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Alcohol, the cause of and solution to so many of life’s problems Psychology 3506.

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Presentation on theme: "Alcohol, the cause of and solution to so many of life’s problems Psychology 3506."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alcohol, the cause of and solution to so many of life’s problems Psychology 3506

2 Introduction Most alcohols are not consumed Most alcohols are not consumed Isopropyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol Methyl alcohol Methyl alcohol The stuff we drink is ethyl alcohol or ethanol The stuff we drink is ethyl alcohol or ethanol People have been making and drinking alcohol for a LONG time People have been making and drinking alcohol for a LONG time

3 The Mesopotamians Had a goddess of brewing! Had a goddess of brewing! Oldest beer recipe Oldest beer recipe Seems they started civilization so they could have a cold one! Seems they started civilization so they could have a cold one!

4 Borne of the flowing water, Tenderly cared for by the Ninhursag, Borne of the flowing water, Tenderly cared for by the Ninhursag, Having founded your town by the sacred lake, She finished its great walls for you, Ninkasi, having founded your town by the sacred lake, She finished it's walls for you, Your father is Enki, Lord Nidimmud, Your mother is Ninti, the queen of the sacred lake. Ninkasi, your father is Enki, Lord Nidimmud, Your mother is Ninti, the queen of the sacred lake. You are the one who handles the dough [and] with a big shovel, Mixing in a pit, the bappir with sweet aromatics, Ninkasi, you are the one who handles the dough [and] with a big shovel, Mixing in a pit, the bappir with [date] - honey,

5 You are the one who bakes the bappir in the big oven, Puts in order the piles of hulled grains, Ninkasi, you are the one who bakes the bappir in the big oven, Puts in order the piles of hulled grains, You are the one who waters the malt set on the ground, The noble dogs keep away even the potentates, Ninkasi, you are the one who waters the malt set on the ground, The noble dogs keep away even the potentates, You are the one who soaks the malt in a jar, The waves rise, the waves fall. Ninkasi, you are the one who soaks the malt in a jar, The waves rise, the waves fall. You are the one who spreads the cooked mash on large reed mats, Coolness overcomes, Ninkasi, you are the one who spreads the cooked mash on large reed mats, Coolness overcomes,

6 You are the one who holds with both hands the great sweet wort, Brewing [it] with honey [and] wine (You the sweet wort to the vessel) Ninkasi, (...)(You the sweet wort to the vessel) The filtering vat, which makes a pleasant sound, You place appropriately on a large collector vat. Ninkasi, the filtering vat, which makes a pleasant sound, You place appropriately on a large collector vat. When you pour out the filtered beer of the collector vat, It is [like] the onrush of Tigris and Euphrates. Ninkasi, you are the one who pours out the filtered beer of the collector vat, It is [like] the onrush of Tigris and Euphrates.

7 Fermentation You start with sugar, which you can get from many sources You start with sugar, which you can get from many sources FruitFruit VegetablesVegetables Grain (malted and unmalted)Grain (malted and unmalted) Malted grain Malted grain Wet grain, allow to sproutWet grain, allow to sprout SugarsSugars drydry

8 Fermentation You can malt most any grain, barley, rye, wheat etc You can malt most any grain, barley, rye, wheat etc Start a mash Start a mash DON’T BOIL DON’T BOIL Mash is sparged Mash is sparged Wort is boiled Wort is boiled Add yeast or bacteria Add yeast or bacteria

9 Fermentation Ale yeast Ale yeast Saccharomyces cervisisiaeSaccharomyces cervisisiae Top fermentingTop fermenting WarmerWarmer Lager yeast Lager yeast S. uvarum (carlsbergensis)S. uvarum (carlsbergensis) Bottom fermentedBottom fermented ColderColder cleanercleaner

10 Fermentation Bacteria can be used for specialty brews Bacteria can be used for specialty brews Brettanmyces bruxellensis and B. lambicus Brettanmyces bruxellensis and B. lambicus Originally airborne yeasts were used Originally airborne yeasts were used Now pure cultures Now pure cultures

11 Distillation Alcohol boils at 78C Alcohol boils at 78C Water boils at 100C Water boils at 100C So, boil it, collect the vapour and enjoy So, boil it, collect the vapour and enjoy Or freeze Or freeze Both of these are illegal BTW… Both of these are illegal BTW…

12 Measurement of alcohol in the body Blood Alcohol Level (BAL) Blood Alcohol Level (BAL) mg / 100 ml of bloodmg / 100 ml of blood Or percentageOr percentage mmol / litre mmol / litre Not as common in popular parlance, but more common in scientific literatureNot as common in popular parlance, but more common in scientific literature

13 Route of Administration Absorption Absorption When faster than excretionWhen faster than excretion Plateau Plateau Note that the alcohol is excreted at a constant rate, unlike other drugs Note that the alcohol is excreted at a constant rate, unlike other drugs

14 Absorption Most absorption takes place in your gut Most absorption takes place in your gut Alcohol cannot be ionized, so Ph does not affect absorption Alcohol cannot be ionized, so Ph does not affect absorption First pass metabolism in stomach First pass metabolism in stomach Alcohol dehydrogenaseAlcohol dehydrogenase Women have less than menWomen have less than men Abstainers have moreAbstainers have more Beer stays in stomach longerBeer stays in stomach longer Bubbles make it fasterBubbles make it faster High concentration make it fasterHigh concentration make it faster

15 Distribution Alcohol does not dissolve in fat, so more percentage of body fat, the higher the peak BAL Alcohol does not dissolve in fat, so more percentage of body fat, the higher the peak BAL In males, higher BAL with age In males, higher BAL with age Circulates through lungs, so you can smell it on your breath Circulates through lungs, so you can smell it on your breath

16 Excretion Mostly metabolized by the liver Mostly metabolized by the liver Alcohol dehydrogenase converts it to acetaldehyde Alcohol dehydrogenase converts it to acetaldehyde Next it is converted into acetyl coenzyme A Next it is converted into acetyl coenzyme A Also there is the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system. Also there is the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system. Works harder with more in systemWorks harder with more in system Disabled by continued heavy drinkingDisabled by continued heavy drinking Also used in barbiturate metabolism!Also used in barbiturate metabolism!

17 Neuropharmacology Still not that well understood Still not that well understood Depresses function of ion channel in glutamate receptors Depresses function of ion channel in glutamate receptors After chronic use the brain sort of adjusts After chronic use the brain sort of adjusts Might be the cause of withdrawal symptoms Might be the cause of withdrawal symptoms RO seems to be an alcohol antagonist RO seems to be an alcohol antagonist

18 Effects Dilation of blood vessels Dilation of blood vessels Loss of heat Loss of heat REM decreases REM decreases More talkative, higher pitch, louder More talkative, higher pitch, louder During absorption, euphoria During absorption, euphoria During excretion, lethargy During excretion, lethargy Decrease in visual acuity Decrease in visual acuity Memory effects Memory effects Blackouts Blackouts

19 Give me my keys, I drive better when I am drunk Reaction time Reaction time Perceptual effects Perceptual effects Memory problems Memory problems Steadiness Steadiness Effects last longer than just when alcohol is in the system! Effects last longer than just when alcohol is in the system! Worse for young drivers Worse for young drivers

20 Disinhibition Seems to weaken cortical -> motor connections Seems to weaken cortical -> motor connections Hard to stop Hard to stop In vino veritas In vino veritas Worst day for spousal abuse in the USA is Super Bowl Sunday Worst day for spousal abuse in the USA is Super Bowl Sunday

21 Tolerance and Withdrawal Acute and chronic tolerance Acute and chronic tolerance MEOS MEOS Behavioural tolerance Behavioural tolerance Minor withdrawal (like a hangover) Minor withdrawal (like a hangover) Major withdrwal Major withdrwal 12 hr later12 hr later DTsDTs

22 Self administration Rats will self administer, if their mother did (Honey, 1998) Rats will self administer, if their mother did (Honey, 1998) Cultural effects Cultural effects Age effects Age effects Sex effects Sex effects Consumption is affected by price, availability Consumption is affected by price, availability

23 Alcoholism Disease model Disease model JellinekJellinek Physical dependencePhysical dependence ToleranceTolerance Loss of controlLoss of control FHPFHP Subtle differences Subtle differences

24 Bad Stuff Alcohol poisoning Alcohol poisoning Hangover Hangover Bad behaviour Bad behaviour Sex Sex Liver Liver Korsakoff’s syndrome Korsakoff’s syndrome FAS / FAE FAS / FAE Cancer Cancer

25 Good stuff! Heart disease! Heart disease! Originally thought it was just the tannins in red wine Originally thought it was just the tannins in red wine Then beer Then beer Now hard stuff Now hard stuff A couple of drinks a day is good for you A couple of drinks a day is good for you

26 Treatments AA AA Antidepressants Antidepressants Behaviour therapy Behaviour therapy Cold turkey Cold turkey


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