2We will take about: Male reproductive system Female reproductive system
3Components of Male reproductive organs ScrotumTestesDuct systemPenisAccessory glands
4Components of Male Reproductive System I- Primary Sex Organ:Testis.II- Reproductive Tract:Epididymis.Vas Deferens.Spermatic cord.III- Accessory Sex Glands:Seminal vesicles.Prostate gland.Bulbourethral glands.IV- External genitalia:Penis
5Male Reproductive System Functions and Organs:TestesFunction: Production of sperm (spermatogenesis).Secretion of testosterone.Accessory Sex GlandsSeminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glandFunction: Secretions provide bulk of semen (liquid substance that is conducive to sperm viability)PenisFunction: Organ used to deposit semen in femaleMale Reproductive TractEpididymis, ductus (vas) deferensFunction: Sperm maturationEjaculatory ductFunction: Empty into urethra (canal running length of penis that empties into exterior)
6TestisscPaired almond-shape gonads that are suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cord4 - 5 cm longWeigh (10.5 – 14) g Functions:Spermatogenesis.Hormone production(Androgens- testosterone).T
7Blood Supply of Testis- Testicular artery- Testicular vein
8Ejaculatory DuctsThe ejaculatory ducts pierce the posterior surface of the prostate
9Scrotum T L Nerve supply: The nerves of the scrotum include the: Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (L1, L2) supplying the anterolateral surface.Anterior scrotal nerves, branches of the ilioinguinal nerve (L1) supplying the anterior surface.Posterior scrotal nerves, branches of the perineal branch of the pudendal nerve (S2- S4) supplying the posterior surface.Perineal branches of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (S2, S3) supplying the inferior surface.TL
10Epididymis Located on the posterior & superior margins of the testis. It is divided into:Head, Body and Tail.EpididymisHV DBT
11Functions:1. Secretes the nourishing fluid.2. Recycles damaged spermatozoa.3. Stores spermatozoa
12Vas Deferens Its terminal part dilated to form the Ampulla of the vas It joins the urethra in the prostate
13Prostate:The prostate is a fibromuscular glandular organ that surrounds the prostatic urethra .The prostate 3 cm long, 4 cm wide.Lies between the neck of the bladder above and the urogenital diaphragm below.Surrounded by a fibrous capsule.Has a base, which lies against the bladder neck , and an apex, which lies against the urogenital diaphragm.Ejaculatory ducts pierce the posterior surface.
14Relations:Superiorly: neck of the bladder.Inferiorly: the urogenital diaphragm.Anteriorly: the symphysis pubis.Posteriorly: the rectal ampulla.Laterally: The prostate is embraced by the anterior fibers of the levator ani.
15Structure of the Prostate The prostate is incompletely divided into five lobes :The anterior lobe lies in front of the urethra.The median, or middle, lobe is the wedge of gland situated between the urethra and the ejaculatory ducts.The posterior lobe is situated behind the urethra and below the ejaculatory ducts.The right and left lateral lobes lie on either side of the urethra.
16Blood SupplyArteries:Branches of the inferior vesicalBranches of the middle rectal arteries.VeinsThe veins form the prostatic venous plexus, which lies outside the capsule of the prostate .The prostatic plexus receives the deep dorsal vein of the penis and numerous vesical veins and drains into the internal iliac veins.Lymph DrainageInternal iliac nodes.Nerve SupplyInferior hypogastric plexuses. The sympathetic nerves stimulate the smooth muscle of the prostate during ejaculation.
18The Relationships of the Uterus Anteriorly the body of the uterus is separated from the urinary bladder by the vesicouterine pouch.Here, the peritoneum is reflected from the uterus onto the posterior margin of the superior surface of the bladder.The vesicouterine pouch is empty when the uterus is in its normal position.Posteriorly the body of the uterus and the supravaginal part of the cervix are separated from the sigmoid colon by a layer of peritoneum and the peritoneal cavity.The uterus is separated from the rectum by the rectouterine pouch (of Douglas).The Relationships of the Uterus
19The inferior part of this pouch is closely related to the posterior part of the fornix of the vagina.Laterally the relationship of the ureter to the uterine artery is very important.The ureter is crossed superiorly by the uterine artery at the side of the cervix.
20Ligaments of the uterus 1- The Round Ligament of the Uterus2- The ligament of the ovary3- The Uterosacral Ligaments4- The Broad Ligament
21Blood Supply of the Uterus uterine arteriesovarian arteriesuterine veins
22Parts of fallopian tube The infundibulumThe ampullaThe isthmusThe IntramuralFimbriae
23Ovary The almond-shaped ovaries Function: Production of ova (oogenesis).Secretion of estrogen & progesterone.
24Ligaments of ovary suspensory ligament The ovary also attaches to the uterus by the ligament of ovary
25Blood supply of the ovary: The ovarian arteries arise from the abdominal aortaOvarian veins draining the ovary form a pampiniform plexus of veins in the broad ligament near the ovary .The veins of the plexus merge to form a singular ovarian vein, which leaves the lesser pelvis with the ovarian artery.The right ovarian vein ascends to enter the inferior vena cava; the left ovarian vein drains into the left renal vein
26Relations of the Vagina Anteriorly: the fundus of the urinary bladder and urethra.Laterally: the levator ani, visceral pelvic fascia, and ureters.Posteriorly (inferior to superior): the anal canal, rectum, and rectouterine pouch.
27Vagina Function: Connects uterus to external environment Vaginal openingLocated in perineal region between urethral opening and anal openingPartially covered by thin mucous membrane, hymenLabia minora and labia majoraSkin folds that surround vaginal and urethral openingsClitorisSmall erotic structure located at anterior end of folds of labia minora
28Breast Nipple: Conical or Cylindrical prominence in the center of AreolaAreola: Circular pigmented area of the skin surrounding the base of the nipple, containing sebaceous glandsAxillary Tail : Small part of the breast extending to the axilla