Presentation on theme: "1 The Statement of Cash Flows. 2 Sebagus apakah laporan arus kas itu ? Apakah sebuah laporan arus kas menceritakan hal yg belum diketahui dari neraca."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Statement of Cash Flows
2 Sebagus apakah laporan arus kas itu ? Apakah sebuah laporan arus kas menceritakan hal yg belum diketahui dari neraca dan laporan rugi laba ?
3 What Good Is a Cash Flow Statement? Ya karena ada situasi dimana laba tidak dapat memberikan gambaran yg jelas atas kinerja perusahaan ?
4 What Good Is a Cash Flow Statement? Begitu juga hal-hal lain yg berhubungan dengan laporan keuangan akan ada di laporan arus kas Sehingga laporan arus kas menjadi instrumen penting dalam penilain laba Laporan arus kas menjelaskan perubahan pada kas atau setara kas dalam periode tertentu
5 Structure of the Cash Flow Statement Apakah maksud setara kas ? Investasi jangka pendek yg sangat likuid. Dapat segera ditukar dengan kas ketika diperlukan dan sangat dekat dengan masa jatuh temponya sehingga kecil resiko terjadinya perubahan nilai akibat perubahan tingkat suku bunga
6 CASH INFLOWS Cash Inflows Operating Activities Investing Activities Financing Activities Structure of the Cash Flow Statement
7 Aktivitas operasi—Transaksi-transaksi dan kejadian-kejadian yg akan menentukan laba bersih. Activitas Investasi—Transactions and events that involve the purchase and sale of securities, property, plant, equipment, and other assets not generally held for resale, and serta memberi dan menagih pinjaman Financing Activities—Transactions and events dimana kas diperoleh dan dibayarkan kembali kepada pemilik dan kreditor. Cash Flow Patterns
8 Pola Arus Kas Over the Life of a Company Start-up, High-Growth Company/PT baru yang sedang tumbuh pesat Financing Investing Operating
9 Cash Flow Patterns Over the Life of a Company Steady-State Company/PT yg sedang mempertahan kan posisi Operating Investing Financing Dividends
10 Cash Flow Patterns Over the Life of a Company Cash Cow/PT yg sudah Mapan Operating Investing Financing Dividends Share Repurchases Loan Repayment
11 Noncash Transactions Investing and financing activities that do not affect cash. Significant transactions should be disclosed separately. These transactions do not affect the statement of cash flows.
12 Reporting Cash Flows from Operations Direct Method—A method of reporting net cash flows from operations that shows cash receipts and payments for a period of time. This method is more straight forward. Indirect Method—A method of reporting net cash flow from operations that involves reconciling net income to a cash basis. It shows how noncash flows affect net income.
13 The Direct Method This method reports directly the major classes of operating cash receipts and payments of an entity during a period. Accrual-basis revenues and expenses must be converted to equivalent cash receipts and payments. The amount of cash actually collected or paid is determined.
14 Indirect Method Adjustments for receivables and other current operating assets. Adjustments for payables and other current liabilities. Adjustments for depreciation and other noncash items. Adjustments for gains and losses. The indirect method makes the following adjustments:
16 Relationship Between Net Income and Operating Cash Flow Business dalam aktivitas operasi Laba bersih Gunakan aturan akuntansi akrual Hilangkan akrual untuk mendapatkan arus kas Kas diterima dan dikeluarkan Arus kas operasi
17 Sales and Cash Collected from Customers: Beginning accounts receivable$ 40 +Sales 150 =Cash available for collection$190 –Ending accounts receivable 60 =Cash Collected from Customers $130 Example of Operating Activities Section for the Direct Method
18 Cost of Goods Sold and Cash Paid for Inventory: Ending inventory$ 75 +Cost of goods sold80 =Required inventory$155 –Beginning inventory100 =Cash paid for inventory this year$ 55 Example of Operating Activities Section for the Direct Method
19 Wages Expense and Cash Paid for Wages: Beginning wages payable$ 7 +Wages expense25 =Total obligation to employee$32 –Ending wages payable10 =Cash paid for wages$22 Example of Operating Activities Section for the Direct Method
20 Adjustments for Gains and Losses Gains or losses do not represent the cash effect of the transaction. Adjustment to Account Net Income Losses Gains These adjustments are made to net income since the sale of an investment is an investing activity, not an operating activity.
21 Adjustments for Receivables Changes in accounts directly affect revenues recorded on an accrual basis. AccountAdjustment to AccountChange Net Income Accounts Receivable Inventory
22 Adjustments for Payables Changes in liabilities mean the reverse of changes in current operating asset accounts. AccountAdjustment to AccountChange Net Income Accounts Payable Wages Payable
23 Noncash Adjustments Depreciation and similar noncash items do not affect cash and are not reported on the statement of cash flows. Any noncash item that reduces net income should be added back to net income in the indirect method. Any noncash item that increases net income should be subtracted from net income in the indirect method.
24 Investing Activities Cash Inflow Sale of plant assets Sale of securities, other than trading securities Collection of principal on loans Cash Inflow Sale of plant assets Sale of securities, other than trading securities Collection of principal on loans Cash Outflow Purchase of plant assets Purchase of securities, other than trading securities Making of loans with other entities Cash Outflow Purchase of plant assets Purchase of securities, other than trading securities Making of loans with other entities
25 Financing Activities Cash Inflow Issuance of own stock Borrowings Cash Inflow Issuance of own stock Borrowings Cash Outflow Dividend paymentsDividend payments Repaying principal on borrowingRepaying principal on borrowing Treasury Stock purchaseTreasury Stock purchase Cash Outflow Dividend paymentsDividend payments Repaying principal on borrowingRepaying principal on borrowing Treasury Stock purchaseTreasury Stock purchase
26 Differences between Income and Cash from Operations Cash from Net Cash from Net Company Name Operations Income Difference Company Name Operations Income Difference General Motors$19,750$ 4,452$(15,298) Lehman Brothers(14,733)1,77516,508 Ford Motors33,7643,467(30,297) Citigroup2,67313,51910,846 SOURCE: Standard and Poor COMPUTSTAT Year 2000 (All amounts are in millions)
27 General Format of a Statement of Cash Flows Cash Provided by (Used for): Operating Activities$XXX Investing Activities XXX Financing Activities XXX Net Increase (Decrease) in Cash$XXX Cash—Beginning of Year XXX Cash—End of Year$XXX
28 Preparing a Cash Flow Statement 1.Compute how much the cash balance changed during the year. 2.Convert the income statement from an accrual-basis to a cash-basis summary of operations. a. Eliminate expenses that do not involve the outflow of cash, such as depreciation. b.Eliminate gains and losses associated with investing or financing activities. c.Adjust for changes in the balances of current assets and current liabilities.
29 3.Analyze the long-term assets to identify the cash flow effects of investing activities. 4.Analyze the long-term debt and stockholders’ equity account to determine the cash flow effects of any financing transactions. 5.Make sure that the total new cash flow from operating, investing, and financing activities is equal to the net increase or decrease in cash as computed in Step 1, then prepare a formal statement. 6.Prepare supplement disclosure of significant noncash transactions. Preparing a Cash Flow Statement
30 Example: Comparative Balance Sheet Accounts Payable Long-term Notes Payable Common Stock Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Equity Assets Cash and Cash Equivalents Accounts Receivable Inventory Equipment Accumulated Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities and Equity $ (72) $560 $ $560 $ (60) $470 $ $470
31 Income Statement, 2005 Sales Expenses: Cost of goods sold Selling and general expense Depreciation Interest expense Operating income Gain from sale of equipment Income before income taxes Income tax expense Net income $345 $ (200) $145 5 $ $110
32 Cash $ 40 Cash Change in Cash $ 42 Determine change in cash and cash equivalents: Step 1
33 Convert from an accrual-basis to a cash- basis summary of operations: Step 2 EXAMPLE: Eliminate depreciation expense, $44, because it does not require the use of cash. Cash provided by operations44 Accumulated Depreciation44 (t-account or work sheet entry)
34 Convert from an accrual-basis to a cash- basis summary of operations: Step 2 EXAMPLE: Eliminate the $5 gain from selling equipment. Cash33 Accumulated Depreciation32 Equipment60 Gain on Sale of Equipment5 Add back $5 to cash provided by operations.
35 Analyze the long-term assets to identify the ash flow effects of investing activities. Step 3 Expenditures for Property, Plant, and Equipment: Beginning equipment$140 –Equipment sold during the year 60 =80 –Ending equipment 200 =Expenditures for equipment during year $ 120
36 Analyze the long-term debt and stockholders’ equity accounts to determine the cash flow effects of any financing transactions: Step 4 Expenditures for Long-Term Debt: Beginning L-T Notes Payable balance$ 50 –Notes reacquired during the year 0 =50 –Ending L-T Notes Payable balance 100 =L-T Notes Payable issued during year50
37 Analyze the long-term debt and stockholders’ equity accounts to determine the cash flow effects of any financing transactions: Step 4 Payment of Dividends: Beginning Retained Earnings balance$ 90 +Net income110 =200 –Ending Retained Earnings balance 110 =Dividends paid90
38 Steps 5 and 6 Steps 5 and 6 relate to actually preparing the formal and supplementary statements.
39 Cash Flows from Operating Activities: Net income$110 Adjustments: Depreciation expense 44 Gain on sale of equipment (5) Increase in accounts receivable (30) Decrease in inventory 30 Increase in accounts payable 20 Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities$169 Operating Activities Section: Indirect MethodContinuedContinued
Cash Flows from Operating Activities: Cash Collected from Customers$414 Cash Payments for: Inventory (155) Selling & General Expenses (58) Interest (2) Income Taxes (30) (245) Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities$169 Operating Activities Section: Direct MethodContinuedContinued 43
41 The investing and financing sections are the same whether the direct or indirect approach is used. Operating Activities Section: Direct Method
42 Investing and Financing Activities Sections Cash Flows from Investing Activities: Proceeds from sale of equipment$ 33 Purchase of equipment(120) Net cash provided by investing activities(87) Cash Flows from Financing Activities: Issuance of long-term notes payable50 Payment of cash dividends(90) Net cash used for financing activities(40) Net increase in cash42 Cash, January 1, Cash, December 31,
43 Investing and Financing Activities Sections Cash Flows from Investing Activities: Proceeds from sale of equipment$ 33 Purchase of equipment(120) Net cash provided by investing activities(87) Cash Flows from Financing Activities: Issuance of long-term notes payable50 Payment of cash dividends(90) Net cash used for financing activities(40) Net increase in cash42 Cash, January 1, Cash, December 31,
44 Assessing Financial Strength Financial strength is a function of— Liquidity Profitability Growth potential Risk
45 Assessing Financial Strength Cash flow-to-net income Cash from operations Net income oMeasure of earnings quality oTends to be greater than 1 oShould remain fairly stable for the years for a specific company
46 Assessing Financial Strength Cash flow adequacy Cash from operations Net income oMeasures relationship between investment spending and cash generated by operations oIndicate a company’s attitude towards reinvestment in long-lived production assets oWhen ratio is small it indicates that cash flows from operations fall short of funding growth
47 Assessing Financial Strength Cash times interest earned Cash from operations + Interest paid + Taxes paid Interest expense oMeasures ability to service debt oGenerally, a higher ratio indicates more solvency
48 Forecasted Statement of Cash Flows Six Steps 1.Compute the change in cash. 2.Convert the income statement from an accrual to cash basis. 3.Analyze the long-term asset accounts. 4.Analyze the long-term debt and stockholders’ equity. 5.Prepare the forecasted statement of cash flows. 6.Disclose noncash activities.