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The Vertebral Column. 33 vertebra in total 7C 12T 5L 5S (fuse by age 30) 4 coccygeal (form coccyx) ¼ of length = IV disc Synovial zygapophysial joints.

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Presentation on theme: "The Vertebral Column. 33 vertebra in total 7C 12T 5L 5S (fuse by age 30) 4 coccygeal (form coccyx) ¼ of length = IV disc Synovial zygapophysial joints."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Vertebral Column

2 33 vertebra in total 7C 12T 5L 5S (fuse by age 30) 4 coccygeal (form coccyx) ¼ of length = IV disc Synovial zygapophysial joints = flexibility

3 Features of All Vertebrae Vertebral body Supports weight Superior and inferior end plates (discs of hyaline cartilage) = epiphyseal rim Centrum (POC) Vertebral arch Pedicles Laminae Vertebral foramen  vertebral canal Vertebral notches  IV foramina Seven processes Spinous Transverse (x2) Articular (x4)

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5 Cervical Vertebrae Transverse process Foramen transversarium / transverse foramin (C1 – C6 = vertebral artery) Anterior and posterior tubercle Body Uncus (uncinate process) Spinous processes – bifid (C3-C6) C7 – vertebra prominens

6 Atlas – no body, no spinous process, pedicles = lateral masses (bear weight). Ant / post arch Ant / post tubercles Fovea for the dens Axis Dens (odontoid process) Superior articular facets Transverse ligament of atlas

7 Thoracic Vertebrae T1: costal facet for 1 st rib, demifacet for 2 nd rib T2 – T8 = demifacets, vertical articular processes Permit rotation, some lateral flexion Spinous processes angle inferiorly and overlap T9 – T11: Single costal facet T12: One demifacet, most commonly fractured vertebra

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9 Lumbar vertebrae Supracristal line crosses L4/L5 IV disc Facets in sagittal plane – permit flexion and extension Also accessory and mammillary processes Lumbosacral angle (normally )

10 Sacrum Superior half transmits force L5 to ilia Sacral canal (for cauda equina) Sacral foramina (ventral and dorsal) Base = superior surface of S1 Sacral promonory Apex = S5 Articular facet for coccyx) Pelvic surface = smooth Lateral surface Median / intermediate / lateral sacral crests Sacral hiatus Sacral cornua

11 Coccyx Fuses with sacrum, though Co1 can remain separate (has coccygeal cornua, remnants of articular processes) Provides attachment for glut max, coccygeus, anococcygeal ligaments Apex is palpable 2.5cm posterosuperior to the anus

12 Ligaments of the Spine Ligamentum flavum (connects laminae) Supraspinous ligament Interspinous ligament Nuchal ligament (occiput-C1- C7) Posterior longitudinal ligament (prevents herniation) Anterior longitudinal ligament (limits extension)

13 Superficial Back Muscles

14 Erector spinae

15 Deep intrinsic back muscles These interconnect and stabilise – found deep to spinalis Semispinalis Multifidus Rotatores (brevis and longus) Interspinales Intertransversarii

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18 Anatomy of the Pelvis

19 Bony Pelvis 3 bones each side, forms pelvic girdles Os coxae = ilium, ischium, pubis Ilium Arcuate line Iliac crest Iliac fossa Auricular surface Iliac tuberosity Ala Gluteal lines ASIS, AIIS, PSIS, PIIS

20 Ischium Body Ramus (obturator foramen) Greater sciatic notch Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Pubis Superior ramus (acetabulum) Inferior ramus Body of pubis Pubic crest Pubic tubercle Pubic symphysis Pecten pubis

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24 Muscles of the pelvis Lateral wall = obturator internus (traverses lesser sciatic foramen to attach on greater trochanter), obturator fascia Posterior wall = SI joint and piriformis (arises from sacrum, passes through greater sciatic f. to attach to greater trochanter) Pelvic floor = pelvic diaphragm = coccygeus + levator ani

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26 Levator ani Broad sheet between pubic bodies and ischial spines. Supports abdominopelvic viscera and is tonically contracted to maintain continence Puborectalis = puborectal sling Pubococcygeous Muscle slips names after structures: pubo-analis, puboperinealis, pubovaginalis, puboprostaticus Iliococcygeus (most posterolateral part).

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28 Peritoneum of Pelvis

29 Learn for Surg Rotation

30 Arteries of the pelvis


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