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S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle.

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Presentation on theme: "S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle."— Presentation transcript:

1 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ SAMPLE SLIDES TAKEN RANDOMLY Not in any order ISBN-10: Version 0.9 A Complete Course in Color Power Point Approximately 950 Slides

2 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Power Point for Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices Second Edition ISBN-10: Version 0.9 A Complete Course in Color Power Point Approximately 950 Slides

3 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ This Power Point presentation is a copyrighted supplemental material to the textbook Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles & Practices, Second Edition, S. O. Kasap, Pearson Education (USA), ISBN-10: , ISBN-13: © 2013 Pearson Education. Permission is given to instructors to use these Power Point slides in their lectures provided that the above book has been adopted as a primary required textbook for the course. Slides may be used in research seminars at research meetings, symposia and conferences provided that the author, book title, and copyright information are clearly displayed under each figure. It is unlawful to use the slides for teaching if the textbook is not a required primary book for the course. The slides cannot be distributed in any form whatsoever, especially on the internet, without the written permission of Pearson Education. Copyright Information and Permission: Part I Please report typos and errors directly to the author:

4 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ This Power Point presentation is a copyrighted supplemental material to the textbook Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles & Practices, Second Edition, S. O. Kasap, Pearson Education (USA), ISBN-10: , ISBN-13: © 2013 Pearson Education. The slides cannot be distributed in any form whatsoever, electronically or in print form, without the written permission of Pearson Education. It is unlawful to post these slides, or part of a slide or slides, on the internet. Copyright © 2013, 2001 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Copyright Information and Permission: Part II PEARSON

5 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Important Note You may use color illustrations from this Power Point in your research-related seminars or research-related presentations at scientific or technical meetings, symposia or conferences provided that you fully cite the following reference under each figure From: S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education, USA

6 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Spherical Wave

7 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Two slightly different wavelength waves traveling in the same direction result in a wave packet that has an amplitude variation that travels at the group velocity. Group Velocity

8 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Gaussian Beams I(r,z) = [2P/(  w 2 )]exp(  2r 2 /w 2 )  o  = w/z = /(  w o ) 2  o = Far field divergence The intensity across the beam follows a Gaussian distribution

9 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Power in a Gaussian Beam Fraction of optical power within 2w = Area of a circular thin strip (annulus) with radius r is 2  rdr. Power passing through this strip is proportional to I(r) (2  r)dr and

10 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Fresnel's Equations Light wave traveling in a more dense medium strikes a less dense medium. The plane of incidence is the plane of the paper and is perpendicular to the flat interface between the two media. The electric field is normal to the direction of propagation. It can be resolved into perpendicular and parallel components.

11 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ There are corresponding coefficients for the E // fields with corresponding reflection and transmission coefficients, r // and t //, Fresnel's Equations

12 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Dielectric Mirror or Bragg Reflector Schematic illustration of the principle of the dielectric mirror with many low and high refractive index layers and its reflectance.

13 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Dielectric Mirror or Bragg Reflector

14 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Interference Resultant intensity I is I = I 1 + I 2 + 2(I 1 I 2 ) 1/2 cos   = k(r 2 – r 1 ) + (  2 –  1 ) I max = I 1 + I 2 + 2(I 1 I 2 ) 1/2 and I min = I 1 + I 2  2(I 1 I 2 ) 1/2 If the interfering beams have equal irradiances, then Phase difference due to optical path difference Constructive interferenceDestructive interference I min = 0 I max = 4I 1

15 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Optical Resonator Fabry-Perot Optical Cavity This is a tunable large aperture (80 mm) etalon with two end plates that act as reflectors. The end plates have been machined to be flat to /110. There are three piezoelectric transducers that can tilt the end plates and hence obtain perfect alignment. (Courtesy of Light Machinery)

16 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ  m = m(c/2L) = m  f = Mode frequency m = integer, 1,2,…  f =free spectral range = c/2L = Separation of modes F = Finesse R = Reflectance

17 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ (a) The aperture has a finite width a along y, but it is very long along x so that it is a one-dimensional slit. The aperture is divided into N number of point sources each occupying  y with amplitude proportional to  y since the slit is excited by a plane electromagnetic wave. (b) The intensity distribution in the received light at the screen far away from the aperture: the diffraction pattern. Note that the slit is very long along x and there is no diffraction along this dimension. (c) Diffraction patter obtained by using a laser beam from a pointer incident on a single slit. Diffraction from a Single Slit

18 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Diffraction from a Circular Aperture Diameter of aperture (Image obtained by SK)

19 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ The rectangular aperture of dimensions a × b on the left gives the diffraction pattern on the right. (b is twice a) (Image obtained by SK. Overexposed to highlight the higher order lobes.) Diffraction from a Rectangular Aperture

20 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Single slit with a width 100  m Blue = 402 nm Green = 532 nm Red = 670 nm Why does the central bright lobe get larger with increasing wavelength? Overexposed photo by SK Experimental Diffraction Patterns Answer

21 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Diffraction Grating dsin  = m ; m = 0,  1,  2,  Bragg diffraction condition Normal incidence William Lawrence Bragg ( ), Australian-born British physicist, won the Nobel prize with his father William Henry Bragg for his "famous equation" when he was only 25 years old (Courtesy of SSPL via Getty Images) “The important thing in science is not so much to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of thinking about them.”

22 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Diffraction Gratings dsin  = m ; m = 0,  1,  2,  d(sin  m  sin  i  = m ; m = 0,  1,  2, Bragg diffraction condition Normal incidence Oblique incidence k y = (2  / )sin  Diffraction from N slits Diffraction from a single slit

23 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ (a) Ruled periodic parallel scratches on a glass serve as a transmission grating. (The glass plate is assumed to be very thin.) (b) A reflection grating. An incident light beam results in various "diffracted" beams. The zero-order diffracted beam is the normal reflected beam with an angle of reflection equal to the angle of incidence. Diffraction Gratings

24 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Photonic Crystals Photonic crystals in (a) 1D, (b) 2D and (c) 3D, D being the dimension. Grey and white regions have different refractive indices and may not necessarily be the same size.  is the periodicity. The 1D photonic crystal in (a) is the well- known Bragg reflector, a dielectric stack.

25 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ The photonic bandgaps along x, y and z overlap for all polarizations of the field, which results in a full photonic bandgap . (An intuitive illustration.) (b) The unit cell of a woodpile photonic crystal. There are 4 layers, labeled 1-4 in the figure, with each later having parallel "rods". The layers are at right angles to each other. Notice that layer 3 is shifted with respect to 1, and 4 with respect to 2. (c) An SEM image of a 3D photonic crystal that is based on the wood pile structure. The rods are polycrystalline silicon. Although 5 layers are shown, the unit cell has 4 layers e.g., the fours layers starting from the bottom layer. (Courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories.) (d) The optical reflectance of a woodpile photonic crystal showing a photonic bandgap between 1.5 and 2  m. The photonic crystal is similar to that in (c) with five layers and d 0.65 o  m. (Source: The reflectance spectrum was plotted using the data appearing in Fig. 3 in S-Y. Lin and J.G. Fleming, J. Light Wave Technol., 17, 1944, 1999.) Photonic Crystals

26 S. O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education (Unlawful to distribute or post on the internet without written permission and the payment of copyright fees) S. O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education (Unlawful to distribute or post on the internet without written permission and the payment of copyright fees) Graded Index (GRIN) Fiber (a)Multimode step index fiber. Ray paths are different so that rays arrive at different times. (b)Graded index fiber. Ray paths are different but so are the velocities along the paths so that all the rays arrive at the same time.

27 S. O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education (Unlawful to distribute or post on the internet without written permission and the payment of copyright fees) S. O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education (Unlawful to distribute or post on the internet without written permission and the payment of copyright fees) Intramode Dispersion (SMF) Group Delay  = L / v g Group velocity v g depends on Refractive index = n( ) Material Dispersion V-number = V( ) Waveguide Dispersion  = (n 1  n 2 )/n 1 =  ( ) Profile Dispersion Dispersion in the fundamental mode

28 S. O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education (Unlawful to distribute or post on the internet without written permission and the payment of copyright fees) Photonic Crystal Fibers: Holey Fibers Left: The first solid core photonic crystal fiber prepared by Philip Russell and coworkers at the University of Bath in 1996; an endlessly single mode fiber. (Courtesy of Philip Russell) Left: One of the first hollow core photonic crystal fibers, guiding light by the photonic bandgap effect (1998) (Courtesy of Philip Russell) Above: A commercially available hollow core photonic crystal fiber from Blaze Photonics. (Courtesy of Philip Russell)

29 S. O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition © 2013 Pearson Education (Unlawful to distribute or post on the internet without written permission and the payment of copyright fees) Photonic Crystal Fibers: Holey Fibers (a) A solid core PCF. Light is index guided. The cladding has a hexagonal array of holes. d is the hole diameter and  is the array pitch, spacing between the holes (b) and (c) A hollow core PCF. Light is photonic bandgap (PBG) guided.

30 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ A QW structure that shows the energy levels in the wells and how charge carriers that are brought in by the current fall into the lowest energy level in the well and then recombine, emitting a photon. The electrons at a particular energy level also have kinetic energies in the yz plane, which is not quantized. The electrons are therefore spread in energy above E n as shown. The same notion also applies to holes in the  E v well. Quantum Wells

31 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Level Laser System A four energy level laser system Highly simplified representation of Nd 3+ :YAG laser

32 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Einstein Coefficients R 12 = B 12 N 1  (  ) R 21 = A 21 N 2 + B 21 N 2  (  ) We need A 21, B 12 and B 21 Stimulated emission Spontaneous emission Absorption  dN 1 /dt  dN 2 /dt

33 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers EDFAs (LambdaDriver ® -Optical Amplifier Modules) with low noise figure and flat gain (to within ±1 dB) for use in DWDM over nm. These amplifiers can be used for booster, in-line and preamplifier applications. (Courtesy of MRV Communications, Inc) EDFA (Strand Mounted Optical Amplifier, Prisma 1550) for optical amplification at 1550 nm. This model can be used underground to extend the reach of networks; and operates over -40  C to +65  C. The output can be as high as 24 dBm (Courtesy of Cisco).

34 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ

35 Buried Double Heterostructure A simplified schematic diagram of a double heterostructure semiconductor laser device that has its active region buried within the device in such a way that it is surrounded by low refractive index materials rendering the active region as a waveguide.

36 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ pin Photodiode The responsivity of Si, InGaAs and Ge pin type photodiodes. The pn junction GaP detector is used for UV detection. GaP (Thorlabs, FGAP71), Si(E), IR enhanced Si (Hamamatsu S11499), Si(C), conventional Si with UV enhancement, InGaAs (Hamamatsu, G8376), and Ge (Thorlabs, FDG03). The dashed lines represent the responsivity due to QE = 100 %, 75% and 50 %.

37 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Avalanche Photodiode (a) A Si APD structure without a guard ring. (b) A schematic illustration of the structure of a more practical Si APD

38 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Schottky Junction Photodiodes GaAsP Schottky junction photodiode for nm detection, from UV to red (Courtesy of Hamamatsu) GaP Schottky junction photodiode for 190 nm to 550 nm detection. (Courtesy of Hamamatsu) Schottky kunction type metal- semiconductor-metal (MSM) type photodetectors. (Courtesy of Hamamatsu) AlGaN Scottky junction photodiode for UV detection (Courtesy of sglux, Germany)

39 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Photodiode Equivalent Circuit (a) A real photodiode has series and parallel resistances R s and R p and a SCL capacitance C dep. A and C represent anode and cathode terminals. (b) The equivalent circuit of a photodiodes. For ac (or transient) signals, the battery can be shorted since ac signals will simply pass through the battery.

40 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Randomly polarized light is incident on a Polarizer 1 with a transmission axis TA 1. Light emerging from Polarizer 1 is linearly polarized with E along TA 1, and becomes incident on Polarizer 2 (called the analyzer) with a transmission axis TA 2 at an angle  to TA 1. A detector measures the intensity of the incident light. TA 1 and TA 2 are normal to the light direction. Malus’s Law I(  ) = I(0)cos 2 

41 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ Modulated Directional Coupler An integrated directional coupler. The applied field E a alters the refractive indices of the two guides (A and B) and therefore changes the strength of coupling


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