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Chapter 7 Nomenclature CHM130 GCC. Nomenclature We will be presenting this chapter a bit different than the text book does. The information is the same,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Nomenclature CHM130 GCC. Nomenclature We will be presenting this chapter a bit different than the text book does. The information is the same,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Nomenclature CHM130 GCC

2 Nomenclature We will be presenting this chapter a bit different than the text book does. The information is the same, so reading the text is still a good idea. But take an especially careful look at the online notes for this chapter. Good luck!

3 Terms Ionic compound = metal + nonmetals Covalent compound = nonmetals only, (aka molecular) Monoatomic ion = one atom w/charge –Na +, Cl -, Ca 2+ Polyatomic ion = two or more atoms w/charge (listed on your Periodic Table – become familiar with them) –PO 4 3-, OH -, CO 3 2-

4 Element Names Know the names for elements 1-20 AND –Barium BaSilver Ag –Cobalt CoGold Au –Iodine IZinc Zn –Copper CuTin Sn –Iron FeStrontium Sr –Lead PbNickel Ni –Mercury HgBromine Br

5 Ionic Compounds We will begin by learning formulas and names for ionic compounds Remember that ionic compounds are made of ions, and ions have a charge The sum of the charges must = zero

6 Oxidation States Is a fancy name for charge All elements have a charge of zero when they are alone (elemental state) Elements have a charge when they have lost or gained electrons –Some elements have a fixed charge – only one possibility –Other elements have variable charge – several possibilities

7 Cations Metals lose electrons to be cations (+) Charges (learn these) –Column IA is always +1 (alkali metals) –Column IIA is always +2 (alkaline earth metals) –Column IIIA is often +3 (Al always) –Zn and Cd always +2 –Silver always +1 –Other metals can vary from +1 to +9 so use Roman Numeral to tell the difference like Cu +2 is copper(II), Fe +3 is iron(III), Pb +4 is lead(IV)

8 Anions Nonmetals gain electrons to be anions (-) Charges (learn these) –Column 5 is –3 usually –Column 6 is –2 usually –Column 7 is –1 usually (F always) –Column 8 is 0 Why??? Noble gases are already happy with 8 outer valence electrons (He has 2) so don’t need to form bonds – they don’t want to gain or lose electrons!!!

9 7.3 Polyatomic Ions Check out information on your periodic table Keep these atoms together as a group, think of them as a group, a single entity

10 Formulas of Ionic Compounds Compounds MUST be neutral Need enough cations and anions to = zero Combine Na and N: Na is +1 and N is –3 so need three Na’s for one N so Na 3 N is the formula What is the formula? –Na and S –Mg and O –K and Br –Ca and N –Al and Cl –Zn and I –Cu(II) and O Na 2 S MgO KBr Ca 3 N 2 AlCl 3 ZnI 2 CuO

11 Formulas with Polyatomic Ions What is the Formula? –Mg and OH - –K and PO 4 3- –Ag and SO 4 2- –Ca and NO 3 - –Cu(II) and CO 3 2- –Pb(IV) and O Mg(OH) 2 K 3 PO 4 Ag 2 SO 4 Ca(NO 3 ) 2 CuCO 3 PbO 2

12 Naming Ionic Compounds Now that you can write ionic compound formulas, we need to learn their names The name depends on whether the metal has a fixed or variable charge For a fixed charge metal, like Na, we KNOW the charge so don’t use Roman numerals For a variable charge metal, like Cu, we don’t know the charge so we do use Roman numerals Check it out…

13 Fixed charge metal ionic compound Metal name + nonmetal + “ide” –NaCl sodium chloride What is the name? –KBr –MgO –CaF 2 –Li 2 S –AgCl –Note the ionic name does NOT indicate how many atoms there are Potassium bromide Magnesium oxide Calcium fluoride Lithium sulfide Silver Chloride

14 Names with Polyatomic Ions Do NOT change the polyatomic ion name –NaNO 3 sodium nitrate What is the name? –K 3 PO 4 –Ca(OH) 2 –ZnSO 4 Potassium phosphate Calcium hydroxide Zinc sulfate

15 Variable charge Metal Ionic Compound Metal name (Roman #) + nonmetal + “ide” YOU must figure out charge on Trans metal –CuCl 2 copper(II) chloride (Cu must be +2 since Cl is –1 and there are two of them) What is the name? –PbO 2 –FeBr 3 –CoSO 4 –HgNO 3 –CoN Lead(IV) oxide Iron(III) bromide Cobalt(II) sulfate Mercury(I) nitrate Cobalt(III) nitride

16 YOU must figure out the formula AND the name for ionic compounds. Name only for covalent compounds (Why? They don’t have ions so you can’t add to zero) Example: K and O –You figure out formula: –You figure out name: K 2 O Potassium oxide

17 Covalent / Molecular Compounds Compounds with only nonmetals These are NOT ions, so no charges Use prefixes –mono-penta –di-hexa –tri-hepta –tetra-octa Prefix + nonmetal name + prefix + 2 nd nonmetal name + “ide” Don’t use mono for the 1 st nonmetal

18 Examples CO 2 is carbon dioxide What is the name? CO P 2 O 5 PF 3 IF 7 Carbon monoxide Diphosphorus pentoxide Phosphorus trifluoride Iodine heptafluoride

19 Given the formula, write the name and vice versa Br 3 O 8 P 4 S 7 SO 3 Iodine hexafluoride Dichlorine pentaoxide P 2 I 4 Tribromine octaoxide Tetraphosphorus heptasulfide Sulfur trioxide IF 6 Cl 2 O 5 Diphosphorus tetraiodide

20 Reminders Prefixes are ONLY with covalent compounds Roman Numerals are ONLY with variable charged metal compounds Polyatomic ions NEVER change their name

21 Acids Compounds that lower pH in water Have H + ions in them Dissolved in water = (aq) You should memorize these 6 acids –HCl(aq) hydrochloric acid –HF(aq) hydrofluoric acid –H 2 SO 4 (aq) sulfuric acid –H 3 PO 4 (aq) phosphoric acid –HNO 3 (aq) nitric acid –H 2 CO 3 (aq) carbonic acid

22 What the heck is (aq)?

23 Write the formula or name for each – you have 3 minutes! BaCl 2 NO 2 Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Diiodine tetraoxide Silver sulfate Nickel(III) sulfide Barium chloride Nitrogen dioxide Iron(II) phosphate I 2 O 4 Ag 2 SO 4 Ni 2 S 3

24 Do the chapter 7 worksheet posted on this practice problems web page Seriously – JUST DO IT Self Test Page 196 Try 4, 6, 9, 11 Answers in Appendix J


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