Presentation on theme: "1 NREGS and E xperiences so far by PRIA An International Centre for Learning and Promotion of Participation and Democratic Governance. Flat No: 301, Diamond."— Presentation transcript:
1 NREGS and E xperiences so far by PRIA An International Centre for Learning and Promotion of Participation and Democratic Governance. Flat No: 301, Diamond View Apts., East Maredpally, Secunderabad- 500026, 91-40-27733535, Email: email@example.com
16/11/062 The context The concern with rural livelihood promotion is to be understood as a manifestation of our concern with rural poverty empowerment and social security. Between 1993-94 and 1999-2000, average number of days of employment has declined. The unemployment rate has increased from 5.2 % to 7.2% The decline was much sharper in wage employment and more so among women workers This state has been further aggravated by slow growth in agriculture
16/11/063 Lack of rural employment has also attributed imbalance in social facet of the rural area. Rural migration has increased tremendously. There are instances where migration of family members has caused social and psychological stress. This has led to increase in women’s economic burden in the household.
16/11/064 NREGP is an Opportunity NREGP is an opportunity for rural India because it guarantees one of the crucial rights, right to work envisaged in the Article 41 of the Indian Constitution. Panchayats are having central (Principal authority) role in the implementation and monitoring of the Schemes under NREGA. If employment is provided to the deserving households, and if wages are paid fully & timely, then it can have a major impact in reducing hunger, and poverty.
16/11/065 When local assets are built up around water conservation and land improvements, it will have a major impact on livelihood and drought over a period of time. The capacities of Gram Sabha and Panchayats would have been enhanced to function effectively as institutions of local self-governance. Their credibility in the eyes of the people, as well as state government, would be significantly enhanced.
16/11/066 What NREGP offers? Every State Government shall make a scheme, within 6 months from the date on commencement of this Act, The wage rate will not be less than sixty rupees a day. S/he shall be entitled to a daily Unemployment allowance if not Provided with in 15 days. PRIs are responsible for planning and implementation. The Gram Sabha shall conduct regular social audits within the Gram Panchayat. Establishment of Grievance Redressal Mechanisms at appropriate levels to address issues.
16/11/067 Cont… Central and State Governments shall establish national Employment Guarantee Fund and State Employment Guarantee Fund respectively. All payments of wages in cash and unemployment allowances shall be made directly to the person concerned and in the presence of independent persons of the community on pre- announced dates. The Scheme shall not permit engaging any contractor for implementation of the projects under it.
16/11/068 Experiences So Far State Operational Guidelines/ Schemes States Like Uttaranchal, Haryana and Rajasthan and Few Other are yet to prepare and notify such schemes. Haryana, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Kerala have not issued state specific operational guidelines so far.
16/11/069 Preferred Works Most of the state specific schemes have listed 8 works mentioned in NREGA. Andhra Pradesh has identified investing on SC/ST lands for irrigation and land development to be given priority. According to APREGS up to 20% of the value of works taken up in Village shall be on plantation programme and roads can be taken up as last priority not exceeding 10% of the value of all types of works taken up.
16/11/0610 Registration and Job Cards M P REGS and Chattisgarh REGS suggest use of BPL survey for the registration of household and issuing job cards under NREGS. Rajasthan’s Guidelines mention that application for registration has to be given as head of the household Low public awareness about 100 days Employment Guarantee Scheme. Information pertaining to entitlements, procedures were shared only in 30% of Gram Sabhas.
16/11/0611 Cont… Rejection of application for registration In Jharkhand, out of 1755005 as much as 138963 applications for registrations have been rejected This amounts to 7.92%, Discrimination Incidences of discrimination on the basis of caste, community, disability and proximity to Sarpanch, Panchayat Secretary and Officials have been noticed. BPL families were given preference over others Women were discouraged to get registered. Aged and physically challenged persons were not provided registration forms in some places.
16/11/0612 Schedule of Rates Experience from several states so far shows that DSR has not been prepared/revised and tasks preferred under the NREGS for earning the minimum wage is difficult to perform and hidden portions of work is not taken into account. Thus average wage earned is less than the minimum wage prevailing in the state.
16/11/0613 Employment and Unemployment Allowance Chattisgarh REGS says that while counting guarantee of 100 days employment provided under other schemes in the State should also be counted. Chattisgarh REGS also mentions that from 15 th of June to 15 th October it will not be binding upon the state to provide unemployment allowance if employment cannot be provided. M P REGS says that state administration is not bound to pay unemployment allowance in case of natural disaster such as excessive rain, flood, riot etc.
16/11/0614 Control over PRIs In M P REGS and Chattisgarh REGS Circle Officer (Tahsildar) and Deputy Circle Officer (Nayab Tahsildar) have been given power to decide over an appeal against the decision of Sarpanch on objections against entries in a Job Card. In most of the states District Collector has been made District Programme Coordinator.
16/11/0615 Administrative and Financial Support Rajasthan keeps it 2% of the total expenses, Andhra Pradesh REGS fixes it to be 6% In most of the states such as Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Haryana, Gram Rojgar Sevak have not been appointed. In AP Field Assistant has been appointed. Most of the work is being done by the Panchayat Secretary along with all their other responsibilities.
16/11/0616 Delay in issuing job cards In all most all the districts issue of job cards has been delayed. The reasons cited are shortage of stationery, Lack of manpower, administrative delays. In most Gram Panchayats it was observed that it took above 2 months to get job cards. Irregularities in registration and issuing job cards Incidents of inclusion of minor’s name have been observed persons below 18 years of age have been enrolled with false age in the job card.
16/11/0617 Cont… Respondents indicated that fee (Rs.10-50) is being charged for photographs to be affixed on the job card. In Some Gram Panchayats a time limit for registration process was fixed. For photographs to be affixed on job cards people had to pay charges ranging from Rs.25 to Rs.35.
16/11/0618 Demand for Work Low awareness less on need to apply for Job. Panchayat Secreataries, Sarpanches are not keen to make the people aware of the provision fearing not able to provide employment. Instances in some districts that, applications were taken once the work has been initiated. Misconception that having a job will provide the work. Many card holders are not willing to work due to hard labour and hot weather. There are also incidences of people applying for jobs but want to wait for the unemployment allowance. There have been instances where dated receipts against the application for job are not being given to applicants.
16/11/0619 Planning for Works In most of the states perspective plan for NREGS is in the process of preparation. plans under NFFWP have been taken up for NREGS by sharing it in Gram Sabha. In several states such as Jharkhand, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, external consultants have been engaged to prepare perspective plans. it was found that villagers have no role to play in planning for works, Sarpanch and Panchayat Secretary are planning the works
16/11/0620 Cont… Even ERs, PS are not very clear about perspective and annual plans. People complain that works initiated are not the prioritized works by GP Lack of Technical manpower in the blocks and planning of works initiated at the same time also delayed the planning process due to which technical feasibility of planned works at the GP level could not be prepared.
16/11/0621 Allocation of Works Majority responded that, there is a delay in providing job to the applicants. Many said that, it was informed to them once the work order is received from the block and applications were received once work is initiated. In UP women are being discouraged to work.
16/11/0622 Execution of Works Almost all the Panchayats are unaware of the provision that 50% works are to be implemented through Panchayats. Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishads have very minimal or no role in the implementation of NREGS. Provision of facilities such as shades, drinking water, crèche etc. has largely been ignored. Drinking water is available at some places but dearth of shades is easily noticeable.
16/11/0623 Payment of Wages DSR has not been prepared and modified People do not find justified by Haryana State Schedule of Rates that are applicable for NREGS. Complaints on measurements not taken properly and not immediately after the work is completed. Collective measurement of work is done for payment of wages. In this way every worker gets same amount irrespective of work done. It was found that muster roll contained names of those people who have not attended the work. Payment of wages have been delayed due to problems in opening of accounts in Post offices or banks. In some GPs payments are delayed for more than 15 days in some GPs it is in pending for about two months.
16/11/0624 Capacity of Gram Panchayats Lack of Adequate human resources at the GP level hindering the effective implementation of the programme. Lack of adequate capacities and awareness among the ERs about the scheme. PS are overburdened and it is an additional programme for them. Sarpanch and Panchayat Secretaries are not in favour of the scheme and consider it as burdensome
16/11/0625 Cont… Due to pressure from influential people for payment without work, and want that payment authority should be different from implementation authority. Training of key functionaries and institutions, other than only orientation about the scheme, has not taken place. Panchayat elections have not been held in Jharkhand so far and NREGS is being implemented by dummy Panchayats (created by local authorities).
16/11/0626 Grievance Redressal No registers or formats are maintained at GP or PS level and oral complaints are hardly responded to There is no grievance redressal system being formulated.