Andersen (or similar) sampler – Results usually reported as “colony forming units per cubic meter of air” (CFU/m 3 ) Non-viable or “Non-culture-based” – Employs the use of a spore trap sampler – Results usually reported as “particles per cubic meter of air” (particles/m 3 )

13 Bioaerosol Sampling Fungi and bacteria by impactor / culture plate methods (i.e. Andersen sampler) – Requires sanitary handling – 28.3 Liters (1 cubic foot) per minute – Predominant individual genera and / or species identified Relative prevalence Indoor / outdoor ratio

14 Types of Biological Samples

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16 Where Do Contaminants Come From? Outside air carries dust which is a contaminant People generate contaminants:  We completely shed our outer skin every 24 hrs.  Particles of 0,3 micron & greater are liberated at a rate varying between of to 10 million per minute  A person walking will liberate 5000 bacteria/minute and a single sneeze can produce up to 1 million bacteria. The manufacturing process itself can generate contaminants eg paint off equipment, dust from belt drives, etc 

17 Cross-contamination (1) Contamination Contaminants from Environment & Operators Contaminants from Equipment Cross Contamination Product from Environment & Operators Product from Equipment

18 Cross-Contamination (2) Cross-contamination can be minimized by 1.Personnel procedures 2.Adequate premises 3.Use of closed production systems 4.Adequate, validated cleaning procedures 5.Appropriate Levels of Protection of product 6.Correct air pressure cascade 

19 Why All the Concern About Dust? Typical size relationship between dust, bacteria and viruses Virus (0,006µm to 0,03µm) Dust Particle (0,5µm to 500µm) Bacteria (0,2µm to 2µm) Dust Is a Bacteria Carrier


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