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Nahjul Balaaghah about Allegiance for Ali’s Khilaafah By A.S. Hashim. MD.

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Presentation on theme: "Nahjul Balaaghah about Allegiance for Ali’s Khilaafah By A.S. Hashim. MD."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Nahjul Balaaghah about Allegiance for Ali’s Khilaafah By A.S. Hashim. MD

3 Supplication بـســـم الله الرحمن الرحيم In the Name of God, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace

4 Nahjul Balaaghah Nahjul Balaaghah, a highly valued book, consists of: – 254 sermons, – 48 letters, and – 212 sayings of Imam Ali Nahjul Balaaghah is unique to Imam Ali None of the Sahaaba was ever able to produce anything like it: neither in substance nor in literary eloquence. No wonder Ali was referred to as: 1. Sayyid al-Bulaghaa' (Pinnacle of Literary Expression) and 2. Sayyid al-Fu'qahaa, (Pinnacle of the Jurisprudents)

5 References about Ali’s Khilaafah Nahjul Balaaghah contains 11 references about Ali’s Khilaafah The quotes appear in various sermons, –said at variable occasions and –about different subjects. The Arabic quotes are from the book of Nahjul Balaaghah, by Dr. Subhi Al-Salih, and so is the numbering of the sermons and pages, 1st Edition, Beirut The Number of the sermons may differ by a factor of 1 in other volumes of Nahjul Balaaghah The references are quotes by Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni in vols. I & IV of his work (see Al-Islam.org, internet)

6 Time Element The majority of Ali's sayings and speeches were stated: –During his Khilaafah when in Kufa, –At Different Places –At Different Occasions –Often at Khutba of Jumu’ah

7 In Sermon 3, Ali: sermon of Shiqshiqiyah, Part 1 See next slide please –Other sources: 1. Al-Mufid, al-Jamal, 62; 2. Ibn Qubbah, al-'Insaf, see Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh, I, 69, 3. al-Saduq, Ma`ani, 344; 4. al-Hasan ibn `Abd Allah al-`Askari, from him al-Saduq in Ma`ani; 5. Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, IV, see `Abd al-Zahra', I, and al-Majlisi, Bihar, vol.8, 160; 6. al-Ka`bi (d.319/931) - see Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh, I, 69; 7. Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Manaqib, see Bihar, vol.8, 160; 8. al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 135; 9. al-Saduq, `Ilal, bab al-`illat allati min ajliha taraka Amir al-Mu'minin (A) mujahadat ahl al-khilaf; 10. al-Tusi, al-'Amali, I, 392; 11. Qutb al-Din Rawandi, Sharh, from Ibn Mardawayh and al-Tabarani; 12. Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirah, 133; al-Harrani, Tuhaf, 313;

8 In Sermon 3, Ali Part 2 continued See next slide please –Other sources: 13. al-Saduq, `Ilal, bab al-`illat allati min ajliha taraka Amir al-Mu'minin (A) mujahadat ahl al-khilaf; 14. Abu Sa`id al-'Abi, Nathr al-durar and Nuzhat al-'adib, see `Abd al- Zahra', I, 313; 15. al-Murtada, al-Shafi, 203, 204; 16. al-Haffar, al-'Insaf from him al-Tusi in al-'Amali; 17. al-Tusi, al-'Amali, I, 392; 18. Qutb al-Din Rawandi, Sharh, from Ibn Mardawayh and al- Tabarani; 19. Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirah, 133; 20. al-Harrani, Tuhaf, 313; 21. al-Murtada, Sharh al-Khutbat al-Shiqshiqiyyah, see A`yan al- Shi`ah, vol. 41, p. 195; 22. al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj; I, 95; for a detailed discussion of sources, see `Abd al-Zahra', I,

9 Sermon of Shiqshiqiyah Sermon of al Shiqshiqiyah is counted among the most famous sermons of Ali. It was delivered at al-Ruhba. –And the events alluded to in this sermon are preserved in the annals of history which testifies them word by word and sentence by sentence. –If the memory of discouraging circumstances faced by Ali soon after the death of the Prophet appeared unpalatable to him it should not be surprising. –No doubt this sermon hits at the prestige of some personalities and gives a setback to the faith and belief in them, yet its annals are recorded in history.

10 In Sermon 3, page 49 Ali: sermon of Shiqshiqiyah, Part 1 By Allah he had dressed himself with it (the Khilaafah) and he certainly knows that to it my station is as central as the axis to the hand- mill. My rank is such that it is too high for a bird to reach or water to drown. I blockaded the Khilaafah from my mind and detached it from myself. Then began to think whether to assault without any help versus to endure such a blinding wretchedness. The situation is such that it enfeebles a man and ages the young, and even the believer is harshly strained till he meets his Lord. I concluded that endurance thereon was wiser. So I adopted patience despite the affront and a chocked up feeling. I watched my inheritance plundered: Till the first one passed away but had handed it over (the Khilaafah) to the 2 nd one after him. أَمَا وَالله لَقَدْ تَقَمَّصَها فُلانٌ، وَإِنَّهُ لَيَعْلَمُ أَنَّ مَحَلِّيَ مِنهَا مَحَلُّ القُطْبِ مِنَ الرَّحَا، يَنْحَدِرُ عَنِّي السَّيْلُ، وَلا يَرْقَى إِلَيَّ الطَّيْرُ، فَسَدَلْتُ دُونَهَا ثَوْباً، وَطَوَيْتُ عَنْهَا كَشْحاً، وَطَفِقْتُ أَرْتَئِي بَيْنَ أَنْ أَصُولَ بِيَد جَذَّاءَ، أَوْ أَصْبِرَ عَلَى طَخْيَة عَمْيَاءَ، يَهْرَمُ فيهَا الكَبيرُ، وَيَشِيبُ فِيهَا الصَّغِيرُ، وَيَكْدَحُ فِيهَا مُؤْمِنٌ حَتَّى يَلْقَى رَبَّهُ. فَرَأَيْتُ أَنَّ الصَّبْرَ عَلَى هَاتَا أَحْجَى، فَصَبَرتُ وَفي الْعَيْنِ قَذىً، وَفي الحَلْقِ شَجاً، أرى تُرَاثي نَهْباً، حَتَّى مَضَى الاَْوَّلُ لِسَبِيلِهِ، فَأَدْلَى بِهَا إِلَى فلان بَعْدَهُ.

11 In Sermon 3, page 49 Ali: sermon of Shiqshiqiyah, Part 2 Strange it is that while alive he wished to be released from it (Khilaafah) yet he confirmed it for the other one after he was gone. Lo! How they shared its udders between them. The other put it (Khilaafah) in an abrasive enclosure, where utterance was hard and the touch was rough. Mistakes were in plenty and their excuses were abundant. He is therefore, like a rider of an unruly camel, if he pulls its rein its nostril would be slit, but if he let it loose he would be thrown off its back. As a result, (by Allah), people became involved in recklessness, waywardness, variations and objections. Nevertheless, I remained steadfast despite the lengthy period and the harshness of the trial, till he passed away, just to put it (Khilaafah) in a group and assumed I was equal to them. فَيَا عَجَباً!! بَيْنَا هُوَ يَسْتَقِيلُها في حَيَاتِهِ إِذْ عَقَدَهَا لاخَرَ بَعْدَ وَفَاتِهِ ـ لَشَدَّ مَا تَشَطَّرَا ضَرْعَيْهَا ! ـ فَصَيَّرَهَا في حَوْزَة خَشْنَاءَ، يَغْلُظُ كَلْمُهَا، وَيَخْشُنُ مَسُّهَا، وَيَكْثُرُ العِثَارُ [فِيهَا] وَالاْعْتَذَارُ مِنْهَا، فَصَاحِبُهَا كَرَاكِبِ الصَّعْبَةِ، إِنْ أَشْنَقَ لَهَا خَرَمَ، وَإِنْ أَسْلَسَ لَهَا تَقَحَّمَ، فَمُنِيَ النَّاسُ ـ لَعَمْرُ اللهِ ـ بِخَبْط وَشِمَاس، وَتَلَوُّن وَاعْتِرَاض. فَصَبَرْتُ عَلَى طُولِ الْمُدَّةِ، وَشِدَّةِ الِْمحْنَةِ، حَتَّى إِذا مَضَى لِسَبِيلِهِ جَعَلَهَا في جَمَاعَة زَعَمَ أَنَّي أَحَدُهُمْ.

12 In Sermon 3, page 49 Ali: sermon of Shiqshiqiyah, Part 3 Good Heavens! What is to do with this Shura? When was there a doubt about me compared to the first one, let alone being considered akin to these ones? But I decided to remain low when they were low and fly high when they flew high. As such, one of them turned against me because of his rancor, the other inclined the other way due to his in-law relation, and this thing and that, Till the third of these stood up heaving his breasts between his dung and fodder. And with him stood up the children of his clan, (Benu Umayya), devouring Allah's wealth as a camel devours the foliage of spring. Till his rope broke down, and his actions finished him off and the gluttony forced him down prostrate. فَيَاللهِ وَلِلشُّورَى! مَتَى اعْتَرَضَ الرَّيْبُ فِيَّ مَعَ الاَْوَّلِ مِنْهُمْ، حَتَّى صِرْتُ أُقْرَنُ إِلَى هذِهِ النَّظَائِرِ! لكِنِّي أَسفَفْتُ إِذْ أَسَفُّوا، وَطِرْتُ إِذْ طَارُوا، فَصَغَا رَجُلُ مِنْهُمْ لِضِغْنِه، وَمَالَ الاْخَرُ لِصِهْرهِ، مَعَ هَن وَهَن. إِلَى أَنْ قَامَ ثَالِثُ القَوْمِ، نَافِجَاً حِضْنَيْهِ بَيْنَ نَثِيلهِ وَمُعْتَلَفِهِ، وَقَامَ مَعَهُ بَنُو أَبِيهِ يَخْضَمُونَ مَالَ اللهِ خَضْمَ الاِْبِل نِبْتَةَ الرَّبِيعِ، إِلَى أَنِ انْتَكَثَ عَلَيْهِ فَتْلُهُ، وَأَجْهَزَ عَلَيْهِ عَمَلُهُ، وَكَبَتْ بِهِ بِطْنَتُهُ

13 In Sermon 3, page 49 Ali: sermon of Shiqshiqiyah, Part 4 None took me by surprise as much as the rushing crowd towards me, eagerly advancing from every side like leopards So much so that al-Hasan and al-Husain were being crushed and both sides of my shoulder garment were torn. They collected around me like the herd of sheep. But when I took charge of government: One party broke away, Another turned disobedient, While the third acted wrongfully, as if they had not heard Allah saying: “That abode in the hereafter, We assign it for those who intend not to exult themselves in the earth, nor (to make) mischief (therein); and the end is (best) for the pious ones.” Yes, by Allah! they had heard it and understood it but the world glittered in their eyes and its embellishments seduced them. فَمَا رَاعَنِي إلاَّ وَالنَّاسُ إليَّ كَعُرْفِ الضَّبُعِ، يَنْثَالُونَ عَلَيَّ مِنْ كُلِّ جَانِب، حَتَّى لَقَدْ وُطِىءَ الحَسَنَانِ، وَشُقَّ عِطْفَايَ، مُجْتَمِعِينَ حَوْلي كَرَبِيضَةِ الغَنَمِ. فَلَمَّا نَهَضْتُ بِالاَْمْرِ نَكَثَتْ طَائِفَةٌ، وَمَرَقَتْ أُخْرَى، وقسط آخَرُونَ كَأَنَّهُمْ لَمْ يَسْمَعُوا اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ يَقُولُ: (تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الاخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَاِللَّذِينَ لاَ يُريدُونَ عُلُوّاً في الاَرْضِ وَلاَ فَسَاداً وَالعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ)، بَلَى! وَاللهِ لَقَدْ سَمِعُوهَا وَوَعَوْهَا، وَلكِنَّهُمْ حَلِيَتَ الدُّنْيَا في أَعْيُنِهمْ، وَرَاقَهُمْ زِبْرِجُهَا!

14 In Sermon 3, page 49 Ali: sermon of Shiqshiqiyah, Part 5 Behold, by Him who made the grain to grow and the living created, if people had not come to me and supporters had not exhausted all avenues, and if there weren’t the pledge of Allah with the learned to not acquiesce to the gluttony of the oppressor or the hunger of the oppressed, I would have cast the rope of Khilaafah on its own shoulders, and would have treated the last one the same as the first. And you would have discovered, that in my view, your world is no better than the sneeze of a goat. أَمَا وَالَّذِي فَلَقَ الْحَبَّةَ، وَبَرَأَ النَّسَمَةَ، لَوْلاَ حُضُورُ الْحَاضِرِ وَقِيَامُ الْحُجَّةِ بِوُجُودِ النَّاصِرِ، وَمَا أَخَذَ اللهُ عَلَى العُلَمَاءِ أَلاَّ يُقَارُّوا عَلَى كِظَّةِ ظَالِم، وَلا سَغَبِ مَظْلُوم، لاََلقَيْتُ حَبْلَهَا عَلَى غَارِبِهَا، وَلَسَقَيْتُ آخِرَهَا بِكَأْسِ أَوَّلِها، وَلاََلفَيْتُمْ دُنْيَاكُمْ هذِهِ أَزْهَدَ عِنْدِي مِنْ عَفْطَةِ عَنْز!

15 In Sermon 16, page 57 When allegiance was sworn to Ali at Medina Al-Sharif Al-Radhi says: In this speech there is more beauty than can be appreciated, and the quantity of amazement aroused by it is more than the appreciation accorded to it. It has aspects of eloquence that cannot be expressed nor can anyone reach its depth, and no one can understand unless one has attained this art and known its depth. See next slide please –Other sources: 1.Al-Jahiz, al-Bayan, I, 170; 2.Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, I, 132; 3.al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 139; 4.Ibn Qutaybah, `Uyun, II, 236; 5.Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, II, 162; 6.al-`Askari, al-'Awa'il, 102; 7.al-Kulayni, Usul al-Kafi, I, 369 and Rawdat al-Kafi, 67; 8.al-Tusi, al'Amali, * 147.

16 In Sermon 16, page, When allegiance was sworn to Ali at Medina Lo! For sure the tribulations had returned to be similar to when the Prophet was first sent. By Allah! Who sent the Prophet with the Truth, you will be severely muddled and bitterly shaken as in a sieve, and fully mixed as by spooning in a cooking pot Until the lowly is eyed as lordly, and the respectable is eyed as lowly, and the achievers regarded valueless, while the backward considered as astute. By Allah, I have not concealed a word or spoken a lie: I had been informed of both this event and of this time. أَلاَ وَإِنَّ بَلِيَّتَكُمْ قَدْ عَادَتْ كَهَيْئَتِهَا يَوْمَ بَعَثَ اللهُ نَبِيَّهُ (صلى الله عليه وآله) ، وَالَّذِي بَعَثَهُ بِالحَقِّ لَتُبَلْبَلُنَّ بَلْبَلَةً، وَلَتُغَرْبَلُنَّ غَرْبَلَةً، وَلَتُسَاطُنَّ سَوْطَ القِدْرِ، حَتَّى يَعُودَ أَسْفَلُكُمْ أَعْلاَكُمْ، وَأَعْلاَكُمْ أَسْفَلَكُمْ، وَلَيَسْبِقَنَّ سَابِقُونَ كَانُوا قَصَّرُوا، وَلَيُقَصِّرَنَّ سَبَّاقُونَ كَانُوا سَبَقُوا. وَاللهِ مَا كَتَمْتُ وَشْمَةً، وَلا كَذَبْتُ كِذْبَةً، وَلَقَدْ نُبِّئْتُ بِهذا المَقامِ وَهذَا اليَوْمِ

17 In Sermon 26, Page 68 Ali about the enticement between Mu'awiya and Amr ibn al-Aas Ali delivered a sermon before setting off for Nahrawan. In its first part Ali described the condition of Arabia before the Mission of Prophethood; in the second part he referred to circumstances that forced him to keep quiet, and in the third he described the enticement between Mu'awiya and Amr ibn al-Aas. See next slide please 1.Other sources: 1. Ibn Qutaybah, al-'Imamah, I, 154; 2. al-Thaqafi, al-Gharat, I, 303, II, 633; 3. al-Tabari, al-Mustarshid, 95; 4. Ibn Tawus, Kashf, 173; 5. al-Kulayni, al-Rasa'il, mentioned by Ibn Tawus, op. cit.

18 In Sermon 26, Ali about the enticement between Mu'awiya and ibn al-Aas I viewed the situation and found that my family is my only support, so I refrained from thrusting them unto death. I closed my eyes despite the pain, and so bad it was that when I try to drink I chock. I exercised patience with tight feeling in the chest or having to swallow bitter food. Part of the same sermon on the settlement between Mu'awiya and Amr ibn al-Aas: He (ibn al-Aas) did not swear allegiance (to Mu'awiya) till he got Mu'awiya to agree paying him its price. Not only the purchaser of this allegiance failed to achieve, but also the contract of the seller faces disgrace. So be prepared for war and mobilize for it. For the flame of war has gone high and its brightness has spread. Clothe yourself with patience for it is a good way to victory فَنَظَرْتُ فَإِذَا لَيْسَ لِي مُعِينٌ إِلاَّ أَهْلُ بَيْتِي، فَضَنِنْتُ بِهمْ عَنِ المَوْتِ، وَأَغْضَيْتُ عَلَى القَذَى، وَشَرِبْتُ عَلَى الشَّجَا، وَصَبَرْتُ عَلَى أَخْذِ الكَظَمِ، وَعَلىْ أَمَرَّ مِنْ طَعْمِ العَلْقَمِ. ومنها: وَلَمْ يُبَايعْ حَتَّى شَرَطَ أَنْ يُؤْتِيَهِ عَلَى البَيْعَةِ ثَمَناً، فَلاَ ظَفِرَتْ يَدُ المبايِعِ، وخَزِيَتْ أَمَانَةُ المُبْتَاعِ، فَخُذُوا لِلْحَرْبِ أُهْبَتَهَا، وَأعِدُّوا لَهَا عُدَّتَهَا، فَقَدْ شَبَّ لَظَاهَا، وَعَلاَ سَنَاهَا، وَاسْتَشْعِرُوا الصَّبْرَ، فَإِنَّهُ أحْزَمُ لِلنَّصْرِ.

19 In Sermon 74, Page 102 When Shura intended for Uthman When the Consultative Committee (or Shura) decided to swear allegiance to Uthman, Ali said:…. (See next slide please) –Other sources: 1. Al-Tabari, Ta'rikh, chronicles of the year 23; 2. al-'Azhari, Tahdhib, I, 341; 3. al-Harawi, al-Jam`; 4. al-Shaykh Warram, Tanbih; 5. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, events of the year 23.

20 In Sermon 74,, When Shura intended for Uthman For sure you are aware that I am the most rightful for the Khilaafah than all others. But by Allah, so long as the affairs of Muslims remain sound and there is no oppression in it except specifically on me I shall keep quiet: (thus) seeking reward for it from Allah, and keeping aloof from its allure and temptations for which you compete. لمّا عزموا على بيعة عثمان: لَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمْ أَنَّي أَحَقُّ بِهَا مِنْ غَيْرِي، وَوَاللهِ لاَُسْلِمَنَّ مَاسَلِمَتْ أُمُورُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ، وَلَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهِا جَوْرٌ إِلاَّ عَلَيَّ خَاصَّةً، الِْتمَاساً لاَِجْرِ ذلِكَ وَفَضْلِهِ، وَزُهْداً فِيَما تَنافَسْتُمُوهُ مِنْ زُخْرُفِهِ وَزِبْرِجِهِ.

21 In Sermon 92, Page136 During swearing allegiance to Ali When with the murder of Uthman the seat of Khilaafah became vacant, Muslims rushed to Ali to swear allegiance. Ali’s remarkable conduct and adherence to principles have been witnessed by them. Consequently, people rushed to him for swearing allegiance just as a rushing traveler who had lost his way then at last caught sight of his objective, as historian at-Tabari says. See next slide please –Other sources: 1. Al-Tabari, Ta'rikh,* VI, 3066 (events of the year 35); 2. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah (events of the year 35); 3. Ibn Miskawayh, Tajarib al-'umam, I, 508.

22 In Sermon 92, During swearing allegiance at Ali Leave me and seek someone else. We are facing a matter with several faces and colors, for which neither hearts can stand, nor intellect can concur. Like clouds hovering over the sky, the dilemmas are not discernible. Be aware, that if I accede to you I would lead you as I know and see fit, and would not listen to what one may say or blame. If you leave me then I am like you are. And perhaps I would listen to and obey better to whoever you choose to be in charge of your affairs. I am better for you as a Counselor than as the pre-eminent Master. دَعُوني وَالْـتَمِسُوا غَيْرِي; فإِنَّا مُسْتَقْبِلُونَ أَمْراً لَهُ وُجُوهٌ وَأَلْوَانٌ; لاَ تَقُومُ لَهُ الْقُلُوبُ، وَلاَ تَثْبُتُ عَلَيْهِ الْعُقُولُ، وَإِنَّ الاْفَاقَ قَدْ أَغَامَتْ، وَالْـمَحَجَّةَ قَدْ تَنَكَّرَتْ. وَاعْلَمُوا أَنِّي إنْ أَجَبْتُكُمْ رَكِبْتُ بِكُمْ مَا أَعْلَمُ، وَلَمْ أُصْغِ إِلَى قَوْلِ الْقَائِلِ وَعَتْبِ الْعَاتِبِ، وَإِنْ تَرَكْتُمُونِي فَأَنَا كَأَحَدِكُمْ; وَلَعَلِّي أَسْمَعُكُمْ وَأَطْوَعُكُمْ لِمنْ وَلَّيْتُمُوهُ أَمْرَكُمْ، وَأَنَا لَكُمْ وَزِيراً، خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ مِنِّي أَمِيراً!

23 In Sermon 136, Page194 Ali about his own intention Here Ali points to the view of Omar on the allegiance of Abu Bakr on the day of Saqifa when he said: “... the allegiance with Abu Bakr was a fault on the spur of the moment (faltah) but Allah saved us from its evil.” (as- Sahih, al-Bukhari, vol. 8, p. 211; as-Sirah an- Nabawiyyah, Ibn Hisham, vol. 4, pp In this sermon Ali alludes to the sincerity of his intention and support of the oppressed See next slide please –Other sources: 1. Al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 142; 2. (2) Ibn al-'Athir, III, 467 (f.l.t).

24 In Sermon 136,, Ali about his own intention Your allegiance to me was not a fault on the spur of a moment, nor was my affairs and yours the same. I seek you for Allah's sake, but you seek me for your own benefit. O' people! support me with all your hearts. By Allah, I will take the rights for the oppressed from his oppressor and will drag the oppressor by his rein to the spring of truthfulness, even though he may begrudge it. لَمْ تَكُنْ بَيْعَتُكُمْ إِيَّايَ فَلْتَةً، وَلَيْسَ أَمْرِي وَأَمْرُكُمْ وَاحِداً، إِنِّي أُرِيدُكُمْ للهِِ وَأَنْتُمْ تُرِيدُونَنِي لاَِنْفُسِكُمْ. أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، أَعِينُوني عَلى أَنْفُسِكُمْ، وَايْمُ اللهِ لاَُنْصِفَنَّ الْمَظْلُومَ، وَلاََقُودَنَّ الظَّالِمَ بِخِزَامَتِهَ حَتَّى أُورِدَهُ مَنْهَلَ الْحَقِّ وَإِنْ كَانَ كَارِهاً.

25 In Sermon 137, Page194 Ali about Talha and Zubair See next slide please –Other sources: 1. Ibn `Abd al-Birr, al-'Isti`ab, II, 211; 2. Ibn al-'Athir, Usd al-ghabah, II, 61; 3. al-Mufid in al-'Irshad, 146, 142, and al-Jamal, 143, from al- Waqidi; 4. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, III, 318 (`a.w.dh); 5. Ibn Qutaybah, al-'Imamah, I, 154; 6. al-Thaqafi, al-Gharat, I, 310; 7. al-Tabari, al-Mustarshid, 95; 8. Ibn Tawus, Kashf, 173; 9. Safwah, Jamharah; 10. al-Tabari, Ta'rikh, * VI, 3143.

26 In Sermon 137, Ali about Talha and Zubair O’ people, You advanced towards me shouting "allegiance, allegiance" like she- camels having delivered newly born, leaping. I held back my hand but you pulled it towards you. I drew back my hand but you dragged it. O' Allah! these two (Talha and Zubair) have disregarded my Rights and did me injustice. They both broke their allegiance to me, and roused people against me. Unfasten Thou O’ Allah their intrigue, and strengthen not their schemes. And let them face the evil in what they aimed and enacted. I asked them to be steadfast in their allegiance before the fighting, and was patient with them on confrontation. But they belittled the blessings and refused the good offer. فَأَقْبَلْتُمْ إِلَيَّ إِقْبَالَ الْعُوذِ الْمَطَافِيلِ عَلَى أَوْلاَدِهَا، تَقُولُونَ: الْبَيْعَةَ الْبَيْعَةَ! قَبَضْتُ كَفِّي فَبَسَطْتُمُوهَا، وَنَازَعَتْكُمْ يَدِي فَجَاذَبْتُمُوهَا. اللَّهُمَّ إنَّهُمَا قَطَعَاني وَظَلَمَاني، وَنَكَثَا بَيْعَتِي، وَأَلَّبَا النَّاسَ عَلَيَّ; فَاحْلُلْ مَا عَقَدَا، وَلاَ تُحْكِمْ لَهُمَا مَا أَبْرَمَا، وَأَرِهِمَا الْمَسَاءَةَ فِيَما أَمَّلاَ وَعَمِلاَ، وَلَقَدِ اسْتَثَبْتُهُمَا قَبْلَ الْقِتَالِ، وَاسْتَأْنَيْتُ بِهمَا أَمَامَ الْوِقَاعِ، فَغَمَطَا النِّعْمَةَ، وَرَدَّا الْعَافِيَةَ.

27 In Sermon 229, Page350 About allegiance to Ali for the Khilaafah See next slide please –Other sources: 1. Al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 142; 2. al-Mufid, al-Jamal, 128, from (3); 3. al-Waqidi, al-Jamal; 4. al-Thaqafi, al-Gharat, I, 310; 5. Ibn Tawus, Kashf, 173; 6. Ibn Qutaybah, al-'Imamah, I, 154; 7. al-Tabari, Ta'rikh, V, 28; 8. Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, II, 165; 9. al-Kulayni, al-Rasa'il; 10. al-Tabari, al-Mustarshid, 95.

28 In Sermon 229,, About allegiance to Ali for the Khilaafah (O’ people) You solicited my hand for allegiance but I held it back, and you stretched it out but I desisted. Then you crowded over me as do the thirsty camels on a watering cistern, So much so that slippers were torn, and the cloaks fell apart, and the weak got trampled, and the felicity of people on their allegiance to me was so much that: a)the young were joyous, b)the old swept away, c)the sick rode for it enduringly, and d)the young girls were without hijab. وَبَسَطْتُمْ يَدِي فَكَفَفْتُهَا، وَمَدَدْتُمُوهَا فَقَبَضْتُهَا، ثُمَّ تَدَاكَكْتُمْ عَلَيَّ تَدَاكَّ الاِْبِلِ الْهِيمِ عَلَى حِيَاضِهَا يَوْمَ وِرْدِهَا، حَتَّى انْقَطَعَتِ النَّعْلُ، وَسَقَطَ الرِّدَاءُ، وَوُطِىءَ الضَّعِيفُ، وَبَلَغَ مِنْ سُرُورِ النَّاسِ بِبَيْعَتِهِمْ إِيَّايَ أَنِ ابْتَهَجَ بِهَا الصَّغِيرُ، وَهَدَجَ إِلَيْهَا الْكَبِيرُ، وَتَحَامَلَ نَحْوَهَا الْعَلِيلُ، وَحَسَرَتْ إِلَيْهَا الْكِعَابُ

29 In Sermon 34, page 79 Ali’s rights versus people’s rights See next slide Other references: 1. Al-Tabari, Ta'rikh, VI, 51; 2. Ibn Qutaybah, al-'Imamah, I, 150; 3. al-Baladhuri, Ansab, 380; 4. al-Mufid, al-Majalis, 79; 5. Nasr ibn Muzahim, see Ibn Abi al-Hadid, I, 179.

30 In Sermon 34, Ali about his rights as Imam O' people, I have a right over you and you have a right over me. As for your right over me, it is: a)to counsel you, b)to fully pay your dues, c)to instruct you and d)coach you in manners of behavior. As for my right over you, it is: a)Fulfilling the obligation of your allegiance, b)well-wishing in my presence or in absence, c)response when I call upon you, and d)obedience when I order you. أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ! إِنَّ لِي عَلَيْكُمْ حَقّاً، وَلَكُمْ عَلَيَّ حَقٌّ: فَأَمَّا حَقُّكُمْ عَلَيَّ: فَالنَّصِيحَةُ لَكُمْ، وَتَوْفِيرُ فَيْئِكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ، وَتَعْلِيمُكُمْ كَيْلا تَجْهَلُوا، وَتَأْدِيبُكُمْ كَيْما تَعْلَمُوا. وَأَمَّا حَقِّي عَلَيْكُمْ: فَالوَفَاءُ بِالبَيْعَةِ، وَالنَّصِيحَةُ في الْمَشْهَدِ وَالْمَغِيبِ، وَالاِْجَابَةُ حِينَ أَدْعُوكُمْ، وَالطَّاعَةُ حِينَ آمُرُكُمْ.

31 Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim


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