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A Fast and Compact Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Detector at GSI Bernd Lewandowski Ruhr-Universität Bochum SCINT 2003 Valencia 11. 9. 2003.

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Presentation on theme: "A Fast and Compact Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Detector at GSI Bernd Lewandowski Ruhr-Universität Bochum SCINT 2003 Valencia 11. 9. 2003."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Fast and Compact Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Detector at GSI Bernd Lewandowski Ruhr-Universität Bochum SCINT 2003 Valencia

2 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT What is PANDA? AntiProton ANnihilations at DArmstadt

3 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Where is Darmstadt? GSI

4 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT The GSI Future Facility Panda Existing GSI Facilities

5 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Antiproton Physics Program Charmonium (cc ) spectroscopy: precision measurements of mass, width, decay branches of all charmonium states, especially for extracting information on qq models of mesons.

6 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Antiproton Physics Program Charmonium (cc ) spectroscopy: precision measurements of mass, width, decay branches of all charmonium states, especially for extracting information on qq models of mesons. Search for gluonic excitations (charmed hybrids, glueballs) in the charmonium mass range (3 – 5 GeV/c 2 ).

7 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Antiproton Physics Program Charmonium (cc ) spectroscopy: precision measurements of mass, width, decay branches of all charmonium states, especially for extracting information on qq models of mesons. Search for gluonic excitations (charmed hybrids, glueballs) in the charmonium mass range (3 – 5 GeV/c 2 ). Search for modifications of meson properties in the nuclear medium, and their possible relationship to the partial restoration of chiral symmetry for light quarks. pionic atoms KAOS/FOPI HESR  K D vacuumnuclear medium   π+π+ π-π- K-K- K+K+ D+D+ D-D- 25 MeV 100 MeV 50 MeV

8 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Antiproton Physics Program Charmonium (cc ) spectroscopy: precision measurements of mass, width, decay branches of all charmonium states, especially for extracting information on qq models of mesons. Search for gluonic excitations (charmed hybrids, glueballs) in the charmonium mass range (3 – 5 GeV/c 2 ). Search for modifications of meson properties in the nuclear medium, and their possible relationship to the partial restoration of chiral symmetry for light quarks. DD 50 MeV D D+D+vacuum nuclear medium  K 25 MeV 100 MeV K+K+ KK   Precision -ray spectroscopy of single and double hypernuclei for Extracting information on their structure and on the hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interaction. Antiproton Physics Program -- 3 GeV/c KK Trigger _  secondary target p  - (dss) p(uud) → (uds) (uds)

9 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT The Antiproton Facility

10 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT The Antiproton Facility Antiproton production similar to CERN, HESR = High Energy Storage Ring –Production rate 10 7 /sec –P beam = GeV/c –N stored = 5 x p Gas-Jet (or Cluster) Target High luminosity mode –Luminosity = 2 x cm -2 s -1 – p/p ~ (stochastic cooling) High resolution mode – p/p ~ (electron cooling < 8 GeV/c) –Luminosity = cm -2 s -1

11 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Proposed Detector (Overview) High Rates –Total  ~ 55 mb –10 7 interactions/s Vertexing –( p,K S,,…) Charged particle ID –(e ±, ±, ±,p,…) Magnetic tracking Elm. Calorimetry –(,0,)–(,0,) Forward capabilities –(leading particles) Sophisticated Trigger(s)

12 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Electromagnetic Calorimeter Detector materialPbWO 4 Photo sensorsAvalanche Photo Diodes Crystal size  35 x 35 x 150 mm 3 (i.e 1.5 x 1.5 R M 2 x 17 X 0 ) Energy resolution 1.54 % / E[GeV] % (PMT) Time resolution   130 ps (PMT) Total number of crystals7150

13 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Requirements for the EMC Nearly 4 solid angle (PWA) High rate capability: 10 7 interactions/s High resolution: 1.54 % / E[GeV] % Compact design: inside Solenoid Operation in magnetic field: 2T

14 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Lessons from LEAR (CB) Final states with 10+ photons Merged  0 are easy to handle –“moderate” angular resolution sufficient Low thresholds –E min ≤20 MeV Crystal Barrel

15 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT PropertyCsI(Tl)CeF 3 PbWO 4 BGO Density [g/cm 3 ] Rad. length [cm] Molière rad [cm] dE/dx [MeV/cm] Decay time [ns] Max. emission [nm] Rel. lightyield Available Inorganic Scintillators

16 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT PWO Fast Scintillator Allows a very compact design Low cost material But: light yield too low for detection of low energy photons Improvement of light yield Cooling (LY changes with temperature)

17 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT PWO Improvement photon response: E  = E  =45.4 MeVE  =105.6 MeV  /E=5.3%  /E=7.4% counts energy / a.u. PMT readout further significant increase of light output achievable by: improvement of growing technology PWO II (exploiting large experience with CMS/ECAL production) optimum co-doping CMS/ECAL R. Novotny et al., II. Phys. Inst. GI Bogoroditsk TCP

18 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT PWO Improvement M.Korzhik et al., RINC, Minsk A.Hofstaetter et al., I. Phys. Inst. GI crystal imperfections: cation vacancies (Pb) anion vacancies (O) insite oxygen excess of doping ions results based on EPR: Frenkel defects reduced ( factor >3) Pt identified - impact on quenching? oxygen based defects reduced Frenkel defects reduced ( factor >3) Pt identified - impact on quenching? oxygen based defects reduced 137 Cs: L.Y.: 43 phe/MeV „2 times T = 20 ° C

19 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT PWO Cooling line 0 C  1 = 6.5ns (97%)  2 =30.4ns ( 3%) fraction of light yield collected in different integration gates at various temperatures change of light yield collected within 100ns as a function of temperature R. Novotny et al., II. Phys. Inst. GI

20 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT PWO Future Ongoing developements in PWO production will increase the light yield.  Light yield improvement of PWO scintillation crystals for the PANDA detector A.Borisevich, V. Dormenev, A. Hofstaetter, V. Ligoun, M. Kozhik, B. K. Meyer, R. Novotny Combined with cooling and maximum coverage of readout side by photosensor can make PWO the scintillator of choice for the PANDA EMC.

21 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Photosensor 5 mm APD Hamamatsu S „Photodiode with internal amplification“ operates in B-Field High quantum efficiency Active area 5x5mm 2 Large experience with CMS/ECAL  Extremely reliable and robust but: gain, dark current are temp. dependend  T < 1°C Others to be investigated: Large Area APDs of other manufacturers Channel Plate Multipliers Vacuum Triodes, …

22 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT APD readout: CsI(Tl) 137 T = 0 °C ADC channel Entries 662 keV ADC channel 662 keV Entries 50 mm 60 mm 50 mm 60 mm APD (Hamamatsu) readout active area: (5 x 5) mm 2 PMT ( R1635 ) readout active area: Ø 10 mm

23 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT APD Quantum Efficiency CeF 3 BGO PWO CsI(Tl)

24 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT PropertyCsI(Tl)CeF 3 PbWO 4 BGO Density [g/cm 3 ] Rad. length [cm] Molière rad [cm] dE/dx [MeV/cm] Decay time [ns] Max. emission [nm] Rel. lightyield Available Inorganic Scintillators PropertyCsI(Tl)CeF 3 PbWO 4 BGO Density [g/cm 3 ] Rad. length [cm] Molière rad [cm] dE/dx [MeV/cm] Decay time [ns] Max. emission [nm] Rel. lightyield PropertyCsI(Tl)CeF 3 PbWO 4 BGO Density [g/cm 3 ] Rad. length [cm] Molière rad [cm] dE/dx [MeV/cm] Decay time [ns] Max. emission [nm] Rel. lightyield We‘ll come back to this in a minute.

25 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT BGO First tests with L3 crystals:  APD readout Temp controlled environment T=1°C controlled humidity 30% rel.

26 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT APD readout: BGO APD ADC channel 22 Na 511 keV 1275 keV ADC channel 22 Na 511 keV 1275 keV PMT R mm Entries T=0°C

27 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT BGO time resolution PANDA: 10 7 events/s  10 ns time resolution MC: max. single crystal rate: ~200·10 3 /s BGO timing test: L3 BGO crystal Hamamatsu APD B A B AR preamp (250 ns shaping) Digital Scope Record a sample of cosmics signals (~15 MeV)  Make a simple MC test

28 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT point of time measurement Linear fit BGO time resolution BGO Landau fit + DC offset Use Landau func. to simulate pulses Typical: N/S=0.5%  Vary S/N and FADC sampling freq. Linear fit of rising edge Determine time when fit reaches half the signal amplitude

29 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT BGO time resolution σ t [ns] ΔT Samples [ns] N/S [%] σ v [V] samples on rising edge 3 samples on rising edge 10 samples on rising edge } } }

30 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT BGO BGO has sufficient light yield Timing can be handled by adequate electronics We will perform further investigations with BGO as an option for the Panda Emc

31 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Summary & Outlook R&D tasks Improvement of PWO light yieldImprovement of PWO light yield Detailed time resolution studies for BGODetailed time resolution studies for BGO Tests of APD readoutTests of APD readout and radiation damage –Planned this year: KVI, MAMI Development of largeDevelopment of large area APDs (100mm 2 ) by Hamatsu Tests of otherTests of otherPhotosensors

32 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Panda Collaboration At present a group of 150 physicists from 40 institutions of 9 Countries. Bochum, Bonn, Catania, Cracow, Dresden, Dubna I + II, Edinburg, Erlangen, Ferrara, Frascati, Genova, Giessen, Glasgow, KVI Groningen, FZ Jülich I + II, Los Alamos, Mainz, Milano, TU München, Münster, Northwestern, BINP Novosibirsk, Pavia, Silesia, Stockolm, Torino I + II, Torino Politecnico,Trieste, TSL Uppsala, Tübingen, Uppsala, SINS Warsaw, AAS Wien Spokesperson: Ulrich Wiedner - Uppsala Deputy: Paola Gianotti - LNF Austria - Germany – Italy – Netherlands – Poland – Russia – Sweden – U.K. – U.S.

33 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Appendix

34 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Target An internal cluster-jet/pellet target is under study: atoms/cm 2 for D=20-40  m Pellet target layout Cluster-jet target layout

35 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Vertexing: Micro Vertex Detector 7.2 mio. barrel pixels 50 x 300 μm 2 mio. forward pixels 100 x 150 μm beam pipe pellet/cluster pipe Readout: ASICs (ATLAS/CMS) 0.37% X 0 or pixel one side – readout other side (TESLA)

36 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Tracking: Straw Tube Tracker Number of double layers Skew angle of dbl layers 1 and 15 Skew angle of dbl layers o 2 o -3 o Straw tube wall thickness Wire thickness Gas Length Diameter of tubes in double layers 1-5, 6-10, and Number of straw tubes 26 mm 20 mm 90%He 10%C 4 H cm 4 mm 6 mm 8 mm 8734 Transverse resolution s x,y Longitudinal resolution s z 150 mm 1 mm

37 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Tracking: Forward MDC 6 layers of sense wires in 3 double layers (y,u,v) not stretched radially (mass) realized at HADES –high counting rates –position resolution 70μm

38 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT PID: DIRC (Cherenkov) less space than aero gel  costs of calorimeter no problems with field

39 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT PID: Forward RICH Aerogel n=1.02 Multi pad gas Detector Mismatch photons  CsI photon conversion LHCb proximity focusing  mirrors

40 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT APD Hamamatsu S mm

41 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT CeF 3 limited resolution for photons due to: imperfection of crystals insufficient size in spite of high luminescence yield 85 MeV p + KVI proton energy / MeV counts high energy photon detection low energy proton good resolution for protons due to: high light output localized energy deposition general applicability proven ! R. Novotny et al., II. Phys. Inst. GI in collaboration with Korth-Kristalle GmbH

42 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT CeF 3 CeF 3 needs further R&D to improve resolution for photons Rel. long X 0  compact design not possible (compared to PWO) Constraints from target may limit the available space for the EMC  CeF 3 is not an option for the barrel part

43 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT BGO: event rates Max. occupancy of one crystal due to bkgr simulations: 2% · 10 7 events/s = 2·10 5 s -1 Use digital tail cancelation in the feature extraction conservative scaling of the rise time –CsI: 100 ns / 940 ns –BGO: 12 ns / 200 ns Rate we can handle: ( 2·t rise · 10 ) -1 = 2.5·10 5 events/s

44 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Why Antiprotons? high resolution spectroscopy with p-beams in formation experiments: – E  E beam high yields in pp of gluonic excitations –glueballs, hybrids event tagging by pair wise associated production, –(particle, anti-particle) e.g. pp bar large √s at low momentum transfer –important for in-medium "implantation" of hadrons: –study of in-medium effects

45 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Timeline since 1996Discussion about GSI future International workshops, reviews, accelerator R&D May 1999Letter of Intend for an antiproton facility (40 authors) Studies for detector concept Jan. 2001Detector simulation with GEANT4 Nov. 2001Conceptual Design Report of an „International Accelerator Facility for Beams of Ions and Antiprotons” Nov. 2001Review by an international review committee of the „Deutscher Wissenschaftsrat“ April 2002International p-Workshop at GSI July 2002Positive Votum by the „Deutscher Wissenschaftsrat“ Feb. 5, 2003Positive Decision by the „bmb+f”

46 Bernd Lewandowski - Ruhr-Universität Bochum - SCINT Resonance Scan E CM Measured Rate Beam Profile Resonance Cross Section small and well controlled beam momentum spread p/p is extremely important


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