Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Using Various Types of Literature"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 4 Using Various Types of Literature Growing Up With Literature, 6eBy: Walter E. Sawyer
2History of Children’s Literature Children’s booksPrior to mid-18th centuryAimed to improve moral and spiritual naturesIn 600 A.D., the Old English period, monks and other learned men wrote “lesson books” for children.Folk talesHuman experiencesStorytellersReduce anxieties, fire imagination15th century: hand-copied (English)Aesop’s Fables-Caxton,1484Children’s literature is a relatively new kind of literature.Before 1850, books taught lessons on manners and morals. Early BeginningsIn 600 A.D., the Old English period, monks and other learned men wrote “lesson books” for children. William Caxton was the creator of the first English printer in 1476.His first publication was Aesop’s Fables.
3History of Children’s Literature First important illustrated book for children was written by John Amos Comenius, a bishop of Moravia in 1651.Comenius believed in teaching children by visual means.Orbis Pictus, or Orbis Sensualium Pictus (Visible World in Pictures) is a textbook for children written by Czech educator Comenius and published in 1658. It is something of a children's encyclopedia and is considered to be the first picture book intended for childrenweb.gccaz.edu/.../powerpoint/kiddylit1Sansbookcandy.typepad.com/.../the-history-of-childrens-literature-spring-12Orbis Pictus
4History of Children’s Literature Books based on deep convictionThe Pilgrim’s Progress Bunyan, 1686Intent on saving children’s soulsMost of the literature written during the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries was didactic in nature, such as Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678).
5History of Children’s Literature Chapbooksinexpensive books sold by peddlers (chapmen) that included political and religious tracts.Hornbooksa small paddle with sheets of horn protecting papers used to teach readingThe desire on the part of parents to teach their children the tenets of religion and to prepare their sons to enter the professions meant that literacy became very important.The earliest forms of children’s literature – the chapbook and the hornbook – reflect these desires.With the invention of the printing press in the 15th century, the Bible and other tracts became available to a wider audience.One of the first popular forms of literature was the chapbook, inexpensive books sold by peddlers (chapmen) that included political and religious tracts.Between the 16th and 18th centuries, another form that developed was the hornbook, “a small paddle with sheets of horn protecting papers used to teach reading”Books were too expensive to be used by children, so the Hornbook was created for them about 1550.It was the first “permanent” book. It was a square piece of wood with a handle at one end which measured 2¾ inches by 5 inches.A printed page of vellum (made from skin of calf, lamb, or goat) was pasted on the board
6History of Children’s Literature First publishers (1700s)John NewberyA Little Pretty Pocket-bookJohn Newbery was a writer, publisher, and bookseller of St. Paul’s Church, London.He published a series of books for children.He recognized they had special interests and tried to meet them.Newbery printed chapbooks, cheap little paper editions, which were sold on the streets by chapmen (peddlers).They contained ballads and folktales.The ordinary person could afford to buy these books.In 1744, John Newbery, a London publisher, put forward a book entitled A Little Pretty Pocket-book, “the first book explicitly published to instruct and delight child readers” (CC 995).Notice the emphasis placed upon “Instruction with Delight.”
7History of Children’s Literature In the beginning of the 1800s, children’s literature became more honestly creative.Real literary authors could write for children and not damage their reputations.Charles and Mary LambJane and Ann TaylorCharles and Mary Lamb, brother and sister, wrote to give children pleasure.They worked together (in 1807) to write a children’s version of Shakespeare’s plays.Jane and Ann Taylor wrote poems for children.Kate Greenaway did the illustrations.Jane wrote the famous little poem, “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star.”
8The Golden Age of Children’s Literature Most scholars identify the period as “The Golden Age of Children’s Literature”an “era of popular, imaginative children’s books, many of which are still frequently read”Alice in WonderlandThe Wizard of Oz.A period of change began in the next 50 years.Authors had a profound influence on children’s literature.And Then . . .Jacob Ludwig and Wilhelm Carl Grimm traveled around Germany, talking to people and collecting folk stories.Their collection was translated into English in 1824.Hans Christian Anderson, in 1841, wrote “modern” fairy tales, so called because Anderson actually created them and copied old ways of telling stories.Some of his stories are “The Little Mermaid,” “The Ugly Duckling,” and “The Emperor’s New Clothes.”Most scholars identify the period as “The Golden Age of Children’s Literature,” an “era of popular, imaginative children’s books, many of which are still frequently read” (CC 996), including Alice in Wonderland and The Wizard of Oz.Note that many of these texts are set in another world – a “secret garden” or a fantasy world – where childhood can be removed from everyday adult concerns!
9History of Children’s Literature The late 1920s and 1930s saw increasing numbers of books written specifically for children. Examples Include:Winnie the Pooh by A.A. MilneDr. Seuss’s And to Think I Saw It on Mulberry Street1950sU.S. increased in nonfiction picture books1960sWhere the Wild Things Are by Sendak introduced a child anti-hero
10Changes in the last century A move from the didactic toward entertainment purpose.Didactic texts emphasize learning and instruction.A shift from literature originally intended for adults to literature specifically written for children.An increasingly larger amount and variety of children’s literature.An increasing number of children with differences appearing as characters in the story.What are some of the things that have changed in children’s literature over the last century?While there are many possible responses, the following are some of the key items:A move from the didactic toward entertainment purpose.A shift from literature originally intended for adults to literature specifically written for children.An increasingly larger amount and variety of children’s literature.An increasing number of children with differences appearing as characters in the story.
11Fingerplays, Chants, & Rhymes Short poem put to a rhyme or beatHas hand motions (except chants)Can be invented by the teacher and/or studentsUse for transitions, basic concepts, holidays, even nap timeChantsA chant is much like a fingerplay but without the hand motionsRhymesCan be simple poems and chantsChildren love rhymes that use their names or friends and family namesExamples: “One, two, buckle my shoe..”; “One potato, two potato, three potato, four…”1. What is a fingerplay?A fingerplay is a short poem put to rhyme or beat. It may or may not rhyme. It has hand motions that accompany the words.2. What is a chant?.3. What is a rhyme?A rhyme can be a simple poem or a chant. A rhyme may be silly or serious. Rhymes can easily be invented using children’s names. Rhymes have been handed down from generation to generation to accompany such activities as skipping or jumping rope.Children benefit from the rhythm and sounds of language. Repetition can help children learn to speak words as they are needed.Examples on pages 114 & 115
12Mother Goose & Nursery Rhymes Who is Mother Goose?Known by children all over the world as a symbol of rhymes and enjoymentMany of the Mother Goose tales are found in collections.Mother Goose stories are easily used to stimulate language acquisition and to develop social behavior rules.They contain wonderfully simple humor and easily lend themselves to flannelboard dramatizations and art activities.They are a rich source of our heritage.Mother Goose stories are easily used to stimulate language acquisition and to develop social behavior rules. They contain wonderfully simple humor and easily lend themselves to flannelboard dramatizations and art activities. In addition, they are a rich source of our heritage.There are various versions of the origin of Mother Goose. Page 115Mother Goose is often cited as the author of hundreds of children’s stories that have been passed down through oral tradition and published over centuries. Various chants, songs, and even games have been attributed to her, but she is most recognized for her nursery rhymes, which have been familiar with readers of all generations. Her work is often published as Mother Goose Rhymes.Despite her celebrated place in children’s literature, the exact identity and origin of Mother Goose herself is still unknown. Some believe that the original Mother Goose was a real woman who lived in Boston during the later half of the 17th century. After being widowed by Isaac Goose, a woman named either Elizabeth Foster Goose or Mary Goose (depending on sources) moved in with her eldest daughter, entertaining her grandchildren with amusing jingles which quickly gained popularity with the neighborhood children. According to the legend, her son-in-law, a publisher, printed her rhymes, and thus the reputation of Mother Goose was born. However, literary historians often dismiss the possibility of a Bostonian Mother Goose, as the existence of various French texts that refer to Mother Goose at a much earlier date make the American legend improbable. These texts, dating as early as 1626, even show that the French terms “mere l’oye” or “mere oye” (Mother Goose) were already familiar to readers and could be referenced. The figure of Mother Goose may even date back as the 10th century, according to other sources. In an ancient French legend, King Robert II had a wife who often told incredible tales that fascinated children.Regardless of Mother Goose’s origins, Charles Perrault was the first to actually publish a Mother Goose collection of rhymes and other folk tales in 1697, essentially initiating the fairy tale genre. With the subtitle Les Contes de ma Mère l'Oie (Tales of my Mother Goose), the collection quickly gained popularity all over France. By 1729, Perrault’s collection had been translated into English, in the form of Robert Samber’s Histories or Tales of Past Times, Told by Mother Goose. Samber’s volume was eventually republished in 1786 and brought to the U.S. English publisher of children’s literature John Newbery later focused on the nursery rhymes, publishing Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle, which helped Mother Goose become further associated with children’s poetry.
13Fables A story used to teach a moral. Most fables use animals as characters.Fables with animal characters are called beast fables.Fables are found in every culture throughout the world.Phrases from fables are often found in common language: “No use crying over spilt milk.”What are the differences between fable, folk tale, and fairy tale?Fables are stories used to teach a moral to people. They can be used for enjoyment, but their main purpose is to teach.Folk tales are simple, unadorned stories. They are used to explain aspects of a society and natural events. They are usually stories in which good overcomes evil and justice is served. They are associated with the common people.Fairy tales are often folk tales that have been adorned with many of the aspects of literature. They are more involved and polished than folk tales. They can sometimes be frightening and include violence
14Folktales The common man’s fairy tale. They are unadorned stories. Common plots in which good overcomes evil and justice is served.Developed through oral tradition.Authors of traditional folktales are unknown.New versions are written, often with a humorous twist; these are known as fractured fairy tales.Africa is a rich source of folktales.Example: The True Story of the Three Little Pigs
15Fairy TalesFolk stories or legends in which an author incorporates additional aspects of literature.Tend to be more involved and more polished than folktales.Frequently recurring themes and ideas: the number three, good and bad, long journeys, distant times and places.Some are humorous, some answer “why” questions, others are filled with magic and wonder.Concern has been expressed by some about the impact of these tales on young children. Some tales contain excessive violence. They are swift and bloody, grim and graphic.Examples: Shrek, Goldilocks and the Three BearsReading contrasting versions of the same story is a way to help children explore the content and respond to the stories. Examples: Hansel and Gretel, The Ugly Duckling, The Princess and the Pea, The Three Pigs
16Fairy TalesWhat are the dangers of using fairy tales with young children?How can these dangers be avoided?What are the dangers of using fairy tales with young children? How can these dangers be avoided?Fairy tales, due to their sometimes frightening and violent stories, can be somewhat scary for young children. Care should be taken in this regard.This problem can be avoided in a variety of ways. First, one might choose tales that do not include violent scenes. One might also choose versions in which the violence is toned down. Of course, the world of childhood can be full of both real (e.g., events depicted on television) and imaginary (e.g., afraid of the dark) frightening things. The fairy tale may be superior to these, since in such stories good usually triumphs over evil in the end.
17LegendsEthnic tales, myths, and legends lend themselves to the preschool program.Legends typically involve a kernel of truth that builds over time with retelling, addition, and exaggeration, children can use their imaginations to create their own local legends.
18Picture BooksDefinition: A book in which the picture is as important as the text. This is a genre based on a physical format, so it can contain titles from many of the other genres. It includes picture books, illustrated storybooks, wordless storybooks, concept books, and informational books. In picture books, both text and illustration are fused together, to provide more than either can do alone (the whole is greater than the sum of the parts).
19Picture BooksA picture book must possess a well-developed plot, theme, setting, and characterization.A picture book must use an appropriate style, print dimension, and page size.A picture book must have a special unity between text and illustration.In some books the words have been completely eliminated.They are called wordless picture books.picture book A picture book is a book in which the illustrations are as important as (or even more important than) the words in telling the story. Picture books are generally 32 pages long, although Little Golden Books are 24 pages. In picture books, there are illustrations on every page or on one of every pair of facing pages. While most picture books are written for younger children, in recent years, a number of excellent picture books for upper elementary and middle school readers have been published. The terms "picture book biography" and "picture book history" refer to nonfiction books written and illustrated in picture book format
20GenreA category of literature defined by their shared characteristics.Within each genre, there are many sub-genres
21Wordless picture books and nearly wordless picture books communicate the plot of the story through illustrations. These books are excellent for promoting language development and developing a concept of how stories work (with beginning, middle, and end).
22Concept booksuse pictures to explore or explain an idea/concept, object, or an activity. They do not tell a story.These books introduce young children to single, focused concepts.The books may be about size, color, or shapes that are best taught with illustrations, or they may be about more abstract concepts like time or emotions that are best described using words.Concept books help young children see relationships between objects and become aware of similarities or differencesAccording to Sutherland, the best concept books use repetition to teach but do not bore the reader, move from the familiar to the less familiar, and move from the simple to the complex.
23Concept BooksHelp motivate children to learn about spatial concepts, numbers, and colorsInclude counting and ABC booksThey may be pop-up books, pop-out books, poke-through-the-hole books, puppet books, books cut into shapes, books cut into puzzles, big books, mini books, and textured booksAll these books should be constructed sturdily so that children can use them after the teacher has presented them.One of the most popular types of concepts books is devoted to colors.ABC books – read on pages 125 & 126Look at “Tips for Teachers” on page 125
24Counting Bookspresent the numerals, their shapes, and pictures of objects to show what the number represents. Examine counting books for clear number styles and logical sequencing.Books that count from 1 to 10 then jump to 20 or one hundred will confuse young readers.
25Counting Books One book mentioned over and over again as wonderful example of a counting bookis Anno's Counting Book byMitsumasa Anno.It includes the number zero which israre, has numerous sets ofobjects to count on eachpage, and gives readers achance to count to twelverather than the customaryten.
26Alphabet bookspresent the alphabet letter-by-letter in order to acquaint young children with the shapes, names, and sounds of the letters. Although alphabet books will not help children learn the alphabet, they can help children learn to distinguish different styles of lettering.The words, letters, and pictures should all match with the best alphabet books using clearly identified objects.With theme ABC books, look at the objects chosen to represent the letters Q, X, and Z as these are often the weakest representations. Many of these books can be used as a starting point for writing or art exercises with older students.
27NonFictionNonfiction books are written for the purpose of providing factual information.The author of such books has an obligation to impart only accurate information.In choosing factual books, consider these guidelines:Check for accuracy. Note the copyright date.Pictures and charts should be simple, clear, and easy to read.Appropriate for the children’s age group.A primary reason for learning to read is to find answers to questions.Help children to understand when reading nonfiction books that “At this time, this is the information that we believe to be true about…” This helps develop critical thinking skills.There are a variety of things that one might consider in selecting nonfiction books. Some of the considerations are:• narrative format• accurate information• current copyright date• simple and clear charts and illustrations• appropriate readability
28Informational BooksInformational books can also be called non-fiction books.Informational books must be accurate, authentic, up-to-date, factual, clearly organized, and include illustrations when needed.These books should avoid anthropomorphism, stereotypes and generalizations.
29Informational Books Sub-genres include photo documentaries, narrative texts,how-to books,question and answer books,activity books,field guides/identification books,survey books,concept books andlife-cycle books.Some children thrive on nonfiction. Their curiosity and interests motivate them to read nonfiction voraciously. Quality nonfiction books are well-written, and engaging. Quality non-fiction books supplement textbooks well in every subject. They are typically better written and have better photographs and illustrations than textbooks. Some excellent nonfiction children's books include:
30Fiction The main purpose of fiction is to entertain the reader. Fiction is a narrative that comes from the imagination of the author rather than from history or factual information.Realistic Fiction – is a story that could have happened, and some parts of it may be from the author’s own experience.Historical Fiction – which provides an imaginary story based on a historical event or person (i.e. Titanic books/movies).Fantasy Fiction – takes place in a nonexistent world and may included unreal characters.Realistic fiction can discuss controversial topics such as same-sex couples, sexual abuse, incarcerated adults, religious concerns, and political beliefs.
31Contemporary Realistic Fiction Definition: Titles dealing with the problems and joys of living today. There is often an element of character growth or self-realization in the book.Titles can promote tolerance and understanding of others and their experiences.It "extends children's horizons by broadening their interests, allowing them to experience new adventures and showing them different ways to view and deal with conflicts in their own lives" (Through the eyes of a child (2003), p. 363)Contemporary realistic fiction contains literary works that are believable and set in the modern world. These works of fiction are believable in nature and contain characters who could potentially be real people. When it comes to the story and plot of this type of fiction, the story that has been crafted, while it is made up and false, could potentially take place. Unlike modern fantasy, where magic and fantastical worlds can be found, contemporary realistic fiction is rooted in the realm of reality.A Chair for my MotherOur GrannyAmazing Grace
32What is the difference between fantasy and realistic fiction? What is the difference between fantasy and realistic fiction? Why should a teacher use each type?Realistic fiction tells a story that could have actually happened. It often deals with a real-life problem or situation and contains characters who seem ordinary. In fantasy fiction, the author asks the reader to suspend the rules of reality for the story. Fantasy stories often take place in fairyland and contain such things as talking frogs, trees with emotions, and dogs that behave like people.A teacher should use each type because to not do so would eliminate a tremendous source of material from classroom use. There are many books of each type written for young children. In addition, fantasy allows children to stretch their imaginations and to share a unique form of literature. It can also deal with problems that are easily identified by young children.
33Poetry A poem is a song without notes. Poetry is lyrical, heart-touching, and also great fun.Types of poems: haiku, tanka, cinquain, sonnet, limerick, and two-word poetry.Devices used in poetry written for children are:Onomatopoeia – sound wordsPersonification – human characteristics given to animalsSimile – comparing two things using “like” and “as”Metaphor – analogyAlliteration – repetition of the initial consonant of a word several times in a line.Poetry is meant to be read aloud. Read poetry with expression and tied to the children’s level of understanding. A variety of classic, contemporary, and nonsense poetry and poetry written by the teacher should be included to give children a broad exposure. When introducing a poem, it is important to set the mood for what is to come. Do not over explain the poem prior to the reading. Let children use their imaginations.Jack Prelutsky – page 140“Tips for Teachers” on page 141
34Poetry BooksPoetry books can range from poetry that rhymes to free verse and concrete verse.Take the sound of language and arranges it in beautiful forms.Each word is chosen carefully for its sound and its meaning.Appeals to both the thoughts and feelings of the reader.Most small children love nursery rhymes, jingles, and songs, yet many adults have an aversion to poetry.In numerous studies, children have indicated that they like poetry that rhymes, tells a story, or is funny.They do not like to memorize, find hidden meanings, or recite poems.Poetry is meant to be heard.. Guard against future generations losing interest in the lyrical language of poetry by reading poems aloud with them. Poetry is meant to be heard.Select both anthologies (collections of poetry often by various poets) as well as collections of poems by single poets for your collection. Poetry should be found in both the reference section and the circulating sections. The best anthologies index poems by title, author, and first line to make location quick and easy. They also group poems by topic so a reader can easily browse through all the nature or monster poems. Provide children with a variety of poetry. Include nonsense verse, humorous poems, poetry of the child's everyday world, traditional ballads, narrative poems, lyric poetry, nature poems, poetry from around the world, and poetry by the children.
35Traditional Literature, Folk and Fairy Tales This literature is born of oral tradition, and is passed orally from generation to generation. It often has "retold by" or "adapted by" in front of the author, on the title page of the book. It often starts with the phrase "Once upon a time..." and often has a happy ending.
36Traditional Literature, Folk and Fairy Tales The story often includes patterns of 3 (3 characters, 3 tasks, 3 events, etc.).There are many versions of the same story.Good always conquers evil.Sub-genres of traditional literature include fairy tales, folk tales, Mother Goose rhymes, legends, myths, proverbs, epics, and fables.
37Basal ReadersBooks used in traditional elementary school beginning reading programs.Basal books include textbooks, workbooks, teacher’s manuals, and related materials.They tend to neither contain sufficient quality literature nor take advantage of a child’s natural curiosity and language.Some versions of stories have eliminated illustrations and changed some wording.As a result, many authors of children’s storybooks refuse to have their work appear in reading textbooks.Look at websites