Presentation on theme: "The Hadiith Jiberiil Prepared by: M. Tahir Farrath - Lesson 1 continued (Part 1a) -"— Presentation transcript:
The Hadiith Jiberiil Prepared by: M. Tahir Farrath - Lesson 1 continued (Part 1a) -
(*Please refer to the standard “Key to the Transliteration” file.) The Hadiith(narration) just cited from Sohiihul Muslim (in lesson 1) is one that contains the Usuulul Islaam(fundamentals of Islaam), comprising of the Five Principles of Islaam, the Six Articles of Faith, the Essentials of Sincerity in Worship, and about the End of Time and its Signs. Another Hadiith in Bukhaariy and Muslim as reported by Abuu Hurayroh(R.A.) instead, contains a variation of this incident, and it may appear that a number of Companions were present as opposed to perhaps only ‘Umar(R.A.) or himself and Abuu Hurayroh(R.A.). Therein, the first question posed was on Faith and then Islaam, and fewer principles in each were mentioned. However, as the already cited Hadiith had found a place in the Ma’aariful Hadiith and the Hadiithul ‘Arba’iin of Imaam Nawawiy and a number of points were derived from it in the Sharh of Nawawiy, it’s importance will be dealt with, with a little further elaboration. This Hadiith is called the Hadiith Jiberiil on the basis of it being a dialogue between the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and Jiberiil(Gabriel) who holds the highest rank among the Malaa-ikah(Angels). At the beginning of the Hadiith, a description was given about this commanding personality who came to interview Rosuulul LAAH(the Messenger of ALLAAH). His strikingly clean appearance which instantly attracted the attention of the Oshaab(pronounced Os- haab, meaning Companions – may ALLAAH be Pleased with them), teaches one that it is desirable to be groomed and neatly dressed whenever one goes to seek knowledge or goes visiting someone. This was the custom prevalent among the early Muslimuun which conforms with a said report wherein the Nabiy(Prophet.) says: Ahsan maa Zurtum bi-hil LAAHI fii Qubuurikum wa Masaajidikum, Abayaad. “The best (attire) with which you should visit ALLAAH in your graves and in your Mosques is white”. Thus, the Malak(Angel) who appeared immaculately yet simply dressed in white, exemplified cleanliness, purity and sincerity. Therefore, the mode of dress should be modest, tidy and clean, and should not emphasize superiority, pomp and glory. (NB: Some ‘Ulamaa_ have indicated that if it is intended to encourage discipline or respect, then it is permissible
to wear a special dress, for Ibnu ‘Abedus Salaam, a jurist, said: “There is no objection to the wearing of a special dress by scholars so that they may be distinguished from others and be approached for purposes of learning”. However, it is not recommended to wear coarse cloth in order to promote piety, as piety is embedded in the heart and is expressed through good works, but others would disagree by saying that it is worn to develop humility.) The visitor, having identified Rosuulul LAAH(S.A.W.) from among the Oshaab(R.A.H.), positioned himself in such a manner that he sat opposite the Nabiy(S.A.W.), so closely that his knees touched the knees of the Prophet. This teaches one that the seeker of knowledge should do so confidently and not be afraid of asking enlightening questions, even though the person one intends to question is of great authority. Naturally, in this incident, Jiberiil(A.S.) possessed great knowledge. It also teaches that though the questioner may not pay him the necessary respect, the one questioned should be humble and forgiving. But the visitor, before starting with his questions, placed his palms on the Prophet’s thighs, assuring the one about to be questioned that there was no need to be alarmed. This confident behaviour of Malak Jiberiil(A.S.) is then an indication of the tremendous respect and courtesy he showed the Messenger of ALLAAH(S.A.W.) and it serves as a guideline to all seekers of knowledge. Since the visitor was previously seen in different forms and was not immediately recognisable, the touching identified the person, reminding the Nabiy(S.A.W.) of the times when he received Revelations. It is stated that this incident occurred in the last phase of the Nabiy’s life, and as the stranger’s appearance did not seem like that of an outsider, it was apparent that the Oshaab did not know him at all. He then addressed the Holy Prophet as: Yaa Muhammad (O Muhammad!). This indicates that the visitor knew the Nabiy(S.A.W.), but addressed him in accordance with the custom of those Bedouins who had not yet accepted Islaam. (NB: It is disrespectful to refer to the Messenger of ALLAAH as just Muhammad, and it is recommended to refer to him as Nabiy Muhammad or Prophet Muhammad or the Holy Prophet or the Messenger of ALLAAH, and then to add Sollal LAAHU ‘alayhi wa Sallam – may ALLAAH’s Blessings be upon him, whenever his name is heard.) The visitor then said: Akhbirnii ‘anil Islaam (Tell or Inform me about Islaam!). The words were carefully chosen, for he said: Akhbirnii (Inform me…) and not ‘Allimnii (Teach me…) and this indicates that he did not come to learn but to examine and verify the Prophet’s understanding of ALLAAH’s Diin.
The word Islaam is derived from the Arabic root word Salima or Salaamah which bears the meanings of peace, purity, security, soundness, safety, blameless, clearly proven, well-being, submission and obedience, and a few more added to them. In a religious sense, Islaam means submission to the Will of ALLAAH and being obedient to HIS Law. Thus, the Nabiy’s first reply was: Al-Islaamu An Tash-hada An Laa ilaaha illal LAAH… (Islaam is that you testify that there is no god except ALLAAH…) This testimony is called the Shahaadah and it is derived from the root word Shahida which means to witness, testify, certify, confirm, acknowledge, etc. The testimony is also known as the Kalimah(word) which is derived from Kallama, meaning to utter, express, say or address, etc. Both words are sometimes used jointly as the Kalimah Shahaadah(testimonial utterance or expression) to refer to the “declaration of Faith”, and therein is buried the Kalimah Toyyibah(the good word). As it is with everything, it can be explained in a brief or detailed form, and similarly, there is nothing that can be fully constructed or examined without it containing or depending on the basic requirements. In Islaam this would be the Usuul(fundamentals, source or principles) and the Furuu_(branches) among the various categories that complete the Diin, and each are based on basic and ordinary principles. Principles in general take precedence over the branches, and so also do basic principles take priority over the ordinary ones. In other words, branches are dependant upon a basic source, which in turn is a prerequisite to its foundation. Without this basic aspect of Islaam, no ‘Amalus Saalihah(virtuous deed) is accepted, no ‘Ibaadah(worship) is recognised, and no perceived Taa’ah(obedience) to ALLAAH can be shown. Thus, the basic answer Rosuulul LAAH(S.A.W.) gave echoed the Message of every Prophet ever Sent by ALLAAH, for ALLAAH Says: Wa la-qode Ba’athnaa fii kulli Ummatin-Rosuulan ani’-budul LAAHA waje-Tanibut Taaghuut(a) “And We have Raised in every community a Messenger (with the Command) that they should Worship ALLAAH Alone, and avoid Taaghuut(falsehood)”. [16.Nahl:36] Therefore, a mere verbal utterance of the Shahaadah will not be sufficient and while it is traditionally repeated among the Muslimuun throughout their lives, very few understand the implications of this essential requirement. Though the literal meaning of LAA ILAAHA ILLAL LAAH is “there is no god except ALLAAH”, its correct meaning is “there is none worthy of worship except ALLAAH”. Irrespective of how many times a day a person may utter the expression, this is only one of the conditions that will differentiate the person who may benefit from his testimony,
from the one who will not. The definition of a “god” in Islaam, is something that is adored, worshipped or given obedience to, and those things that become the centre of people's emotions in which they place their love, fear, hope, reliance and trust, etc. Therefore, many things can be made into “gods”! So once people have decided that their goal in life is about money, prestige or contentment, believing that this provides them with satisfaction and freedom from anxiety, then they have made it their “god”, and this example can be extended into many others. This means that all the actions that they perform which will lead them to such a desire is their form of “worship”. Thus, during the earliest times of Islaam, as one of the generals of the Muslim army approached a certain district, he said to its people: "We have come to liberate whomsoever ALLAAH Wills among His Servants from the worship of men by men to the worship of the Lord of all men". The word ALLAAH is comprised of two words: AL - which is the definite article; and ilaah - which means something that is worshipped. Hence, ALLAAH (a combination of these two words) means: “The True object of worship”. ALLAAH is the same “God” that the Jews and Christians were supposed to believe in and it would be an error to assume that God is the Muslim word for ALLAAH. In fact, the Hebrew word for “God” is “Eloh” which is similar to ilaah in the Arabic but the Christians again claim that God manifested himself on earth through Jesus, which resembles many such manifestations in Hinduism and other ideologies. Therefore, the Name ALLAAH befits HIM Alone and the use of “We” and “Us” are simply an expression of honour as found in Semitic languages. It is also clear that the testimony of LAA ILAAHA ILLAL LAAH comprises of two principles; Denial and Affirmation. The negation phrase is LAA ILAAH (there is none worthy of worship), and the confirmation phrase, being ILLAL LAAH (except ALLAAH). The phrase: “there is none worthy of worship” negates all other false objects of worship, whereas the phrase “except ALLAAH” confirms that there is only One True God worthy of all worship - Who has no partners along with HIM in HIS Sovereignty. Some circles have stated that the intertwined Laam-Alif in accordance with traditional grammar and the ‘Ilmul Huruuf(science of letters) points out that the LAA is the secret and difference between ILAAH and ALLAAH, and the key to attaining knowledge of ALLAAH and the ILAAH. What is very significant concerns a said report wherein Rosuulul LAAH(S.A.W.) says: Laa ilaaha illal LAAHU Miftaahul Jannah “There is none worthy of worship except ALLAAH is the key to Paradise”.
A point to emphasise is that every key has different teeth and ridges, and if one has the right key, a particular door will open, which otherwise would remain locked. Hence, certain ‘Ulamaa_ have established that the conditions of the Shahaadah are the following: 1. ‘Ilm (Knowledge): Knowledge about the nature and concept of the Shahaadah, and the method of worshipping. 2. Yaqiin (Certainty): Certainty of its meaning and to be free from doubt, misgivings and suspicion in ALLAAH’s Message and of HIS Messenger. 3. Ikhlaas (Sincerity): Sincerity of intention in every possible aspect of Islaam and its Sharii’ah(Law). 4, Sidq (Truthfulness): Truthfulness in removing all traces of hypocrisy from the tongue, mind, heart and deeds. 5. Mahabbah (Love): Loving and hating what ALLAAH and HIS Messenger love and hate. 6. Inqiyaad (Compliance): Complying without any form of arrogance towards showing obedience to ALLAAH and HIS Messenger. 7. Qubuul (Acceptance): Acceptance of all the conditions, and being firm and pleased with it. This then is the essence of Tawhiid(Oneness of ALLAAH), which is embedded in the declaration of the Shahaadah, and it calls for the rejection of anyone and anything else that is being worshipped other than ALLAAH. It drives one to strengthen one’s ‘Aqiidah(belief) with conviction. The word Tawhiid is derived from the root word Ahada, meaning to be alone, unique, unmatched, incomparable or without equal and 'Aqiidah stems from the root 'Aqada, conveying the meanings of certainty, affirmation, confirmation, etc., and another word that is also derived from this root is I'tiqaad, which means “tying up and making strong”. So in Islaam, 'Aqiidah involves knowledge of those matters that are known from the Holy Qur'aan and sound Ahaadiith(narrations), in which a Muslim must whole-heartedly believe in and acknowledge inwardly and outwardly as the Haqq(Truth) from ALLAAH S.W.T. and His Messenger(S.A.W.). In fact, the subject of Tawhiid for justified reasons developed into a sophisticated science among the ‘Ulamaa_ of ‘Ilmul Kalaam(Scholastic Theology) and it became known as ‘Ilmut Tawhiid(The science or knowledge of ALLAAH’s Oneness), studying the Ilaahiyyaat(Belief in ALLAAH’s Divinity that also concerns the figurative and abstract meanings of HIS Attributes), Nubuwwaat(Belief in all the Prophets together with their prerequisites) and the Sam’iyyaat(Belief in all intangible matters as referred to in the Holy Qur-aan and Ahaadiith). Other scholars have cautioned that Tawhiid revolves around the Uluuhiyyah(ALLAAH’s Divinity), Rubuubiyyah(ALLAAH’s Lordship), ‘Ubuudiyyah(Methodology of Worshipping ALLAAH) and the Asmaa-ul LAAHI wa Sifaatih(Names of ALLAAH and HIS Attributes). While the latter concern themselves with the views of the Salaf(Companions of the Prophet and their followers up to the third century) and the former leaning towards the Kholaf(those who came after them, and naturally those before them), the merits and
arguments of each lie in their understanding and the environmental conditions that faced them. The Shahaadah then safeguards the believer from all forms of falseness, and he should never be among those who when approached to come nearer for the sake of Islaam to show his arrogance, for ALAAH Cautioned the arrogant disbelievers as follows: Innahum Kaanuu ithaa Qiila lahum Laa ilaaha illal LAAHU Yastakbiruun(a) "Truly, when it was said to them: none is to be worshipped except ALLAAH, they puffed themselves up with pride (i.e. denied)." (37.Saaffaat:35) As the situation may arise from time to time, the revert (or convert) and those born in Islaam must not let it be a favour for the sake of someone or to their families that they are Muslim, for ALLAAH Says: Qul-Laa Tamunnuu ‘alayya Islaamakum, Balil LAAHU Yamunnu ‘alaykum An Hadaakum lil-Iimaani In- Kuntum Saadiqiin(a) “Say (O Muhammad): Lay me not under obligation by your Islaam: rather ALLAAH Lays you under an obligation by Guiding you to the Faith if you are truthful”. (49.Hujuraat:17) As for the hypocrite who utters the Shahaadah, but who really conceals its rejection in his heart, ALLAAH Says: Yaquuluuna bi-Alsinatihim-maa laysa fii Quluubihim "They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts”. (48.Fath:11) Thus, one must take care not to fall into any of the mentioned categories nor be of those whom ALLAAH Says: Qaalatil A’raabu Aamannaa, Qul-lam Tu_minuu walaakin Quuluu Aslamnaa wa lammaa Yade-khulil Iimaanu fii Quluubikum “The dwellers of the desert say: We believe! Say (O Muhammad): You do not believe, but (rather) say: We have submitted (our wills to ALLAAH); for Faith has not entered your hearts”. (49:Hujuraat:14) (To be continued…in Lesson 1b)