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A Fast and Compact Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Detector at GSI Bernd Lewandowski Ruhr-Universität Bochum SCINT 2003 Valencia 11. 9. 2003.

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Presentation on theme: "A Fast and Compact Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Detector at GSI Bernd Lewandowski Ruhr-Universität Bochum SCINT 2003 Valencia 11. 9. 2003."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Fast and Compact Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Detector at GSI Bernd Lewandowski Ruhr-Universität Bochum SCINT 2003 Valencia 11. 9. 2003

2 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 20032 What is PANDA? AntiProton ANnihilations at DArmstadt

3 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 20033 Where is Darmstadt? GSI

4 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 20034 The GSI Future Facility Panda Existing GSI Facilities

5 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 20035 Antiproton Physics Program Charmonium (cc ) spectroscopy: precision measurements of mass, width, decay branches of all charmonium states, especially for extracting information on qq models of mesons.

6 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 20036 Antiproton Physics Program Charmonium (cc ) spectroscopy: precision measurements of mass, width, decay branches of all charmonium states, especially for extracting information on qq models of mesons. Search for gluonic excitations (charmed hybrids, glueballs) in the charmonium mass range (3 – 5 GeV/c 2 ).

7 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 20037 Antiproton Physics Program Charmonium (cc ) spectroscopy: precision measurements of mass, width, decay branches of all charmonium states, especially for extracting information on qq models of mesons. Search for gluonic excitations (charmed hybrids, glueballs) in the charmonium mass range (3 – 5 GeV/c 2 ). Search for modifications of meson properties in the nuclear medium, and their possible relationship to the partial restoration of chiral symmetry for light quarks. pionic atoms KAOS/FOPI HESR  K D vacuumnuclear medium   π+π+ π-π- K-K- K+K+ D+D+ D-D- 25 MeV 100 MeV 50 MeV

8 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 20038 Antiproton Physics Program Charmonium (cc ) spectroscopy: precision measurements of mass, width, decay branches of all charmonium states, especially for extracting information on qq models of mesons. Search for gluonic excitations (charmed hybrids, glueballs) in the charmonium mass range (3 – 5 GeV/c 2 ). Search for modifications of meson properties in the nuclear medium, and their possible relationship to the partial restoration of chiral symmetry for light quarks. DD 50 MeV D D+D+vacuum nuclear medium  K 25 MeV 100 MeV K+K+ KK   Precision -ray spectroscopy of single and double hypernuclei for Extracting information on their structure and on the hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interaction. Antiproton Physics Program -- 3 GeV/c KK Trigger _  secondary target p  - (dss) p(uud) → (uds) (uds)

9 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 20039 The Antiproton Facility

10 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200310 The Antiproton Facility Antiproton production similar to CERN, HESR = High Energy Storage Ring –Production rate 10 7 /sec –P beam = 1.5 - 15 GeV/c –N stored = 5 x 10 10 p Gas-Jet (or Cluster) Target High luminosity mode –Luminosity = 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 – p/p ~ 10 -4 (stochastic cooling) High resolution mode – p/p ~ 10 -5 (electron cooling < 8 GeV/c) –Luminosity = 10 31 cm -2 s -1

11 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200311 Proposed Detector (Overview) High Rates –Total  ~ 55 mb –10 7 interactions/s Vertexing –( p,K S,,…) Charged particle ID –(e ±, ±, ±,p,…) Magnetic tracking Elm. Calorimetry –(,0,)–(,0,) Forward capabilities –(leading particles) Sophisticated Trigger(s)

12 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200312 Electromagnetic Calorimeter Detector materialPbWO 4 Photo sensorsAvalanche Photo Diodes Crystal size  35 x 35 x 150 mm 3 (i.e 1.5 x 1.5 R M 2 x 17 X 0 ) Energy resolution 1.54 % / E[GeV] + 0.3 % (PMT) Time resolution   130 ps (PMT) Total number of crystals7150

13 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200313 Requirements for the EMC Nearly 4 solid angle (PWA) High rate capability: 10 7 interactions/s High resolution: 1.54 % / E[GeV] + 0.3 % Compact design: inside Solenoid Operation in magnetic field: 2T

14 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200314 Lessons from LEAR (CB) Final states with 10+ photons Merged  0 are easy to handle –“moderate” angular resolution sufficient Low thresholds –E min ≤20 MeV Crystal Barrel

15 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200315 PropertyCsI(Tl)CeF 3 PbWO 4 BGO Density [g/cm 3 ]4.536.168.287.13 Rad. length [cm]1.851.680.891.12 Molière rad [cm]3.82.632.192.33 dE/dx [MeV/cm]5.67.913.09.2 Decay time [ns]100010-305-1560-300 Max. emission [nm] 565310-340420-440480 Rel. lightyield0.400.100.010.15 Available Inorganic Scintillators

16 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200316 PWO Fast Scintillator Allows a very compact design Low cost material But: light yield too low for detection of low energy photons Improvement of light yield Cooling (LY changes with temperature)

17 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200317 PWO Improvement photon response: E  = 45 -770 MeV@MAMI E  =45.4 MeVE  =105.6 MeV  /E=5.3%  /E=7.4% counts energy / a.u. PMT readout further significant increase of light output achievable by: improvement of growing technology PWO II (exploiting large experience with CMS/ECAL production) optimum co-doping CMS/ECAL R. Novotny et al., II. Phys. Inst. GI Bogoroditsk TCP

18 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200318 PWO Improvement M.Korzhik et al., RINC, Minsk A.Hofstaetter et al., I. Phys. Inst. GI crystal imperfections: cation vacancies (Pb) anion vacancies (O) insite oxygen excess of doping ions results based on EPR: Frenkel defects reduced ( factor >3) Pt identified - impact on quenching? oxygen based defects reduced Frenkel defects reduced ( factor >3) Pt identified - impact on quenching? oxygen based defects reduced 137 Cs: L.Y.: 43 phe/MeV „2 times CMS-standard“ @ T = 20 ° C

19 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200319 PWO Cooling line shape: @T=20 0 C  1 = 6.5ns (97%)  2 =30.4ns ( 3%) fraction of light yield collected in different integration gates at various temperatures change of light yield collected within 100ns as a function of temperature R. Novotny et al., II. Phys. Inst. GI

20 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200320 PWO Future Ongoing developements in PWO production will increase the light yield.  Light yield improvement of PWO scintillation crystals for the PANDA detector A.Borisevich, V. Dormenev, A. Hofstaetter, V. Ligoun, M. Kozhik, B. K. Meyer, R. Novotny Combined with cooling and maximum coverage of readout side by photosensor can make PWO the scintillator of choice for the PANDA EMC.

21 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200321 Photosensor 5 mm APD Hamamatsu S8664-55 „Photodiode with internal amplification“ operates in B-Field High quantum efficiency Active area 5x5mm 2 Large experience with CMS/ECAL  Extremely reliable and robust but: gain, dark current are temp. dependend  T < 1°C Others to be investigated: Large Area APDs of other manufacturers Channel Plate Multipliers Vacuum Triodes, …

22 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200322 APD readout: CsI(Tl) 137 Cs @ T = 0 °C ADC channel Entries 662 keV ADC channel 662 keV Entries 50 mm 60 mm 50 mm 60 mm APD (Hamamatsu) readout active area: (5 x 5) mm 2 PMT ( R1635 ) readout active area: Ø 10 mm

23 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200323 APD Quantum Efficiency CeF 3 BGO PWO CsI(Tl)

24 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200324 PropertyCsI(Tl)CeF 3 PbWO 4 BGO Density [g/cm 3 ]4.536.168.287.13 Rad. length [cm]1.851.680.891.12 Molière rad [cm]3.82.632.192.33 dE/dx [MeV/cm]5.67.913.09.2 Decay time [ns]100010-305-1560-300 Max. emission [nm] 565310-340420-440480 Rel. lightyield0.400.100.010.15 Available Inorganic Scintillators PropertyCsI(Tl)CeF 3 PbWO 4 BGO Density [g/cm 3 ]4.536.168.287.13 Rad. length [cm]1.851.680.891.12 Molière rad [cm]3.82.632.192.33 dE/dx [MeV/cm]5.67.913.09.2 Decay time [ns]100010-305-1560-300 Max. emission [nm] 565310-340420-440480 Rel. lightyield0.400.100.010.15 PropertyCsI(Tl)CeF 3 PbWO 4 BGO Density [g/cm 3 ]4.536.168.287.13 Rad. length [cm]1.851.680.891.12 Molière rad [cm]3.82.632.192.33 dE/dx [MeV/cm]5.67.913.09.2 Decay time [ns]100010-305-1560-300 Max. emission [nm] 565310-340420-440480 Rel. lightyield0.400.100.010.15 We‘ll come back to this in a minute.

25 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200325 BGO First tests with L3 crystals:  APD readout Temp controlled environment T=1°C controlled humidity 30% rel.

26 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200326 APD readout: BGO APD ADC channel 22 Na 511 keV 1275 keV ADC channel 22 Na 511 keV 1275 keV PMT R1635 25 mm Entries T=0°C

27 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200327 BGO time resolution PANDA: 10 7 events/s  10 ns time resolution MC: max. single crystal rate: ~200·10 3 /s BGO timing test: L3 BGO crystal Hamamatsu APD B A B AR preamp (250 ns shaping) Digital Scope Record a sample of cosmics signals (~15 MeV)  Make a simple MC test

28 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200328 point of time measurement Linear fit BGO time resolution BGO Landau fit + DC offset Use Landau func. to simulate pulses Typical: N/S=0.5%  Vary S/N and FADC sampling freq. Linear fit of rising edge Determine time when fit reaches half the signal amplitude

29 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200329 BGO time resolution σ t [ns] ΔT Samples [ns] N/S [%] σ v [V] 4.6501.00.02 9.7502.00.03 2.51000.50.01 5.51001.00.02 10.21002.00.03 41.9505.00.04 2.4500.50.01 46.52005.00.04 12.32002.00.03 6.22001.00.02 2.82000.50.01 39.81005.00.04 5 samples on rising edge 3 samples on rising edge 10 samples on rising edge } } }

30 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200330 BGO BGO has sufficient light yield Timing can be handled by adequate electronics We will perform further investigations with BGO as an option for the Panda Emc

31 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200331 Summary & Outlook R&D tasks Improvement of PWO light yieldImprovement of PWO light yield Detailed time resolution studies for BGODetailed time resolution studies for BGO Tests of APD readoutTests of APD readout and radiation damage –Planned this year: testbeam @ KVI, MAMI Development of largeDevelopment of large area APDs (100mm 2 ) by Hamatsu Tests of otherTests of otherPhotosensors

32 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200332 Panda Collaboration At present a group of 150 physicists from 40 institutions of 9 Countries. Bochum, Bonn, Catania, Cracow, Dresden, Dubna I + II, Edinburg, Erlangen, Ferrara, Frascati, Genova, Giessen, Glasgow, KVI Groningen, FZ Jülich I + II, Los Alamos, Mainz, Milano, TU München, Münster, Northwestern, BINP Novosibirsk, Pavia, Silesia, Stockolm, Torino I + II, Torino Politecnico,Trieste, TSL Uppsala, Tübingen, Uppsala, SINS Warsaw, AAS Wien http://www.gsi.de/hesr/panda Spokesperson: Ulrich Wiedner - Uppsala Deputy: Paola Gianotti - LNF Austria - Germany – Italy – Netherlands – Poland – Russia – Sweden – U.K. – U.S.

33 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200333 Appendix

34 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200334 Target An internal cluster-jet/pellet target is under study: 10 16 atoms/cm 2 for D=20-40  m Pellet target layout Cluster-jet target layout

35 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200335 Vertexing: Micro Vertex Detector 7.2 mio. barrel pixels 50 x 300 μm 2 mio. forward pixels 100 x 150 μm beam pipe pellet/cluster pipe Readout: ASICs (ATLAS/CMS) 0.37% X 0 or pixel one side – readout other side (TESLA)

36 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200336 Tracking: Straw Tube Tracker Number of double layers Skew angle of dbl layers 1 and 15 Skew angle of dbl layers 2-14 15 0 o 2 o -3 o Straw tube wall thickness Wire thickness Gas Length Diameter of tubes in double layers 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 Number of straw tubes 26 mm 20 mm 90%He 10%C 4 H 10 150 cm 4 mm 6 mm 8 mm 8734 Transverse resolution s x,y Longitudinal resolution s z 150 mm 1 mm

37 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200337 Tracking: Forward MDC 6 layers of sense wires in 3 double layers (y,u,v) not stretched radially (mass) realized at HADES –high counting rates –position resolution 70μm HADES@GSI

38 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200338 PID: DIRC (Cherenkov) less space than aero gel  costs of calorimeter no problems with field BaBar@SLAC

39 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200339 PID: Forward RICH Aerogel n=1.02 Multi pad gas Detector Mismatch photons  CsI photon conversion LHCb proximity focusing  mirrors

40 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200340 APD Hamamatsu S8664-55 5 mm

41 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200341 CeF 3 limited resolution for photons due to: imperfection of crystals insufficient size in spite of high luminescence yield 85 MeV p + C @ KVI proton energy / MeV counts high energy photon detection low energy proton detection @MZ good resolution for protons due to: high light output localized energy deposition general applicability proven ! R. Novotny et al., II. Phys. Inst. GI in collaboration with Korth-Kristalle GmbH

42 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200342 CeF 3 CeF 3 needs further R&D to improve resolution for photons Rel. long X 0  compact design not possible (compared to PWO) Constraints from target may limit the available space for the EMC  CeF 3 is not an option for the barrel part

43 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200343 BGO: event rates Max. occupancy of one crystal due to bkgr simulations: 2% · 10 7 events/s = 2·10 5 s -1 Use digital tail cancelation in the feature extraction conservative scaling of the rise time –CsI: 100 ns / 940 ns –BGO: 12 ns / 200 ns Rate we can handle: ( 2·t rise · 10 ) -1 = 2.5·10 5 events/s

44 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200344 Why Antiprotons? high resolution spectroscopy with p-beams in formation experiments: – E  E beam high yields in pp of gluonic excitations –glueballs, hybrids event tagging by pair wise associated production, –(particle, anti-particle) e.g. pp bar large √s at low momentum transfer –important for in-medium "implantation" of hadrons: –study of in-medium effects

45 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200345 Timeline since 1996Discussion about GSI future International workshops, reviews, accelerator R&D May 1999Letter of Intend for an antiproton facility (40 authors) Studies for detector concept Jan. 2001Detector simulation with GEANT4 Nov. 2001Conceptual Design Report of an „International Accelerator Facility for Beams of Ions and Antiprotons” Nov. 2001Review by an international review committee of the „Deutscher Wissenschaftsrat“ April 2002International p-Workshop at GSI July 2002Positive Votum by the „Deutscher Wissenschaftsrat“ Feb. 5, 2003Positive Decision by the „bmb+f”

46 11. 9. 2003Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT 200346 Resonance Scan E CM Measured Rate Beam Profile Resonance Cross Section small and well controlled beam momentum spread p/p is extremely important


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