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Root to Health and Performance- Ginseng Zubaida Qamar.

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1 Root to Health and Performance- Ginseng Zubaida Qamar

2 Ginseng  Root of Araliaceous plant  Panax ginseng-most famous of all species  The term “ginseng” usually applies to the dried root of the plant  Active component=Ginsenoside

3 Potential Benefits of Ginseng  Ginseng is “believed” to have many beneficial effects  relieving pain and headaches  stimulating appetite  improving mental function and physical stamina  boosting immune system  counteracting fatigue  ergogenic agent to optimize exercise performance


5 Animal Studies  Grandhi et al.  compared aqueous suspensions of roots of P. ginseng (100 mg/kg administered orally for 7 days)  significant increases in swimming time compared with a control group  Bodyweight gain was significantly higher following treatment and increase in weight of the levator ani muscle was significant  These studies demonstrate that administration of ginseng may prolong endurance performance in mice and rats along with gains in muscle mass

6 Animal Studies  Wang and Lee  reported significantly prolonged aerobic endurance(18 minutes at 70% of maximal oxygen (VO 2 max) in a placebo controlled study with non-trained rats  Study done for 4 days with 10 and 20 mg/kg/day ginseng intraperitoneally  Possible Mechanism: Ginseng enhances exercise endurance by altering fuel homeostasis during exercise by increasing free fatty acid utilization preference over glucose for cellular energy demands

7 Human Studies  Physically active 13 male college students were divided into two groups (AG or placebo) and received supplementation for 4 weeks, before the exhaustive running exercise  Treadmill speed was increased to a pace equivalent to 80% VO 2 max of the subject. A 4- wk washout period followed before the subjects crossed over and received the alternate supplement for the next 4 wk. They then completed a second exhaustive running exercise  The plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate were measured prior to exercise and after exercise at different time intervals  Supplementation with AG for 4 wk prior to an exhaustive aerobic treadmill running reduced the leakage of CK during exercise, but did not enhance aerobic work capacity  The reduction of plasma CK may be due to the fact that AG is effective for the decrease of skeletal muscle cell membrane damage, induced by exercise during the high- intensity treadmill run


9 Animal Studies

10 Contradictions o Methodological flaws o lack of double blind, control and placebo paradigms o small sample size o varied treatment duration o compliance issues o lack of “sourcing” data o combination of ginseng with other items e.g. fenugreek o differences in administration of ginseng dosage o type of ginseng used

11 Recommendation  The recommended daily dose for dry ginseng root is generally 0.5 to 2.0g  There are no reports of acute toxicity of high-dose ginseng in humans  NOT a banned substance-the International Olympic Committee (IOC)and the US Olympic Committee (USOC)

12 Conclusion  The success of ginseng in animal studies could have been attributed to the higher dosage of ginseng.Hence, inferences from animal models must be carefully applied to humans  Very few human studies have shown positive benefits on ginseng  Be careful of the misleading claims on supplemental products  Try to follow the natural and scientifically proven “food first” approach for overall health and better performance

13 Questions??

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