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M ODULE 5 Metadata, Tools, and Data Warehousing Section 1 Metadata Management 1 ITEC 450.

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Presentation on theme: "M ODULE 5 Metadata, Tools, and Data Warehousing Section 1 Metadata Management 1 ITEC 450."— Presentation transcript:

1 M ODULE 5 Metadata, Tools, and Data Warehousing Section 1 Metadata Management 1 ITEC 450

2 M ETADATA Information about data is referred to as Metadata. DBA’s rely on metadata to manage a database. In order for data to be anything more than simply data, metadata is required. Metadata strategy Procedures for identifying and defining data ownership and stewardship Methods for the collection and storage of metadata (typically using a repository) Policies to enforce data stewardship procedures and security for metadata access Measurements to gauge the quality and usability of metadata 2 ITEC 450

3 T YPE OF M ETADATA Technology metadata – technical aspects of the data as it relates to storing and managing the data in computerized systems SSN is 9 digits of numbers ANI is 10 digit of numbers starting with not 0 or 1 Business metadata – aspects of how the data is used by the business, and is needed for the data to have value to the organization SSN is a unique identification number, associated with a person ANI’s first 3-digits are area code, and the remaining 7 digits are local phone number. 3 ITEC 450

4 DBMS M ETADATA For DBA’s, the DBMS itself is a good source of metadata System catalog – technology metadata about database objects Names of every database, table, column, index, view, relationship Constraints such as primary key, foreign key, and not null System catalog is Active – automatically build and maintained Integrated – the system catalog is a part of DBMS and up-to- date with any changes within the database Non-subvertible – DMBS operations are the only mechanism for populating the system catalog 4 ITEC 450

5 R EPOSITORY A repository stores information about an organization’s data assets. Repository is used for Store information about your data, processes, and environment. Support multiple ways of looking at the same data Store in-depth documentation, and produce detail and management reports Repository benefits Integrated views of multiple systems The consistency it provides in documenting data elements and business rules Support of a rapidly changing environment Repository challenges Keeping the repository up-to-date Many metadata sources, such as application component metadata, business metadata, data modeling metadata, database metadata 5 ITEC 450

6 M ODULE 5 Metadata, Tools, and Data Warehousing Section 2 Database Management Tools 6 ITEC 450

7 B ENEFITS OF D ATABASE M ANAGEMENT T OOLS A DBA tool reduces the amount of time, effort, and human error involved in maintaining efficient database systems and applications. Ease the administrative burdens Fulfill market niches not adequately supported by the major DBMS vendors Automate database monitoring and routine activities 7 ITEC 450

8 D ATA M ODELING AND D ESIGN T OOLS The tools provide a consistent and coherent means of creating conceptual and logical data models and transforming them into physical database designs. Do not have to be unique to a specific database Support the standard tasks associated with logical data modeling such as entity-relationship diagramming and normalization Create a physical data model geared to each of your target DBMS platforms Reverse engineering to generate standard DDL automatically from major DBMS system catalog Examples: Erwin from CA, PowerDesigner from Sybase, ER/Studio from Embarcadero, Rational Data Architect from IBM, MySQL workbench from MySQL, Oracle Designer from Oracle 8 ITEC 450

9 C HANGE M ANAGEMENT T OOLS The tools provide capabilities to perform various database alterations. Alter database parameters that can not be easily performed with ALTER statement Modify database structures with cascading effects Change a column’s data type and length Remove columns from a table Batch requested changes into a work list that can be executing in the foreground or the background Provide database analysis and planning prior to implementing database changes Examples: CA Database Command Center 9 ITEC 450

10 D ATABASE C OMPARISON T OOLS The tools enable DBA’s to compare one database to another in terms of its database objects and structures. Such tools will identify differences and automatically generate the DDL to sync among databases. Find missing migrations Detect any discrepancies among different databases Are often useful during application program testing and debugging Examples: TOAD from Quest, SQL Compare for SQL Server from Red Gate 10 ITEC 450

11 D ATABASE O BJECT M IGRATION T OOLS The tools facilitate the quick migration of database objects from one environment to another. Provide a systematic method to promote changes instead of manually running DDL’s Can migrate all dependent objects and security Enhance database securities Reduce the migration time Examples: Softek LDMF from IBM, DBMigration from shareware 11 ITEC 450

12 P ERFORMANCE M ANAGEMENT T OOLS System Performance Tools Examine the database server, its configuration, and usage Monitor and report CPU, Memory, I/O usage and history info Trace individual process and capture information Database Performance Tools Read the database statistics from the system catalog, and provide additional analysis with enhanced tool capability Set thresholds and provide maintenance actions Provide a series of canned reports detailing the potential problems SQL Performance Tools Analyze the SQL in an application program Suggest alternative SQL solutions Assess impacts caused by database object changes 12 ITEC 450

13 E VALUATING DBA T OOL V ENDORS List of features Vendor reputation Customer satisfaction Support model and enhancement request Upgrade and new feature development/support 13 ITEC 450

14 M ODULE 5 Metadata, Tools, and Data Warehousing Section 3 Oracle Data Dictionary and Dynamic Performance Views 14 ITEC 450

15 O RACLE D ATA D ICTIONARY It’s the heart of the DBMS, and key to DBA’s success. The views are static, as Oracle updates them only when a DDL transaction take place. The underline tables are located in the SYSTEM tablespace, and owned by the user SYS. The data dictionary views are built on top of these base tables. The data dictionary contains key items: User information, roles and privileges Object information, constraint information, storage information Storage information, operational information The three sets of data dictionary views with prefix of: USER – objects that the user owns ALL – objects that the user has been granted privileges DBA – all objects in the database, accessible by DBA’s or special granted 15 ITEC 450

16 G ENERAL V IEWS DICT – all data dictionary views and short description SQL> select * from DICT where table_name like '%INDEXES'; PRODUCT_COMPONENT_VERSION – version of all major components of the Oracle database SQL> select * from product_component_version; DBA_SOURCE – source code of a database object SQL> select text from dba_source where owner = 'HR' and name = 'SECURE_EMPLOYEES'; SQL> select text from dba_source where owner = 'HR' and name = 'SECURE_DML'; DBA_OBJECTS– all objects in the database SQL> select object_name, object_type from dba_objects where owner = ‘HR’; 16 ITEC 450

17 U SER M ANAGEMENT R ELATED V IEWS DBA_USERS – database user info SQL> select username, account_status from dba_users; DBA_ROLES – all database roles SQL> select * from dba_roles; DBA_SYS_PRIVS, DBA_ROLE_PRIVS – System and role privileges DBA_TAB_PRIVS – table-level privielges SQL> select grantee, privilege from dba_tab_privs where owner = 'HR' and table_name = 'EMPLOYEES'; 17 ITEC 450

18 S TORAGE R ELATED V IEWS DBA_FREE_SPACE – free space of tablespace SQL> select tablespace_name, sum(bytes) from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name; DBA_SEGMENTS – segment details SQL> select segment_name, segment_type, tablespace_name from dba_segments where owner = 'HR'; 18 ITEC 450

19 D YNAMIC P ERFORMANCE V IEWS The views are dynamic, as they are updated continuously while the database is running. Also called v$ views. Memory related views Session and user related views Performance-monitoring views SQL-related views 19 ITEC 450

20 C OMMONLY U SED V IEWS Memory – v$sga, v$sgastat Session – v$session, v$sess_io, v$session_longops SQL info – v$sql, v$sqltext Performance – v$instance, v$lock, v$locked_object General – v$instance, v$license, v$database, v$parameter 20 ITEC 450

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