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So far... Until we looked at factorial interactions, we were looking at differences and their significance - or the probability that an observed difference was due to chance But we had not learned anything about how two (or more) variables are related

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What is regression? The way one variable is related to another. As you change one, how are others affected? Yield Protein %

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Types of Variables in Crop Experiments: Treatments such as fertilizer rates, varieties, and weed control methods which are the primary focus of the experiment Environmental factors, such as rainfall and solar radiation which are not within the researcher’s control Responses which represent the biological and physical features of the experimental units that are expected to be affected by the treatments being tested.

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Usual associations within ANOVA... Association between response and treatment –when treatments are quantitative - such as fertilizer levels - it is possible to describe the association between treatment and response –the response could then be specified for not only the treatment levels actually tested but for all other intermediate points within the range of the treatments tested

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Partitioning SST into Regression Components Agronomic experiments frequently consist of different levels of one or more quantitative variables: –Varying amounts of fertilizer –Several different row spacings –Two or more depths of seeding Would be useful to develop an equation to describe the relationship between plant response and treatment level

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Fitting the Model Wheat Yield (Y) Applied N Level X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 Y3Y3 Y1Y1 Y2Y2 Y4Y4 Y = 0 + 1 X + where: Y =wheat yield X =nitrogen level 0 =yield with no nitrogen 1 =change in yield per unit of applied N =random error

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Partitioning SST Sums of Squares for Treatments (SST) contains: –SS LIN = Sum of squares associated with the linear regression of Y on X –SS LOF = Sum of squares for the failure of the regression model to describe the relationship between Y and X (lack of fit)

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One way: Find a set of coefficients that define a linear contrast –use the deviations of the treatment levels from the mean level of all treatments –so that Therefore The sum of the coefficients will be zero, satisfying the definition of a contrast

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Computing SS LIN SS LOF (sum of squares for lack of fit) is computed by subtraction SS LOF = SST - SS LIN (df is df for treatments - 1) Not to be confused with SSE which is still the SS for pure error (experimental error) _ SS LIN = r*L LIN 2 /[ j (X j - X) 2 ] really no different from any other contrast - df is always 1

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F Ratios and their meaning All F ratios have MSE as a denominator F T = MST/MSE tests –significance of differences among the treatment means F LIN = MS LIN /MSE tests –H 0 : no linear relationship between X and Y ( 1 = 0) –H a : there is a linear relationship between X and Y ( 1 0) F LOF = MS LOF /MSE tests –H 0 : the simple linear regression model describes the data E(Y) = 0 + 1 X –H a : there is significant deviation from a linear relationship between X and Y E(Y) 0 + 1 X

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The linear relationship The expected value of Y given X is described by the equation: where: – = grand mean of Y –X j = value of X (treatment level) at which Y is estimated –

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Sources of Variation in Regression Wheat Yield (y) Applied N Level x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 Y3Y3 Y1Y1 Y2Y2 Y4Y4 Y Y V

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Orthogonal Polynomials If the relationship is not linear, we can simplify curve fitting within the ANOVA with the use of orthogonal polynomial coefficients under these conditions: –equal replication –the levels of the treatment variable must be equally spaced e.g., 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 kg of fertilizer per plot

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Curve fitting Model: E(Y) = 0 + 1 X + 2 X 2 + 3 X 3 +… Determine the coefficients for 2 nd order and higher polynomials from a table Use the F ratio to test the significance of each contrast. Unless there is prior reason to believe that the equation is of a particular order, it is customary to fit the terms sequentially Include all terms in the equation up to and including the term at which lack of fit first becomes nonsignificant Table of coefficients

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Where do linear contrast coefficients come from? (revisited) Assume 5 Nitrogen levels: 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 x = 90 k 1 = (-60, -30, 0, 30, 60) If we code the treatments as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 x = 3 k 1 = (-2, -1, 0, 1, 2) b 1 = L LIN / [r j (x j - x) 2 ], but must be decoded back to original scale _ _ _

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Consider an experiment Five levels of N (10, 30, 50, 70, 90) with four replications Linear contrast – –SS LIN = 4* L LIN 2 / 10 Quadratic – –SS QUAD = 4*L QUAD 2 / 14

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LOF still significant? Keep going… Cubic – –SS CUB = 4*L CUB 2 / 10 Quartic – –SS QUAR = 4*L QUAR 2 / 70 Each contrast has 1 degree of freedom Each F has MSE in denominator

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Numerical Example An experiment to determine the effect of nitrogen on the yield of sugarbeet roots: –RBD –three blocks –5 levels of N (0, 35, 70, 105, and 140) kg/ha Meets the criteria –N is a quantitative variable –levels are equally spaced –equally replicated Significant SST so we go to contrasts

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Orthogonal Partition of SST N level (kg/ha) 03570105140 Order Mean28.466.887.092.085.7L i j k j 2 SS(L) i Linear-2-10+1+246.6010651.4780 Quadratic+2-1-2-1+2-34.8714260.5038 Cubic-1+20-2+12.30101.5870 Quartic+1-4+6-4+10.3070.0039

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Sequential Test of Nitrogen Effects SourcedfSSMSF (1)Nitrogen4913.5627228.390764.41** (2)Linear1651.4680651.4680183.73** Dev (LOF)3262.094787.364924.64** (3)Quadratic1260.5038260.503873.47** Dev (LOF)21.5909.79550.22ns Choose a quadratic model –First point at which the LOF is not significant –Implies that a cubic term would not be significant

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Regression Equation b i = L REG / j k j 2 Coefficientb 0 b 1 b 2 23.994.66-2.49 To scale to original X values

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Common misuse of regression... Broad Generalization –Extrapolating the result of a regression line outside the range of X values tested –Don’t go beyond the highest nitrogen rate tested, for example –Or don’t generalize over all varieties when you have just tested one Do not over interpret higher order polynomials –with t-1 df, they will explain all of the variation among treatments, whether there is any meaningful pattern to the data or not

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Class vs nonclass variables General linear model in matrix notation Y = Xß + X is the design matrix –Assume CRD with 3 fertilizer treatments, 2 replications x 1 x 2 x 3 L 1 L 2 b 0 x x 2 ANOVA (class variables) Orthogonal polynomials Regression (continuous variables)

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