Presentation on theme: "Enquiry Question 5: Why was one battle so important?"— Presentation transcript:
Enquiry Question 5: Why was one battle so important?
What do all these things have in common? The Grenadier Guards were given bearskin hats to celebrate their victory over Napoleon’s Guards at Waterloo Waterloo station! Named after the famous victory in 1815 A Wellington boot – it got its nickname from the Duke who wore something similar at Waterloo.
What sort of impacts might a battle like Waterloo have?
“Not only was Waterloo a crucial event in European political and social history but it was also one of the most decisive battles in military history, bringing to an end one of the longest and most costly wars in history and bringing to his knees one of the greatest military commanders that has ever commanded an army on the battlefield, Napoleon Bonaparte.” According to Ian Fletcher, why was Waterloo so important
Waterloo allowed a peace to be agreed that changed the face of Europe: The Congress of Vienna, 1815 Task: 1)Read your national cards carefully, discuss what your priorities will be. What will you concede on? What will you demand? 2)Get into your congress groups and decide the future of Europe!
Great Britain: (Lord Castlereagh) You alone have stood firm against France for 23 years. Your Navy is now the strongest in the world, and although you have a small army you have been victorious in all you land wars, not least at Waterloo. This makes you a major player in discussions. Above all you want peace,and that means making sure there is a ‘balance of power’ in Europe – no one country should be allowed to be too powerful. You are not interested in gaining territory in Europe, but will seek to gain colonies and islands around the world to build your empire and as naval bases. France needs to be ruled by someone who will prevent Revolution. Prussia: (King Frederick William III) You are great nation, but not yet as great as the other powers of Europe. You suffered a major defeat by Napoleon in 1806 but have recovered well. Indeed, you can claim some credit for the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo. Your main concern is territory – you are the biggest German nation and need to remain so. Gain as much as you can and try and stop Austria, your rival, from regaining her previous position of power France needs to be ruled by someone who will prevent Revolution. Austria: (Count Metternich) You were once a great power, but suffered many defeats at the hands of Napoleon. The fact that you have only played a minor role in defeating him means you might have to give in on some issues. You will always try to support Russia rather than Prussia – you are worried that they are getting too strong and will take control of the German states/countries. You are keen to take control of Italy, and could trade territories in Germany in exchange for this. France needs to be ruled by someone who will prevent Revolution. Russia: (Tsar Alexander I) You are in a strong position to gain much. Your armies were key in defeating Napoleon in 1814, and they swept across Europe to help capture Paris in 1814. Your army is nearly 1million men strong! You are most interested in gaining European territory that will expand your empire, for example in Poland. Also, try and get anywhere that has a coast or port – your country doesn’t have many! People hope you will act honestly in the interests of Europe as a whole – play this role but get as much as you can out of it! France needs to be ruled by someone who will prevent Revolution.
Congress of Vienna, 1815 See map for details. In your groups you need to decide... 1.Who rules France? (Options could include: The old King, Louis XVIII? Napoleon? Napoleon’s wife and son? Make France a republic?) 2.What should happen to France’s colonies and small islands around the world and those captured during the wars? 3. What should happen to Holland and Belgium ? – both had been taken over by France. 4.What should happen to Finland? 5.What should happen to Bessarabia? 6.What should happen to the Grand Ducky of Warsaw (Poland)? 7.What should happen to Saxony (a German state)? 8. Who should look after the group of tiny German countries in the centre of Europe? 9.Who should control most of Italy?
Great BritainRussiaPrussiaAustria What really happened at Vienna in 1815? (Keep a tally of decisions that please each country) 1) Louis XVIII was returned to rule France. No more revolutions while he’s in charge! 2) Most of the overseas territories are taken or sorted out by Britain. No one else is really interested but Britain gains some vital ports and trading centres. 3) Holland and Belgium are created in the ‘Kingdom of the Netherlands’. This is an independent country that will help contain France. (It also stops the rivers Rhine and Scheldt from being used by France to launch invasions of Britain!) 4) Finland is given to Russia. 5) Bessarabia is given to Russia 6) The Grand Duchy of Warsaw (Poland) is mostly given to Russia. As a compromise some is also given to Prussia. 7) Saxony is mostly given to Prussia 8) The tiny German States were grouped together into the ‘German Confederation’ – this was looked after by Austria. This would stop France expanding in this direction in future. 9) Much of Northern Italy was given to Austria. This would stop the French expanding in this direction in future.
How do your decisions compare to the real thing? 1)How similar was it to your decisions? 2)Who gained most – why? 3)Who lost out?
Rank these in order of importance: A Waterloo saw the border of Europe redrawn. It helped create future competition (nationalism) between nations. B Waterloo allowed Louis XVIII to be made king of the French again. He and his brother were unpopular and this led to Revolution in 1830. C Waterloo ended 23 years of war. Until WWI the wars with France were known as the ‘Great War’. Peace lasted for nearly 50 years and there was not another world wide war for nearly 100 years. Can you justify your opinion?
Look at your character cards – how did the battle affect you? When we commemorate, what do you think is more important – the experience of individuals or the impacts on nations?
TASK: In no more than 200 words, write a letter to “Waterloo200” (the organisation in charge of marking the official anniversary) explaining the reasons why you think the 200 th Anniversary of the battle should be commemorated.
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