Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

 Fibrous– bones joined by dense regular connective tissue; no or limited movement (periodontal, sutures, interosseus)  Cartilaginous– bones joined by.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: " Fibrous– bones joined by dense regular connective tissue; no or limited movement (periodontal, sutures, interosseus)  Cartilaginous– bones joined by."— Presentation transcript:

1  Fibrous– bones joined by dense regular connective tissue; no or limited movement (periodontal, sutures, interosseus)  Cartilaginous– bones joined by cartilage; some movement (costochondral, intervertebral, symphyses)  Synovial – fluid filled joint cavity separates articulatory surfaces of bones; extensive movement (temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital, atlantoaxial, vertebral articular process joints, sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral, elbow, radiocarpal, coxal, knee, talocrural) Types of Articulations/Joints

2  (Articular) Capsule – 2 layered con. tissue Fibrous Layer – outer dense reg. con. tiss. Synovial Membrane (synovium) – inner thin loose connective tissue  Synovial Fluid – plasma & secretions  Articular Cartilage – hyaline cartilage (lacks a perichondrium) Synovial Joints

3  Articular Discs – discs of fibrocartilage between the articular cartilages [ Menisci (sing. = meniscus) – C-shaped articular discs]  Extrinsic Ligaments – (outside) art. capsule  Intrinsic Extracapsular Ligaments – join bones; thickenings of articular capsule  Intrinsic Intracapsular Ligaments – join bones within the art. capsule Synovial Joints

4  Bursae (sing. = bursa) – capsule containing synovial fluid, near but not part of joint; reduce friction  Tendon Sheath – an elongate bursa that envelopes tendons or ligaments; reduce friction.  Fat Pads – fill spaces around joints, can provide some limited protection. Synovial Joints

5 Glenohumeral Joint

6 Elbow Joint

7 Coxal (Hip) Joint

8 Knee Joint

9 Temporomandibular & Sternoclavicular Joints

10 Muscular System

11 Muscle Classification  Cardiac Muscles = involuntary; myogenic; short, branched, uninucleate cells with striations.  Smooth Muscles = involuntary; myogenic; short, unbranched, uninucleate cells withOUT striations.  Skeletal Muscles = voluntary; neurogenic; long, unbranched multinucleate cells with striations.

12 Muscle Classifications  Somatic Muscles = Superficial to coelom (develop from myotome and/or somatic lateral plate).  Visceral Muscles = Deep to coelom (develop from splanchnic lateral plate).  Myogenic Muscles = contraction initiated in the muscle itself.  Neurogenic Muscles = contraction initiated by a nerve.

13 Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types  Fast Glycolytic Fibers (“White”) = rapid contraction; quick to fatigue; large diameter; low vascularization; little myoglobin; few mitochondria.  Slow Oxidative Fibers (“Red”) = slow contraction; slow to fatigue; narrow diameter; much vascularization; high myoglobin; many mitochondria.  Intermediate Fibers.

14  Muscle = muscle cells and the non- contractile supporting cells that together perform a single function.  Fascia = Connective tissue that surround muscle organs. (epimysium)  Tendon = Dense connective tissue that attaches a muscle organ to a bone. (connect to periosteum) Aponeurosis = flat, sheet-like tendon Skeletal Muscle Terms

15  Belly (gaster) = Fleshy part of muscle.  Origin = relatively fixed site of muscle attachment.  Insertion = relatively mobile site of muscle attachment.  Attachment = origin or insertion Ligaments  Ligament = Dense connective tissue that attaches a bone to a bone.

16 Biceps Muscle tendon belly tendon insertion origin

17 Biceps & Triceps Muscles

18  Flex = decrease angle btw. two parts.  Extend = increase angle btw. two parts.  Adduct = move a part toward the central axis or “main part.”  Abduct = move a part away from the central axis or “main part.” Muscle Actions

19  Depress = move a part “down.”  Levate = move a part “up.”  Constrict = close or restrict openings.  Dilate = open or enlarge openings. Muscle Actions

20  Combination of origin and insertion names. (origin-insertion) coracomandibularis, puboischiofemoris  Combinations of attachments, homologies, position, or actions. adductor mandibulae, superficial constrictor  Descriptors of size, shape, or perceived similarity. trapezius (table), pectoralis major (big pectoral) Muscle Names

21 Muscles form from mesoderm; obvious exception = the iris (ectodermal)  splanchnic lateral plate mesoderm  visceral smooth & cardiac muscles  somatic lateral plate mesoderm  some skeletal muscles  myotomal mesoderm (somitomeres and somites)  most skeletal muscles  prechordal mesoderm (in front of notochord)  3 extrinsic eye muscles Muscle Development

22 Vertebrate Neurula (section) gut notochord coelom somite inter- mediate meso- derm lateral plate mesoderm

23 Vertebrate Embryo (section) gut dermatome sclerotome myotome splanchnic mesoderm somatic mesoderm neural crest cells coelom

24 Vertebrate Embryo (section) gut coelom neural crest cells dermatome sclerotome myotome

25 Vertebrate Embryo (section) gut coelom neural crest cells dermatome vertebra myotome

26 gut Gnathostome Embryo (section) myotome coelom vertebra developing skin dermis epidermis neural crest horizontal septum

27  Somitomeres = head mesoderm segments  Somites = postcranial mesoderm segments Horizontal septum = divides myotome of somite into dorsal (epaxial) & ventral (hypaxial) portions (in Gnathostomes). Spinal nerves have epaxial and hypaxial innervating branches.  Prechordal mesoderm = median tissue under brain in front of notochord (not segmented) Muscle Development

28 Axial Musculature

29  Branchiomeric musculature = muscles of the pharyngeal & mandibular arches; derived from somitomeres with some lateral plate mesoderm  Hypobranchial musculature = muscles extending under the pharynyx; derived from ventral myotome of anterior somites migrating anteriorly Head/Neck Muscle Development

30

31 Generalized Vertebrate

32 somitomeres somites mandibular arch hyoid arch 1st branchial arch arch 1 musc. arch 2 musc. arch 3 musc. extrinsic eye muscles

33  Extrinsic Eye Muscles (6) Extrinsic Eye Muscles move the eye within the orbit, three muscles formed from somitomeres (sm) 1, 2, 3, & 5. three formed from prechordal mesoderm. sm 1&2 sm 5 sm 3

34

35 Superficial Facial Musculature of epicranius occipitalis of epicranius levator labii superioris temporalis mentalis

36

37 Neck (Under Chin) Musculature

38 Neck Musculature

39  Opening – Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid, Thyrohyoid, & Omohyoid contract (pull hyoid inferiorly) ; Digastric & Mylohyoid contract.  Closing – Temporalis, Masseter, & Pterygoideus contract (origin = palatine, pterygoid process of sphenoid, & greater wing of sphenoid; insertion = medial coronoid process of mandible)  Swallowing – Styloglossus contracts (pulls tongue back) ; Mylohyoid contracts (raises floor of mouth) ; Anterior Digastric and Stylohyoid contract (pulls hyoid superiorly) Mouth Opening & Closing

40 Human Neck Muscles

41 Thoracic Musculature

42 Thoracic (Back) Musculature

43 Thoracic Musculature pectoralis major serratus anterior

44 Thoracic (Back) Musculature trapezius latissimus dorsi

45 Abdominal Musculature rectus abdominis external obliques

46 Scapular Movement Musculature Trapezius & levator scapulae – move scapulas superiorly and/or medially or extend head Rhomboideus (Minor & Major) – move scapulas medially Serratus Anterior – move scapulas laterally and anteriorly/ventrally (pectoralis minor too)

47 Abdominal Musculature obliques – flex abdomen rectus abdominis – flex abdomen

48 Deep Back Musculature Erector spinae – extends vertebral column

49 Intervertebral Musculature rotatores interspinales intertransversarius

50 Pelvic Floor Musculature levator ani * external anal sphincter penis or clitoris labia majora or scrotum anus median connect. tissue deep transverse perineus bulbospongiosusischiocavernosus superficial transverse perineus

51 Pelvic Floor Musculature (Male) ischiocavernosus bulbospongiosus superficial transverse perineus external anal sphincter levator ani deep transverse perineus

52 Pelvic Floor Musculature (Female) ischiocavernosus bulbospongiosus superficial transverse perineus external anal sphincter levator ani deep transverse perineus external urethral sphincter

53

54

55 Head/Neck Muscle Development

56 Shark-like Vertebrate

57 somitomeres 1-7 somites 1-4 mandibular arch hyoid arch 1st branchial arch

58 Branchiomeric – Gill Arch constrictors adductor dorsal branchial levators ventral branchials

59 Mandibular & Hyoid adductor mandibulae intermandibularis, ventral constrictor levator palatoquadrati, dorsal constrictor levator hyomandibulae, dorsal constrictor interhyoideus, ventral constrictor

60  Innervated by trigeminal nerve ( V ). Mandibular Arch Muscles shark amphibian or reptile mammal AdductorD. ConstrictorVentral adductor mandibulae adductor mandibulae masseter, temporalis, pterygoideus levator palatoquadrati levator pterygoidei ABSENT inter- mandibularis inter- mandibularis mylohyoid, anterior digastric

61 Adductor Mandibulae “turtle”mammal shark t = temporalis m = masseter p = pterygoideus adductor mandibulae t mp

62 Mandibular Arch Muscles

63

64  Innervated by facial nerve ( VII ). Hyoid Arch Muscles shark amphibian or reptile mammal V. ConstrictorVentral levator hyomandibuli stapedius ABSENT ventral hyoid constrictor sphincter coli platysma, facial muscles inter- hyoideus inter- hyoideus stylohyoid, posterior digastric D. Constrictor

65 Hyoid Arch Muscles

66 Branchiomeric Muscles

67  Lissamphibia & non-Avian Repilia origin – coracoid; insert - humerus Adducts ventrally, like pectoralis  Mammalia (Supraspinatus & Infraspinatus) origin – scapular blade; insert - humerus Abducts (supraspinatus) limb superiorly or adducts (infraspinatus) linb inferiorly  Aves origin – sternum; insert - humerus Abducts limb (elevates) contra pectoralis Supracoracoideus

68 Amphibian Pectoral Muscles VENTRAL VIEW pectoralis supracoracoideus

69 Lizard Pectoral Muscles scapula coracoid sternum humerus scapula coracoid pectoralis supra- coracoideus SCHEMATIC ANTERIOR VIEW

70 Bird Pectoral Muscles scapula coracoid sternum

71 Mammal Pectoral Muscles humerus pectoralis SCHEMATIC ANTERIOR VIEW sternum supra- spinatus

72

73  or. = Origin  ins. = insert  Sm. # = Originates from somite #  Smtm. # = Originates from somitomere #  - Roman Numeral (e.g., -III or -IV) = Innervated by cranial nerve # (cranial nerves are numbered in roman numerals)  - Nerve Name (e.g., -sciatic nerve or –phrenic nerve) = Innervated by named nerve Musculature Ref. - Abbreviations

74  Masseter – or. = zygomatic arch; ins. = lateral surface of posterior mandible; elevates mandible, Smtm. 4 - V  Temporalis – or. = frontal, parietal, & temporal; ins. = coronoid process of mandible; elevates mandible, Smtm. 4 - V  Pterygoideus – or. = maxilla, palatines, & pterygoid processes; ins. = medial mandible; elevates mandible, Smtm. 4 - V  Buccinator – or. = body of mandible and maxilla; ins. = fascia of orbicularis oris; compresses cheeks, Smtm. 6 - VII Head Musculature - Reference

75  Mylohyoid – or. = medial mandible; ins. = median conn. tissue; elevates floor of mouth, depresses mandible, or elevates hyoid, Smtm. 4 - V  Digastric – or. = mastoid process of temporal; central tendon loops to hyoid; ins. = medial chin; elevates hyoid or depresses mandible Anterior digastric - Smtm. 4 - V Posterior digastric - Smtm. 6 – VII  Stylohyoid – or. = stylod process; ins. = hyoid; elevates hyoid, Smtm. 6 - VII Head Musculature - Reference

76  Frontalis of epicranius – or. = frontal; ins. = epicranial aponeurosis; wrinkles forehead, raises eyebrows, Smtm. 6 - VII  Occipitalis of epicranius – or. = occipital; ins. = epicranial aponeurosis; pulls scalp back, Smtm. 6 - VII  Orbicularis oculi – sphincter -, encircles eye; closes eye, constricts eye, Smtm. 6 - VII  Orbicularis oris – sphincter -, encircles mouth; puckers lips, constricts mouth, Smtm. 6 - VII Head Musculature - Reference

77  Nasalis – or. = maxilla; ins. = midline of nose; flattens or flares nose, Smtm. 6 - VII  Zygomaticus minor & major – or. = zygomatic arch; ins. = skin at corner of mouth; “smile”, Smtm. 6 - VII  Risorius – or. = masseter fascia; ins. = skin at corner of mouth; “smile”, Smtm. 6 - VII  Depressor anguli oris – or. = lateral mandible; ins. = skin at corner of mouth; “frown”, Smtm. 6 - VII Head Musculature - Reference

78  Levator labii superioris – or. = zygomatic arch; ins. = skin at top of mouth; “sneer” or “Elvis lip”, Smtm. 6 - VII  Depressor labii inferioris – or. = mandible lateral to midline; ins. = skin at bottom of mouth; “pout lip”, Smtm. 6 - VII  Mentalis – or. = median mandible; ins. = skin under mouth; “pout lip”, Smtm. 6 - VII  Platysma – or. = deltoid & pectorialis fascia + acromion; ins. = skin of cheek & mandible; tenses neck skin, Smtm. 6 - VII Head Musculature - Reference

79  Stylopharyngeus – or. = styloid process; ins. = thyroid cart.; elevates larynx, Smtm.7- IX  Palatoglossus – or. = soft palate; ins. = side of tongue; elevates tongue, Sm. 1 - X  Sternocleidomastoid – or. = manubrium and clavicle; ins. = mastoid process; neck flexion, Sm IX  Trapezius – or. = occipital and spinous processes or thoracic vertebrae; ins. = lateral clavicle and scapular spine; move scapula, Sm IX Head/Neck Musc. - Reference Sm IX

80  Styloglossus– or.= styloid process; ins.= lat. & inferior tongue; retracts tongue, Sm XII  Hyoglossus – or. = hyoid; ins. = lateral tongue; retracts tongue, Sm. 1-3 – XII  Genioglossus – or. = medial mandible; ins. = inferior tongue; protracts tongue, Sm. 1-3 – XII  Thyrohyoid – or. = thyroid cart.; ins. = hyoid; pulls hyoid and thyroid cart. together  Cricothyroid – origin = cricoid cart.; insertion = thyroid cart.; pulls cricoid cart. and thyroid cart. together Head/Neck Musc. - Reference

81  Sternohyoid – or. = manubrium; ins. = hyoid; depresses hyoid  Sternothyroid – or. = manubrium; ins. = thyroid; depresses thyroid cartilage  Omohyoid – or. = superior edge of scapula; ins. = hyoid; depresses hyoid  Scalene muscles – or. = transverse processes of cervical vert. II-VII; ins. = 1 st and 2 nd ribs; elevates ribs 1 and 2 Head Musculature - Reference

82  Splenius and capitis muscles – or. = Spinous or transverse processes of C1-T4 (or the median overlying dense connective tissue, the ligamentum nuchae); ins. = mastoid process of temporal occipital bone or transverse processes of the atlas; extend and rotate head (antagonistic to sternocleidomastoid)  Levator scapulae – or. = transverse processes of C1-C4; ins. = superior/medial margin of scapula; elevates scapula Neck Musculature - Reference

83  Erector spinae – or. = ilium, posterior sacrum, & lumbar spinous processes; ins. = ribs, cervical transverse processes, mastoid processes; extends vertebral column  Transversospinalis – or. = posterior (dorsal) transverse processes of C1-S1; ins. = spinous processes; extends, rotates or laterally flexes vertebral column Thoracic Musculature – Ref. (epaxial musculature)

84  Pectoralis major – or. = inferior medial clavicle, sternum, sternal portion of ribs 2-6; ins. = humerus (intertubercular); pulls arm anteriorly (ventrally)  Pectoralis minor – or. = ribs 3-5; ins. = coracoid process of scapula; pulls scapula anteriorly (ventrally)  Serratus anterior – or. = lat. surfaces of ribs 1- 8; ins. = medial inferior margin of blade of scapula; pulls scapula anterior and inferiorly  Intercostals (external & internal) – attachments = adjacent ribs; elevate or depress ribs Thoracic Musculature – Ref.

85  Trapezius – or. = occipital bone, median connective tissue above C1-C6, and spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T12; ins. = lateral clavicle, acromion, and scapular spine; elevate, depress, and/or move scapula medially  Rhomboid (minor & major) – or. = spinous processes of C7-T5; ins. = medial margin of blade of scapula; moves scapula medially  Latissimus dorsi – or. = spinous processes of vertebrae T7-T12, ribs 8-12, ilium; ins. = intertubercular groove of humerus; extends arm Thoracic Musculature – Ref.

86  Supraspinatus – or. = dorsal superior scapular blade; ins. = greater tubercle (humerus); abducts & rotates arm  Infraspinatus – or. = dorsal middle scapular blade; ins. = greater tubercle (humerus); adducts & rotates arm  Teres minor – or. = dorsal middle scapular blade; ins. = greater tubercle (humerus); adducts & rotates arm  Teres major – or. = dorsal inferior scapular blade; ins. = lesser tubercle (humerus); extends, adducts & rotates arm Thoracic Musculature – Ref.

87  Subscapularis – or. = ventral/anterior scapular blade; ins. = lesser tubercle (humerus); rotates arm  Coracobrachialis – or. = coracoid process of scapula; ins. = medial humerus shaft; flexes & adducts arm  Deltoid – or. = lateral clavicle & acromion process of scapula; ins. = lateral humerus; abducts and extends arm Thoracic Musculature – Ref.

88  Biceps brachii – or. = superior glenoid fossa rim & coracoid process; ins. = radial tuberosity; flexes arm & forearm  Triceps brachii – or. = inferior glenoid fossa rim & posterior humerus; ins. = olecranon process; extends arm & forearm  Brachialis – or. = anterior shaft of humerus; ins. = coranoid process of ulna; flexes forearm  Brachioradialis – or. = lateral humerus; ins. = styloid proc. of radius; flexes forearm Brachial Musculature – Ref.

89  Rectus abdominis – or. = pubis; ins. = xiphisternum and anterior (ventral) ribs 5- 7; flexes vertebral column  Obliques (External & Internal) – or. = inferior ribs 5-12, ilium and lumbar fascia; ins. = linea alba or pelvis; flexes vertebral column  Transversus abdominis – or. = ilium, inferior ribs 5-12; ins. = linea alba and pubis; extends, flexes vertebral column Abdominal Musculature- Ref.

90  Tensor facia latae – or. = lateral iliac crest; ins. = tibia via ileotibeal band; abducts thigh  Gluteus maximus – or. = posterior iliac crest, sacrum, & coccyx; ins. = femur; extends thigh  Gluteus medius & minimus – or. = ilium (crest = medius; blade = minimus) ; ins. = greater trochanter (femur); abducts thigh  Piriformis – or. = lateral sacrum; ins. = greater trochanter (femur); rotates thigh Pelvic Musculature- Ref.

91  Psoas major – or. = ant. T12 & L1-5 vertebrae; ins. = lesser trochanter (femur); flexes thigh  Iliacus – or. = anterior ileum; ins. = lesser trochanter (femur); flexes thigh  Pectineus – or. = pubis; ins. = proximal medial femur; adducts thigh  Adductor brevis & longus – or. = pubis; ins. = middle medial femur; adducts thigh  Adductor magnus – or. = pubis & ischium; ins. = medial femur; adducts thigh Pelvic Musculature- Ref.

92  Rectus femoris (quadriceps) – or. = ant. ischial spine; ins. = patellar tendon/patella to tibial tuberosity; flexes thigh, extends leg  Vastus lateralis, intermedius, & medialis (quadriceps) – or. = proximal femur (greater trochanter = lateralis; anterior femur = intermedius; medial base of neck of femur = medialis) ; ins. = patellar tendon/patella to tibial tuberosity; extends leg  Sartorius – or. = ant. iliac spine; ins. = medial tibial tuberosity; flexes and rotates thigh, extends leg Thigh Musculature- Ref.

93  Biceps femoris – or. = ischial tuberosity and proximal femur; ins. = head of fibula; extends thigh, flexes leg, lat. rotates leg  Semimembranosus – or. = ischial tuberosity; ins. = posterior medial condyle of tibia; extends thigh, flexes leg, medially rotates leg  Semitendinosus – or. = ischial tuberosity; ins. = proximal medial tibia; extends thigh & flexes leg, medially rotates leg  Gracilis – or. = pubis; ins. = proximal medial tibia; adducts thigh, flexes leg Thigh Musculature- Ref.

94  Tibialis anterior – or. = lateral condyle and proximal anterior shaft of tibia; ins. = dorsal metatarsal 1 & cuneiform 1; dorsiflexes foot  Gastrocnemius – or. = condyles of distal femur; ins. = calcaneus via calcaneal tendon; flexes leg & plantar flexes foot  Soleus – or. = proximal posterior shafts of tibia & fibula; ins. = calcaneus via calcaneal tendon; plantar flexes foot  Fibularis longus – or. = lateral head of fibula and lat. condyle of tibia; ins. = lateral metatarsal 5, everts foot Leg Musculature- Ref.

95  Ischiocavernosus – or. = ischium; ins. = pubis and conn. tissue of penis or clitoris; assists penile and clitoral erection  Bulbospongiosus – or. = conn. tissue of penis or clitoris; ins. = median perineal conn. tissue; assists penile and clitoral erection, narrows vagina  External anal sphincter – sphincter around anus (attached to perineal conn. tissue); closes anal opening Pelvic Floor Musculature-Ref

96  Levator ani – or. = pubis and ischium; ins. = coccyx and median perineal conn. tissue; supports pelvic viscera and can slightly levate the anus  Superficial transverse perineal – or. = ischium; ins. = median perineal conn. tissue; supports pelvic viscera  Deep transverse perineal – or. = pubis & ischium; ins. = median perineal conn. tissue; supports pelvic viscera Pelvic Floor Musculature-Ref

97  Intercostals (external & internal) – attachments = adjacent ribs; elevate or depress ribs  Interspinales – attachments = adjacent spinous processes; extend vertebral column  Intertransversarius – attachments = transverse processes; lateral flexion of vertebral column  Rotatores – attachments = transverse processes & neural arch; lateral flexion and rotation of vertebral column Intervert./Rib Musculature –Ref.


Download ppt " Fibrous– bones joined by dense regular connective tissue; no or limited movement (periodontal, sutures, interosseus)  Cartilaginous– bones joined by."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google