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CANINE ANATOMY.

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Presentation on theme: "CANINE ANATOMY."— Presentation transcript:

1 CANINE ANATOMY

2 Group members Loh Mae Chel (mae chel) Lee Ching Wai (Jazz)
Nur Ainsyah Natasya (tasya) Desalini (desa) Muhammad Fikree (piki)

3 HEAD Lee Ching Wai D10A015 Loh Mae Chel D10A016

4 Cutaneous muscles and major fasciae

5 Superficial muscles

6 Deep muscles

7 Muscles of facial expression
Origin Insertion Innervation Function Muscles of facial expression M. Sphincter colli superficialis Transverse fibers in the superficial fascia of the ventral neck Cervical branch ( R. colli) of the facial n. Tenses and moves the ventral and lateral skin Auricular muscles M. cervicoauricularis superficialis Dorsal median raphe of the neck Dorsal(convex) surface of the auricular cartilage Caudal auricular n., branch of the facial n. Long elevator muscle of the ear M. cervicoscutularis Caudomedial part of scutiform cartilage Caudal auricular n., branch of facial n. Elevates the ear and tenses the scutiform cartilage M. cervicoscutularis profundus and medius External sagittal crest Lateral border of the auricular cartilage Turns opening ( conchal fissure) of the auricular cartilage caudomedially

8 Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Function M. occipitalis External sagittal crest Superficial fascia of the head Rostral auricular branches of the auriculopalpebral n. Draws scutiform cartilage caudomedially M. interscutularis Transverse fibers passing between the two scutiform cartilages Draws scutiform cartilages medially M. frontoscutularis Rostral continuation of m. interscutularis Draws the scutiform cartilages rostromedially M. scutuloauricularis superficialis Scutiform cartilage Rostral border of the auricular cartilage Turns the auricular cartilage so that its opening (conchal fissure) faces rostralmedially, erects the ear

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10 Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Function M. paratidoauricularis Parotid fascia and superficial fascia of cranial neck Ventrolateral at the base of the auricular cartilage Cervical branch ( R. colli) of the facial n. Draws the ear down, lays the ear ‘back’ M. mandibuloauricularis Caudal margin of the ramus of the mandible ventral to the condyle Ventral at the base of the auricular cartilage Caudal auricular n., branch of the facial n.

11 Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Function
Muscles of the lips and cheeks M. orbicularis oris Closed, sphincter-like muscle at the border of the rima oris; there is no skeletal attachment Dorsal and ventral buccal branches of the facial n. Closes the rima oris ( opening of the mouth) M. buccinator Crossing fibers that pass in the cheek region between the maxilla and the body of the mandible; extends from the angle of the mouth to the level of the rostral border of the masseter m.; interwoven rostrally with orbicularis oris fibers Forms the lateral boundary of the oral cavity; compresses the vestibule of the oral cavity, pressing the food into the oral cavity proper; compresses the buccal glands M. zygomaticus Scutiform cartilage Radiates into the orbicularis oris at the angle of the mouth Draws the angle of the mouth caudally; draws the scutiform cartilage rostroventrally

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13 Muscles Origin Insertion Innervation Function M. caninus Maxilla, ventral to the infraorbital foramen Upper lip Dorsal and ventral buccal branches of the facial n. Draws the upper lip caudodorsally M. levator labii superoris Maxilla, rostral to the infraorbital foramen Wing of the nostril; upper lip Elevates the upper lip and the nasal plane and draws them caudally, widens the opening of the nostril Muscles of the eyelids and nose M. orbicularis oculi A muscular ring passing within the eyelids. It arises dorsally and ventrally from the medial palpebral ligament and encircles the palpebral fissure Auriculopalpebral n., branch of the facial n. Narrowing and closure of the palpebral fissure ( the opening between the eyelids

14 Muscles Origin Insertion Innervation Function M. retractor anguli oculi Deep temporal fascia Lateral angle of the eye Auriculopalpebral n., branch of the facial n. Draws the lateral angle of the eye caudally M. levator anguli oculi Fascia upon the frontal bone ( frontal fascia) Medially into the upper eyelid Elevates the medial part of the upper eyelid; erects the tactile hairs M. levator nasolabialis Maxilla in the region of the medial angle of the eye; frontal fascia Lateral nostril and upper lip Widens the opening of the nostril and raises the upper lip M. malaris Deep fascia of the face Lower eyelid Draws the lower eyelid ventrally

15 Muscles Origin Insertion Innervation Function Mandibular muscles Superficial muscles of the throat M. digastricus Paracondylar process ( the jugular process forms its base) Ventral margin of the mandible Ramus digastricus, branch of the facial n. ( caudal belly); mylohyoid n., branch of the mandibular n. (rostral belly) Lowers the mandible, opening the mouth M. mylohyoideus Mylohyoid line on the medial surface of the body of the mandible Median raphe joining the muscles of the two sides ventral to the geniohyoideus m. N. mylohyoideus, branch of the mandubular n. Elevates the tongue, presses it against the palate

16 Muscles Origin Insertion Innervation Function External muscles of mastication M. temporalis Temporal fossa Coronoid process of the mandible Masticatory n., branch of the mandibular n. Raises the mandible M. masseter Zygomatic arch Masseteric fossa of the mandible Internal muscles of mastication M. pterygoideus M. pterygoideus medialis M. pterygoideus lateralis Pterygopalatine fossa(medial pterygoid); wing og the basisphenoid (lateral pterygoid) Pterygoid fossa of the mandible(medial pterygoid), pterygoid fovea of the mandible ( lateral pterygoid) Pterygoid nn., branches of the mandibular n. Synergist of the masseter m., raising the mandible;with unilateral contraction, draws the mandible toward the side of the muscle acting

17 Thoracic limb Canine anatomy NUR AINSYAH NATASYA BINTI ABDUL AZIZ
D10A027 (ye..saya la yang paling cute)

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20 Flexor=ms on the side of the limb towards which the joint bends
biceps brachii m. flexes the elbow. Extensor=the ms on the opposite side. triceps brachii m.=extensor of the elbow Adductors-ms that tend to pull a limb toward the median plane Abductors=ms that tend to move the limb away from the median plane Agonists(prime movers)are ms directly responsible for producing the desired action. The Antagonists are ms that oppose the desired actions. Synergists are ms that oppose any undesired action of the agonists Eg. in extension of the elbow, a movt. produced by the triceps brachii biceps(agonist for extension), brachii and brachialis are antagonists coz they produce the opposite action, flexion of the elbow.

21 Muscle Function Origin Insertion Innervation Deltoideus m. Flexes shoulder spine of scapula Caudal boarder of scapula Deltoid tuberosity of humerus Axillary n. Teres minor m. Distal half of caudal boarder of scapula Teres major m. Caudal boarder of scapula and subscapularis Teres tuberosity of humerus Subscapularis m. Extends shoulder Subscapular fossa of scapula Lesser tuberosity of humerus Subscapular n.

22 Muscle Function Origin Insertion Innervation Coracobrachialis m. Extends shoulder Coracoid process of scapula Proximomedial surface of humerus Musculocutaneous n. Biceps brachii m. Extend shoulder Flexes elbow Stabilize carpus Supraglenoid tubercle Radial tuberosity Tendon of extensor carpi radialis m. Brachialis m. Proximocaudal surface of humerus Proximomedial surface of radius

23 Supraspinatus m. Extends shoulder Stabilize shoulder Supraspinatous fossa Scapular cartilage and spine Greater and lesser tubercles of humerus Suprascapular n. Infraspinatus m. Extends and flexes shoulder Infraspinatous fossa Greater tubercle of humerus

24 Muscle Function Origin Insertion Innervation Triceps brachii m. Long head Extends elbow and flexes shoulder Caudal boarder of scapula Olecranon tuber Radial n. Lateral head Extends elbow Deltoid tuberosity Medial head Middle surface of middle 1/3 of humerus Anconeus m. Extend elbow Raise joint capsule (prevent capsule compression during elbow extension Boarder of olecranon fossa Lateral olecranon

25 Muscle Function Origin Insertion Innervation Tensor fascia antebrachii m. Extends elbow Tenses forearm Caudal boarder of scapula Deep fascia of forearm and olecranon Radial n. common digital extensor m. Extend carpus Extends digit III Lateral epicondyle of humerus Proximodorsal on proximal phalanx Extensor processes of middle and distal phalanges Lateral digital extensor m. Extends metacarpophalanges joint (fetlock) Proximal radius and ulna

26 Muscle Function Origin Insertion innervation extensor carpi radialis m. extends the carpal, pastern And coffin joint. lateral supracondylar of the humerus Proximodorsal metacarpal III bone (metacarpal of the index finger). accessory carpal bone deep branch of the radial n. Ulnaris lateralis m. flexes carpus Lateral epicondyle of humerus Accessory carpal bone Metacarpal IV (lateral splint bone) Radial n. Extensor carpi obliquus m. (abductor pollicis longus m.) Extends carpus Middle of radius craniolaterally Proximal metacarpal II

27 Extends elbow Flexes carpus
Muscle Function Origin Insertion Innervation flexor carpi radialis m Flexes carpus Medial Epicondyle of Humerus Proximal Sesamoid Bones Median n. flexor carpi ulnaris m. (ulnar & humeral heads) Medial Olecranon Accessory Carpal Bone Ulnar n. superficial digital flexor m. Extends elbow Flexes carpus Flexes digit Distal Collateral Tubercles of Proximal Phalanx Proximal Collateral Tubercles of Middle Phalanx

28 Muscle Function Origin Insertion Innervation  deep digital flexor m. Humeral head Extends elbow Medial Epicondyle of Humerus Flexor Surface of Distal  Phalanx Median n. & Ulnar n. Ulnal head Flexes carpus Medial Olecranon Ulnar n. Radial head Flexes digit Middle of Radius, Caudal Surface Median n. Interosseous Resist overextension of metacarpophalangeal joint Proximocaudal on metacarpal III Palmer carpal ligament Proximal Sesamoid bone Deep branch of ulnar n.

29 extensor carpi radialis m. (1)
common digital extensor m. (2) lateral digital extensor m. (3). ulnaris lateralis m. (4) Two minor muscles are the brachioradialis m. (5) abductor pollicis longus m. (6). Fascia has been removed except for the extensor retinaculum (7) that binds digital extensor tendons at the carpus. (Scissors elevate branches of the common digital extensor tendon.)

30 common digital extensor m. (1) lateral digital extensor m. (2)
(tendon are elevated by forceps) extensor carpi radialis m. (3) ulnaris lateralis m. (4) Craniolateral antebrachial muscles originate form the vicinity of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus (asterisk). anconeus m. (5), caudal to the epicondyle.

31 medial epicondyle of the humerus (asterisk).
deep fascia has been removed from the antebrachium except for flexor retinaculum (1), which binds digital flexor tendons in the carpus. superficial digital flexor m. (2) and its tendon branches are elevated by instruments. flexor carpi ulnaris m. (arrows).

32 superficial digital flexor m. (1)have been reflected.
flexor carpi ulnaris m. (2) has humeral and ulnar heads. Latter elevated by the forceps. flexor carpi radialis m. (3) is medially on the limb. deep digital flexor m. (4) it’s tendons are visible distal to the flexor retinaculum (5).

33 deep digital flexor m (1) it’s humeral head is being pulled by forceps
deep digital flexor m (1) it’s humeral head is being pulled by forceps. small radial head (2) attaches to the radius. The ulnar head (3) originates from the ulna. deep layer of flexor retinaculum (asterisk) has been cut to release the tendon (arrow) of the deep digital flexor m. superficial digital flexor m. (4); flexor carpi ulnaris m. (5); flexor carpi radialis m. (6); and pronator teres m. (7).

34 HIND LIMB

35 SUPERFICIAL MUSCLE

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37 MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION INNERVATION FUNCTION Middle Gluteal Gluteal fascia and wing of the ileum Trochanter major Cranial gluteal nerve draws the limb caudally and outward Superficial Gluteal Gluteal fascia,lateral part ofsacrum Gluteal tuberosity Caudal gluteal nerve draws the limb caudally Tensor Fascia Latae Tuber coxae Patella and tibia tuberosity by way of the fascia lata and patella ligament draw the limb forward toward cranial

38 MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION INNERVATION FUNCTION Sartorial Tuber coxae,iliac crest Crural fascia,cranial margin of tibia Femoral nerve draw the limb forward and adduct the limb Semimembraneous Tuber ischiadicum Medial condyle of the femur and tibia Muscular branch of the ischidia nerve Draw the limb medially and caudally and tend to rotate the crus Femoral biceps Tuber ischiadium, sacrotuberous ligament Patella and tibia tuberosity, cranial margin of the tibia Muscular branch of the ischiadic nerve Attachment to the cranial margin of the tibia flexes

39 DEEP MUSCLE

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41 MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION INNERVATION FUNCTION Middle Gluteal Gluteal fascia and wing of the ileum Trochanter major Cranial gluteal nerve draws the limb caudally and outward Superficial Gluteal Gluteal fascia,lateral part ofsacrum Gluteal tuberosity Caudal gluteal nerve draws the limb caudally Tensor Fascia Latae Tuber coxae Patella and tibia tuberosity by way of the fascia lata and patella ligament draw the limb forward toward cranial

42 MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION INNERVATION FUNCTION Coccygeal Ischiadic spine Transverse process of first four caudal vertebrae Ventral branch of the third sacral spinal nerve Draw the tail to the side of muscle acting with both muscle contracting Femoral quariceps Craniolateral and craniomedial at the femur Tibial tuberosity by mean of the patella ligament Femoral nerve Main extensor of the stiffle joint,fixation of the limb Femoral quadrate Ventromedial surface of the ischium near tuber Caudal surface of femur distal to the trochanteric fossa Ischiadic nerve Rotates the limb,turning its cranial face laterally

43 MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION INNERVATION FUNCTION Semitendenous Tuber ischiadicum Medial surface of the tibia Muscular branch of the ischidia nerve Draw the limbs medially and caudally and tend to rotate the crust turning its cranial face medially Semimembranous Medial condyle of the femur and tibia Draw the limb medially and caudally and tend to rotate the crus turning its cranial face medially Gastrocnemius Distal femur,medial and lateral supracondyles tuberosity Tuber calcanei Tibial nerve Extensor of tarsal joint,flexor of stiffle joint

44 MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION INNERVATION FUNCTION Deep digital flexor Lateral condyle of femur Caudal aspect of proximal tibia Flexes the stifle and rotate then leg medially Long fibular Long digital flexor

45 MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION INNERVATION FUNCTION sartorial Tuber coxae,iliac crest Crural fascia,cranial margin of tibia Femoral nerve draw the limb forward and adduct the limb Cranial tibial adductor Ventral pubic tubercle Proximally on the facies aspera Obturator nerve Adductor

46 Lab 5 - Image 5 The largest of the hamstring (caudal thigh) muscles is the biceps femoris m. (1) which originates from the ischium and inserts broadly on fascia lata (2) and crural fascia (3). The muscle has been transected in two locations to facilitate reflecting it. The semitendinosus m. (4) is partially exposed. Other visible (non-hamstring) muscles include: sartorius m. (5), tensor fasciae latae m. (6), middle gluteal m. (7), superficial gluteal m. (8), levator ani m. (9), and external anal sphincter m.(10).

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49 Cutaneous muscle and major fasciae of the canine

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51 M. Cutaneus omobrachialis
Muscle origin insertion innervation function M. Platysma Arise from the dorsal median raphe of the neck, passing rostroventrally onto the face where as the M.cutaneous faciei, it radiates into the M.orbicularis oris of the upper & lower lips R. Platysmatis of the caudal auricular n., cervical branch (R.colli) of the facial n. Tenses & moves the skin in the nuchal & masseteric regions, retracts the angle of the mouth, tenses the skin in the labial region M. Cutaneus omobrachialis From the supf. Shoulder fascia opposite the scapula Over the elbow joint Intercostobrachial n. Tightens & moves the skin over the shoulder Platysma = orgin and insertion is same, auricular n. (nervus spinalis) m.Cutaneus trunci = supf (superficial) , nn. ( Raphe = groove ridge r seam in an organ n tissue

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53 Lateral throcic & intercostobrachial nn.
Muscle origin insertion innervation function M. Cutaneus trunci From the superficial trunk fascia roughly along a line from the withers to the fold of the flank Opposite the dorsal two thirds of the scapula: blend with the supf. Shoulder fascia ; Opposite the ventral third of the scapula, end with deep pectoral muscle on medial surface of humerus Lateral throcic & intercostobrachial nn. Tightens & moves the skin of the trunk Withers = highest part of back, lying at the base of the neck n above the shoulder Flank = between the hip n ribs Fold = bend over on itself so the one part of it cover another

54 Superficial muscle of the canine

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56 Manubrium of sternum & 1st costal cartilage
muscle origin insertion innervation function Sternohyoideus Manubrium of sternum & 1st costal cartilage Lingual process of basihyoid bone (basihyoiduem) Ventral branch of 1st cervical n. Retract basihyoid & tounge caudally sternocephalic Manubrium sterni Caudal border of mandible Ventral br. of accessory n (XI) Opens mouth; flexes or inclines head and neck to the side of the muscledorsal median raphe M. Cleidocervicalis Dorsal median raphe of the neck cranial to trapezius Clavicular intersection Dorsal branch of accessory n. (XI) Draw the thoracic limb forward. M.Omo transversarius Acromion of scapula Wing of atlas Ventral branch of fourth cervical n. Draws thoracic limb forward, bends neck to one side. Manubrium = the broad upper part of the sternum of mammals, with which the clavicles(collarbone) n 1st rib articulate Retract = draw back acromion = outer exterimity of the shoulder blade forming the bony part at the part of the shoulder Flexes = contract r tense the muscle

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58 Cervical part : dorsal two third of the scapular spine
muscle origin insertion innervation Functions M. cleidobrachialis Clavicular intersection (clavicular part), spine of scapula by aponeurosis (scapula part), acromion (acromial part) Humeral crest (clavicular part), deltoid tuberosity (scapular & acromial parts) Axillary n. (scapular & acromial parts), accessory axillary n. (clavicular part), this neve may also be called the n. brachiocephalicus Scapula & acromial parts, flexor of the shoulder joint, clavicular part, as a part of the brachiocephalicus m., draws the limb forward M. Trapezius Dorsal median raphe od the neck from the 3rd cervical vertebra to the spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae 1-9 Cervical part : dorsal two third of the scapular spine Thoracic part: dorsal third of the scapular spine Dorsal branch of accessory n. Acting together, draw the scapula dorsally. Cervical part: draw the scapula craniodorsally . Thoracic part: draw the scapula caudodorsally. Major teres Caudal margin of the scapula Teres major tuberosity Axillary n. Flexor of shoulder joint M. Latissium dorsi Thoracolumbar fascia Teres major tuberosity with the m. teres major tendon Thoracodorsal n. Draw the thoracic limb caudally; flexor of shoulder joint; with limb fixed, draws the trunk forward Aponeurosis = a sheat of fibrous tissue whc take place of a tendon in sheet like muscle having a wide area of attachment Axillary n = an armpit r corressponding part in animal

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60 muscle origin insertion innervation Functions M. Obliquus externus abdominis Ribs 4-13 (costal part), thoracolumbar fascia (lumbar part) Linea alba(abdominal tendon); inguinal ligament, from the tuber coxae to the iliopubic eminence & pecten ossis pubis (pelvic tendon) Ventral branches of intercostal, costoabdominal & lumbar nn. Ventral abdominal muscles support the ventral abdominal wall. They function with the diaphragm in reciprocal movement of abdominal respiration: inspiration M. Obliquus internus abdominis Tuber coxae & neighboring part of the inguinal ligament (inguinal part), thoracolumbar fascia (lumbar part) Linea alba & costal arch Ventral branches of intercostal, costoabdominal & lumbar nn M. sartorius Tuber coxae, iliac crest Crural fascia, cranial margin of fibia Femoral n. Flexor of the hip joint, external of the stifle joint (cranial part), flexor of the stifle joint (caudal part) acting together two part of muscle draw limb forward & adduct the limb

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62 Sternum; distally on ribs 4-9; tunica flava abdominis
muscle origin insertion innervation Functions Deep pectoral muscle Sternum; distally on ribs 4-9; tunica flava abdominis Major & minor tubercles of humerus; tendon of origin of coracobrachialis Cranial & caudal pectoral nn. Suspends trunk between forelimbs; retracts limb; stabilizes shoulder joint Sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis Between spinous & mamillary processes of the last 2-3 sacral & 1st several caudal vertebrae Dorsal brr. of local spinal nn. Elevates tail & bends it laterally M. Rhomboideus Cervicis thoracic Nuchal crest (captial part) , dorsal median raphe of the neck from second cervical to 1st thoracic vertebrae (cervical part), cranial thoracic spines (thoracic part) Medial surface of scapular cartilage Ventral branches of cervical nerves Fixation of thoracic limb, elevates scapula & draws it forward. Flava is yellow

63 Deep muscle of the canine

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65 muscle origin insertion innervation function M. splenius Spinous processes of vT1-vT3 Nuchal crest Dorsal branches of cervical & thoracic nn. Extension & lateral flexion of head & neck M.Iliocostalis -lumborum -thoracis Ilium (lumbar part), several adjacent ribs beginning several segments caudal to rib of insertion & transverse process of vC7(6) (thoracic part) Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae & caudal ribs (lumbar part); caudal margin of ribs several segments cranial to ribs of origin & transverse process of vc7(6) (thoracic part) Fixation of lumbar vertebrae & ribs, erection & lateral flexion of vertebral column (lumbar part); draws ribs caudally in expiration , attachment to transverse process of vC7(6) draw corresponding ribs cranially in inspiration (thoracic part)

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67 M. Spinalis & semispinalis thoracic et cervicis
muscle origin insertion innervation function M. Spinalis & semispinalis thoracic et cervicis Lumbar spinous & mamillary processes (thoracic spinalis & semispinalis ), cranial thoracic spinous processes (cervical spinalis) Spinous processes of cranial thoracic vertebrae (thoracic spinalis & semispinalis ) spinous processes of cervical vertebrae up to the axis. (cervical spinalis) Dorsal branches of lumbar, thoracic & cervical spinal nn. Fixation of dorsum & neck bends the trunk & neck to the side of the muscle acting M. Serratus dorsalis cranialis Supraspinous ligament at the level of thoracic vertebrae 1-8 Cranial margin of ribs 3-10 Intercostal nn. inspiratory M. Rectus (Straight) abdominis Sternum & first rib (including its costal cartilage) Pecten ossis pubis Ventral branches of intercostal, costoabdominal & lumbar nn. Rectus = straight

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69 muscle origin insertion innervation function M. Transversus abdominis Asternal ribs (costal part) lumbar transverse processes & deep leaf of the thoracolumbar fascia (lumbar part) Linea alba Ventral branches of intercostal, costabdominal & lumbar nn. M. Serratus ventralis Cervicis thoracis Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae 2-7 (cervical part), rib 1-7 (10) Facies serrata of scapula Ventral branches of cervical nn. (cervical part), long thoracic n. (thoracic part) Most important muscle supporting trunk, raises neck; whn thoracic limb is fixed, an auxiliary inspiratory muscle Mm. Intercostales externi From the caudal margin of the more cranial rib of the intercostal space Extends caudoventrally to the cranial margin of the more caudal rib of the space Intercostal nn. inspiratory

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71 Medial surface of scapular cartilage
muscle origin insertion innervation function M. Rhomboideus Cervicis thoracic - capitis Nuchal crest (captial part) , dorsal median raphe of the neck from second cervical to 1st thoracic vertebrae (cervical part), cranial thoracic spines (thoracic part) Medial surface of scapular cartilage Ventral branches of cervical nerves Fixation of thoracic limb, elevates scapula & draws it forward.

72 Thank you


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