Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Using Various Types of Literature Growing Up With Literature, 6e By: Walter E. Sawyer."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 Using Various Types of Literature Growing Up With Literature, 6e By: Walter E. Sawyer
History of Children’s Literature Children’s books – Prior to mid-18th century Aimed to improve moral and spiritual natures In 600 A.D., the Old English period, monks and other learned men wrote “lesson books” for children. – Folk tales Human experiences – Storytellers Reduce anxieties, fire imagination – 15th century: hand-copied (English) Aesop’s Fables-Caxton,1484
History of Children’s Literature First important illustrated book for children was written by John Amos Comenius, a bishop of Moravia in 1651. – Comenius believed in teaching children by visual means. Orbis Pictus
History of Children’s Literature Books based on deep conviction – The Pilgrim’s Progress Bunyan, 1686 – Intent on saving children’s souls
History of Children’s Literature Chapbooks inexpensive books sold by peddlers (chapmen) that included political and religious tracts. Hornbooks a small paddle with sheets of horn protecting papers used to teach reading
History of Children’s Literature First publishers (1700s) – John Newbery – A Little Pretty Pocket-book
History of Children’s Literature In the beginning of the 1800s, children’s literature became more honestly creative. Real literary authors could write for children and not damage their reputations. – Charles and Mary Lamb – Jane and Ann Taylor
The Golden Age of Children’s Literature Most scholars identify the period 1865-1910 as “The Golden Age of Children’s Literature” an “era of popular, imaginative children’s books, many of which are still frequently read” – Alice in Wonderland – The Wizard of Oz.
History of Children’s Literature The late 1920s and 1930s saw increasing numbers of books written specifically for children. Examples Include: o Winnie the Pooh by A.A. Milne o Dr. Seuss’s And to Think I Saw It on Mulberry Street 1950s U.S. increased in nonfiction picture books 1960s Where the Wild Things Are by Sendak introduced a child anti-hero
Changes in the last century A move from the didactic toward entertainment purpose. – Didactic texts emphasize learning and instruction. A shift from literature originally intended for adults to literature specifically written for children. An increasingly larger amount and variety of children’s literature. An increasing number of children with differences appearing as characters in the story.
Fingerplays, Chants, & Rhymes Fingerplays – Short poem put to a rhyme or beat – Has hand motions (except chants) – Can be invented by the teacher and/or students – Use for transitions, basic concepts, holidays, even nap time Chants – A chant is much like a fingerplay but without the hand motions Rhymes – Can be simple poems and chants – Children love rhymes that use their names or friends and family names – Examples: “One, two, buckle my shoe..”; “One potato, two potato, three potato, four…”
Mother Goose & Nursery Rhymes Who is Mother Goose? – Known by children all over the world as a symbol of rhymes and enjoyment – Many of the Mother Goose tales are found in collections. Mother Goose stories are easily used to stimulate language acquisition and to develop social behavior rules. They contain wonderfully simple humor and easily lend themselves to flannelboard dramatizations and art activities. They are a rich source of our heritage.
Fables A story used to teach a moral. Most fables use animals as characters. Fables with animal characters are called beast fables. Fables are found in every culture throughout the world. Phrases from fables are often found in common language: “No use crying over spilt milk.”
Folktales The common man’s fairy tale. They are unadorned stories. Common plots in which good overcomes evil and justice is served. Developed through oral tradition. Authors of traditional folktales are unknown. New versions are written, often with a humorous twist; these are known as fractured fairy tales. Africa is a rich source of folktales.
Fairy Tales Folk stories or legends in which an author incorporates additional aspects of literature. Tend to be more involved and more polished than folktales. Frequently recurring themes and ideas: the number three, good and bad, long journeys, distant times and places. Some are humorous, some answer “why” questions, others are filled with magic and wonder.
Fairy Tales What are the dangers of using fairy tales with young children? How can these dangers be avoided?
Legends Ethnic tales, myths, and legends lend themselves to the preschool program. Legends typically involve a kernel of truth that builds over time with retelling, addition, and exaggeration, children can use their imaginations to create their own local legends.
Picture Books Definition: A book in which the picture is as important as the text. This is a genre based on a physical format, so it can contain titles from many of the other genres. It includes picture books, illustrated storybooks, wordless storybooks, concept books, and informational books. In picture books, both text and illustration are fused together, to provide more than either can do alone (the whole is greater than the sum of the parts).
Picture Books A picture book must possess a well-developed plot, theme, setting, and characterization. A picture book must use an appropriate style, print dimension, and page size. A picture book must have a special unity between text and illustration. In some books the words have been completely eliminated. – They are called wordless picture books.
Genre oA category of literature defined by their shared characteristics. oWithin each genre, there are many sub-genres
Wordless picture books and nearly wordless picture books communicate the plot of the story through illustrations. These books are excellent for promoting language development and developing a concept of how stories work (with beginning, middle, and end).
Concept books use pictures to explore or explain an idea/concept, object, or an activity. – They do not tell a story. These books introduce young children to single, focused concepts. The books may be about size, color, or shapes that are best taught with illustrations, or they may be about more abstract concepts like time or emotions that are best described using words. Concept books help young children see relationships between objects and become aware of similarities or differences
Concept Books Help motivate children to learn about spatial concepts, numbers, and colors Include counting and ABC books They may be pop-up books, pop-out books, poke-through- the-hole books, puppet books, books cut into shapes, books cut into puzzles, big books, mini books, and textured books All these books should be constructed sturdily so that children can use them after the teacher has presented them.
Counting Books present the numerals, their shapes, and pictures of objects to show what the number represents. Examine counting books for clear number styles and logical sequencing. Books that count from 1 to 10 then jump to 20 or one hundred will confuse young readers.
One book mentioned over and over again as wonderful example of a counting book is Anno's Counting Book by Mitsumasa Anno. It includes the number zero which is rare, has numerous sets of objects to count on each page, and gives readers a chance to count to twelve rather than the customary ten. Counting Books
Alphabet books present the alphabet letter-by- letter in order to acquaint young children with the shapes, names, and sounds of the letters. Although alphabet books will not help children learn the alphabet, they can help children learn to distinguish different styles of lettering. The words, letters, and pictures should all match with the best alphabet books using clearly identified objects.
NonFiction Nonfiction books are written for the purpose of providing factual information. The author of such books has an obligation to impart only accurate information. In choosing factual books, consider these guidelines: Check for accuracy. Note the copyright date. Pictures and charts should be simple, clear, and easy to read. Appropriate for the children’s age group.
Informational Books Informational books can also be called non- fiction books. Informational books must be accurate, authentic, up-to-date, factual, clearly organized, and include illustrations when needed. These books should avoid anthropomorphism, stereotypes and generalizations.
Informational Books Sub-genres include – photo documentaries, – narrative texts, – how-to books, – question and answer books, – activity books, – field guides/identification books, – survey books, – concept books and – life-cycle books.
Fiction The main purpose of fiction is to entertain the reader. Fiction is a narrative that comes from the imagination of the author rather than from history or factual information. Realistic Fiction – is a story that could have happened, and some parts of it may be from the author’s own experience. Historical Fiction – which provides an imaginary story based on a historical event or person (i.e. Titanic books/movies). Fantasy Fiction – takes place in a nonexistent world and may included unreal characters.
Contemporary Realistic Fiction Definition: Titles dealing with the problems and joys of living today. There is often an element of character growth or self-realization in the book. Titles can promote tolerance and understanding of others and their experiences. It "extends children's horizons by broadening their interests, allowing them to experience new adventures and showing them different ways to view and deal with conflicts in their own lives" (Through the eyes of a child (2003), p. 363)
What is the difference between fantasy and realistic fiction? Fantasy Realistic Fiction
Poetry A poem is a song without notes. Poetry is lyrical, heart-touching, and also great fun. Types of poems: haiku, tanka, cinquain, sonnet, limerick, and two- word poetry. Devices used in poetry written for children are: Onomatopoeia – sound words Personification – human characteristics given to animals Simile – comparing two things using “like” and “as” Metaphor – analogy Alliteration – repetition of the initial consonant of a word several times in a line.
Poetry Books Poetry books can range from poetry that rhymes to free verse and concrete verse. Take the sound of language and arranges it in beautiful forms. Each word is chosen carefully for its sound and its meaning. Appeals to both the thoughts and feelings of the reader. Most small children love nursery rhymes, jingles, and songs, yet many adults have an aversion to poetry. In numerous studies, children have indicated that they like poetry that rhymes, tells a story, or is funny. They do not like to memorize, find hidden meanings, or recite poems. Poetry is meant to be heard.
Traditional Literature, Folk and Fairy Tales This literature is born of oral tradition, and is passed orally from generation to generation. It often has "retold by" or "adapted by" in front of the author, on the title page of the book. It often starts with the phrase "Once upon a time..." and often has a happy ending.
Traditional Literature, Folk and Fairy Tales The story often includes patterns of 3 (3 characters, 3 tasks, 3 events, etc.). There are many versions of the same story. Good always conquers evil. Sub-genres of traditional literature include fairy tales, folk tales, Mother Goose rhymes, legends, myths, proverbs, epics, and fables.
Basal Readers Books used in traditional elementary school beginning reading programs. Basal books include textbooks, workbooks, teacher’s manuals, and related materials. They tend to neither contain sufficient quality literature nor take advantage of a child’s natural curiosity and language. Some versions of stories have eliminated illustrations and changed some wording. – As a result, many authors of children’s storybooks refuse to have their work appear in reading textbooks.