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John Ermer World History AP Miami Beach Senior High
The Assyrians ( B.C.E.) Neo-Assyrian Empire The first “empire” to rule far-flung, diverse peoples Assyria Northern Mesopotamia, Hilly, Temperate Climate Exposed to attack from the east, west, and north Constant attack made local farmers apt fighters—soldiers Assyrian rulers begin military campaigns to conquer Armies move west, across the deserts and steppe to Med. Sea North to Armenia (Urartu), South to Babylonia, East to Media/Persia Assyrians conquer Egypt Largest empire to date, built to enrich the center at the expense of the periphery
Assyrian Empire Building Assyrian army is root of conquest, professional soldiers Pioneers of military organization Iron weapons, armed divisions, four man chariots Couriers, signal fires, spies Siege tactics—mobile towers, tunnels, battering rams Mass deportations and brutality to keep control Exploitation of peripheral territories to benefit of center Though provincial infrastructure improved Merchant classes thrive in conquered cities
The Assyrians King= the gods’ earthly representative All the peoples under his control=servents Capital of Ashur=ancient holy city Religious and state functions blurred First government sponsored mail system, king “holds court” Spread of propaganda for support of king’s actions Palaces loomed large in Ashur, Nineveh, and Kalhu Library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh Palace art served state functions Social Structure: Free landowners, farmers/artisans, slaves Foreigners in Assyria given same legal rights as Assyrians
Map of the Assyrian Empire
Israel ( B.C.E.) Rise of the Israelites the result of two trends: Loose group of nomadic herders/caravan merchants bound by extended lines of kinship settle down into sedentary farmers Transformation of austere cult of a desert god into a new monotheistic religion built around one all-knowing, all- powerful God—the God of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Never very powerful, Israelites influence world with faith Central location b/w Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia, Arabia Land around them is forbidding Influence out of proportion with size/power of people
Origins of the Israelites Semitic-speaking people—Hebrew (related to Phoenician & Aramaic; and less closely related to Arabic and Akkaadian) Monotheistic Aramaic eventually replaces Hebrew as common language Information through archaeology, contemporary sources, and Hebrew Bible Compiled from different groups with distinct vocabularies Orally transmitted until c. 900 B.C.E. with cannon around Stories of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (Israel) Slavery in Egypt (Moses, Joshua, Land of Canaan, Walls of Jericho) Tribes of Israel, establishment of Judges, Ark of the Covenant The Philistines (pre-Greek Aegeanites)—Sea People’s?
The Israelite Kings & Priests Conflict: Israelites vs. Philistines c B.C.E. Religious leader,Samuel, anoints king—Saul (c.1020 B.C.E.) c B.C.E.: King David Names Jerusalem political & religious capital of Israel c : King Solomon (height of Israel’s power) Expanded trade to Phoenicia, Arabia, & Africa Growing gap between rich and poor Large scale building projects—the First Temple Development of a priestly class Corruption, disregard for welfare of poor--Prophets Extended families dominated by elder males Female dowry and assigning of slave girl High amounts of women’s rights, no property ownership
Map of Palestine c.1200 B.C.
Jewish Diaspora Splitting of Israel into two kingdoms (North & South) Northern Kingdom=Israel, capital in Samaria (10 Tribes) Southern Kingdom=Judah, capital in Jerusalem (2 Tribes) 721 BCE: Israel destroyed by Assyrians, repopulated Israel no longer considered mainstream Jewish 587 BCE: Judah conquered by Babylonians Nabuchadnezzar destroys temple, deports rich and skilled Many stay after Persian emperor Cyrus allows return to Israel Diaspora—Greek for “dispersion” or “scattering Synagogue—Greek for “bringing together” Diaspora and returned Jews compile strict laws Temple rebuilt, though more modestly Ban from marrying non-Jews, distinct community
The Phoenicians ( B.C.E.) In modern day Lebanon (ancient Syria-Palestine) Descendants of Semitic pastoral nomads—the Aramaeans Self identify as Can’ani, or Canaanites, Greeks: Phoinikes Mountainous terrain spurs development of city-states Biblos, Berytus, Sidon, Tyre Maritime navigation and commerce=wealth Purple dye, glass, cedar, pine, metals, foodstuffs, papyrus Development of the first alphabet Greeks would later adopt the same, modify
Phoenician Colonization of the Mediterranean—Carthage 900 B.C.E.: Tyre colonizes Cyprus for copper, trade route Phoenician Triangle: N. Africa, S. Spain, W. Italy, Sicily, Malta Conflict with Greeks, Sicily is main battleground Carthage becomes powerful Phoenician colony (N. Africa) Comes to dominate many other Phoenician colonies Population of 400,000 (one of world’s largest cities) Naval power dominates western Mediterranean Sailed the Atlantic, sourced tin as far away as England Trade with Sub-Saharan Africa Used Numidians, Iberians, and Gauls as merceniaries Direct control of Iberia & Sardinia, system of protectorates
The Carthaginian Empire
Moving & Shaking ( B.C.E.) 650: Assyrian power unrivaled, but position weakened Overextended military vulnerable Brutality discredits Assyrian rule, emboldens opponents Neo-Babylonians (Chaldaean Empire) & Medes (Iranians) destroy Assyrian homeland, depopulate land Babylonians assume rule of most Assyrian land Nebuchadnezzar & glory of Babylon