Presentation on theme: "Alexander II, the not-so-great reformer. But problems too… 1863-1864: Another Polish Uprising – Suppressed and Polish-Lithuanian territories excluded."— Presentation transcript:
But problems too… 1863-1864: Another Polish Uprising – Suppressed and Polish-Lithuanian territories excluded from reforms 1863: Finnish Diet restored and the Finnish language raised to national language 1867: Ems Ukaz banned publications in Ukrainian, Lithuanian, and Belarussian. Petersburg zemstvo became very assertive and critical. Alexander saw this as too much independence from nobility
“Eastern Crisis,” 1870-78 Oct. 1870: Prince Gorchakov: no more Black Sea neutrality 1873: Russia annexed Khiva 1875-1876: Balkan Christians rose up April 1877: Russia declared war on Ottomans January 1878: Ottomans defeated March 1878: Treaty of San Stefano June-July 1878: Congress of Berlin forced Russia to give up “Greater Bulgaria”
Problems at home: Radicals 1860s-1870s: narodniki: Nostalgic about peasants and the commune. Saw 1861 as replacing nobles with capitalists, destroying “true Russia” and that peasants got a bad deal. 1873-75: Back to the People’s movement (Khozhdenie v narod) Clashed with peasants’ indifference and suspicion 1876: Land and Liberty (Zemlya I volya) Narodnaya Volya (People’s Will)
And assassins First assassination attempt: Dmitry V. Karakozov (1840-1866) Born in minor noble family Studied at Kazan University, 1861- 1864 Moscow University, 1864-1866 Early 1866 joined Ishutin society (cousin Nikolai Ishutin) Tactic: “individualist terror” Issued proclamation: “To Brothers- Workers” 4 April 1866: attempted Osip I. Komissarov (enobled) Karakazov (convicted and hung)
And assassins: Aleksandr Soloviev, 1846-1879 Father was a government official Excellent student: won scholarship to study in St. Petersburg 1865: enrolled in Law Faculty at St. Petersburg University Quit because of lack of money Became a teacher in the provinces Deeply religious ascetic, then disillusioned 1876 joined "Land and Freedom”. 1877-1878: “went to the people” - the peasants of the Volga region. 20 April 1879: fired five shots, missed Alexander Arrested, tried, and hanged (28 May 1879)
And assassins: Narodnaya Volya, 1879-1884 Social revolution impossible without political revolution. Program: – Constituent Assembly – universal suffrage – permanent people’s representation – freedom of speech, press, and assembly – communal self-government – people’s volunteer army – transfer of land to the people – gradual placement of the factories under the control of the workers – granting oppressed peoples of the Russian Empire the right to self- determination Andrey Zheliabov, 1851-1881
And assassins: Narodnaya Volya, 1879-1884 Assassination attempts: – December 1879: Narodnaya volya (People’s Will) blew up some dynamite under Tsar’s railroad, but missed his train. – February 1880: Stephan Khalturin set off a charge under the dining room of the Winter Palace. – late for dinner, the tsar was unharmed; although 11 other people were killed and 30 wounded. – Seven attempts in total – Last successful
1 March 1881 Narodnaya volya’s persistent – Cheeseshop tunnel – Andrey Zheliabov – Sophiya Perovskaya – Rysakov – Grinevitskii – Nikolay Kibalchich (bomb- maker) All major participants sentenced to death.
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