Moving towards integrated approach ANI: 3-6 yrs-850 AWC ◦ 80% AWC operationalised preschool education ◦ 100% Functional sectors ◦ Resource centre/cadre of local resource persons Bihar: 3-8 yrs ◦ Technical resource developed for age appropriateness for preschool education and readiness, tested and operationalised in 50 AWC ◦ Established linkages with primary school: morning assembly (oral skills….structured learning) Chhattisgarh: 0-6 yrs- 400 AWC ◦ Early stimulation for under 3, linkages between nutrition, health, rights, education, livelihood ◦ Focused intervention with parents, community, AWC
Integrated approach-Assumptions Early years of life critical for lifelong domains of Child development-physical, social, emotional, Language and cognitive Interdependency of Developmental domains ◦ Focus on one domain & not on other/s leads to lopsided development Maternal and child rights to education, health, safety, security critical Poverty principle vehicle affecting disadvantaged children in growth & devpt Early interventions best for most vulnerable (compensate for negative experiences & deprivation) Economic strengthening interventions provide direct benefits to children Nutrition plays a pivotal role in early health care & devpt Integrated programming sectors provide holistic support
Premise for a successful integrated approach…………… Integration of health, nutrition, education, social, economic development & collaboration between government agencies and civil society Direct contact with children early in life at various levels Parents and families as partners with teachers/caregivers to support child development (CD) Psychosocial support helps children understand and deal with change, loss Blend traditional child-rearing practices/beliefs with evidence based approach Trained staff in content, supervision, assessment are able to better monitor CD & program effectiveness
Benefits of Approach Simplified, holistic & replicable program ◦ capable of delivering ECD in resource constrained areas through community based childcare centres Highly cost effective ◦ Link resources of health, education, nutrition & sanitation, livelihood Increases efficacy of other investments in child development ◦ Essential sequel and complement to early child care and development programs. Prepares healthy recipient for next level. Ensures better educational outcomes ◦ Good health boosts enrolment and attendance, reduce dropout, increase achievement Improves social equity ◦ Most disadvantaged children access school and benefit from health & nutrition interventions.
Central Focus-Child Focus on children from most marginalized communities/sections Enable children to achieve age specific milestones (physical-motor, socio-emotional, Language, cognitive) Address whole child, “between 0- 8 years” age specific needs are identified and interventions designed accordingly Focused age/stage Pre-natal; 0-3 years; 3-5 years; 6-8 years Rationale: – When they are young they grow faster, needs differ accordingly – Physical Needs not so dynamic at 3-4 age though stimulation needs continues – 5-6 age to ensure school readiness – Beyond 6-8 primary school retention
Promising Approach: Essential Package (EP) 5 levels of interventions Integrates programming sectors Provides holistic support to child and caregivers Refers to child’s 5 essential needs-areas of intervention 5 environments to support child-levels of interventions Rights based Approach CONVERGENCE: CARE Intl and Save the Children developed EP through to address critical needs of the child, strategy being tested in different settings in Africa, Latin America and Asia
Family Government Community Birth Home to Early Learning Environmen t Pre- School to Primary School Child’s Development Caregiver/Family Child Ages 3 - 5 PrenatalBirth - 3 Ages 6 - 8 Care giver settings
Key Strategies Measurement of impact on children’s physical, socio-emotional, cognitive development to track and strategise ◦ through validated/culturally relevant tools/indicators & std health & nutrition indicator data Enhancing parenting skills ◦ Through home visits/monthly meetings with caregivers ◦ Orientation of parents on child devpt-nutrition, safe food, water, education, rights… Improving household income security to improve household earning potential ◦ Linkages with Government schemes – Strengthening SHGs Empowering caregivers and communities to improve lives of young children & their families, provide positive social setting for children ◦ Continuous training of service providers – ICDS and health workers ◦ Strengthen support system for service providers, Increase Motivation ◦ Awareness building, involving in management, use of community resources
Key Strategies Building capacity of child care centres to facilitate early childhood development and education ◦ Improve quality of infrastructure at AWC ◦ Strengthen supportive supervision for AWW ◦ Develop as focal point around which services benefiting caregivers, households, child can be organised/delivered ◦ Use forums for civic engagement in policy change Advocacy around EP to lead to changes in larger policy environment reflecting ECD as national priority ◦ Expand wider political network to strengthen provisions ◦ Work with local partners, organisations, key stakeholders
Five Areas of Impact Food & Nutrition ◦ Nutritious meals in AWC, at home Child development ◦ Use of ECD age appropriate curricula to build capacity of teachers/caregivers in childcare settings ◦ Linkages between ECD centres & formal primary schools Economic Strengthening ◦ Linkages with livelihood schemes Health ◦ Access to quality health services, safe water, sanitation ◦ Awareness on life threatening, preventable, communicating diseases ◦ Health screening, vaccination Child Rights & Protection ◦ Advocacy initiatives & trainings to increase awareness ◦ Link with existing legal services ◦ Trainings on child rights for community members & others
EP in India Being piloted in Korba and Jhanjgir Districts of Chhattisgarh from 2011 Partnership and engagement ◦ ICDS, Health Department and Panchyati Raj ◦ SHG, Community and Caregivers Resources generated… ◦ Conceptual EP ◦ Technical Package Early stimulation +(health, nutrition, emotional, cognitive needs) Flip book, calendar, 3 reference booklets Specific booklet on preschool education to ensure school readiness Activity bank for AWWs IEC material Supportive monitoring framework
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