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Endangered Species By Ani Hsu Obrock, Nancy Canevari, and Vivian Zhuang.

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1 Endangered Species By Ani Hsu Obrock, Nancy Canevari, and Vivian Zhuang

2 Vocabulary Endangered Species: Animals or species that are soon to die out. Once they become extinct, they will never be seen on Earth again.

3 Let's take a look at some species that are endangered...

4 What makes a species endangered? The major causes are: Habitat loss (#1 cause) -Deforestation Pollution Competition from other species Disease Predation Unregulated or illegal killing- Hunting http://library.thinkquest.org/5736/causes.htm

5 In our presentation, we will cover these 3 causes: 1.Habitat Loss- Deforestation 2.Unregulated or illegal killing 3.Pollution/ Climate Change

6 Habitat Loss- Deforestation Focusing on Red Pandas, which is an endangered species.

7 Red Pandas Red pandas are a sub-breed of the more well-known giant panda. They're much smaller, however, and have red fur with white and black markings. They are becoming endangered primarily due to deforestation and destruction of their habitats. Red pandas live in China, Nepal and Myanmar, as well as other mountain forests. These habitats are becoming destroyed because trees and bamboo are being cut down, eliminating the pandas' habitats and destroying their food sources.

8 Why Is This Happening? Humans are cutting down trees for their wood. They are clearing forests to build structures in place of the wildlands. Bamboo and other plants are very popular for decoration and many other uses; the pandas resources are being depleted. How Are We Causing This?

9 If This Continues... Red pandas are on the road to extinction and without aid, they will probably get there. The snow leopards and martens that prey on them will have no food to eat; they will grow endangered and could eventually die out. The bamboo and other plants that they eat will take over the ecosystem with no organisms to eat them. The jungles will become overpopulated with plants and underpopulated with predatory species. The entire ecosystem would very likely be thrown out of whack, and this could lead to other ecosystems that rely on it to follow.

10 What Can We Do? Reduce your use of paper products. This is so simple but so effective- by using reusable dishes, napkins and towels instead of paper ones, tons of paper is saved. Use recycled paper products or ones from sustainable manufacturers, to ensure that your products were not made by the destruction of forests. Be careful when printing. Print double-sided when possible and try to use recycled paper. Register for online billing for credit card payments, mortgages statements, cell phone bills, etc. Recycle, recycle, recycle!

11 Impact on Biogeochemical Cycles The deforestation that hurts red pandas will also lead to the water cycle being interrupted; groundwater will not be passed through roots and back into the air. The same is true for carbon; without trees to turn it into oxygen, it cannot be passed through the cycle. Both the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles will be harmed- animals take in these two elements through food and release them into the soil. Without animals such as red pandas and those that eat them, phosphorus and nitrogen will not be passed through to the air.

12 Unregulated or Illegal Killing- Hunting

13 Main Idea Hunting (mainly illegal) Can cause species to become endangered Can lead to species becoming extinct

14 Amur Leopard

15 Rare leopard subspecies that only lives in the remote and snowy northern forests of eastern Russian’s Primorye region (long fur helps them endure the hard cold). They used to live in Korea and northern China, but are now extinct in those areas. Similar to other leopards, the Amur leopard can run at speeds of up to 37 miles per hour, leap more than 19 feet horizontally and up to 10 feet vertically, and carries and hides unfinished kills so that they are not taken by other predators. Amur leopard is also known as the Far East leopard, the Manchurian leopard or the Korean leopard, and they can live up to 10-15 years, and in captivity, up to 20. They are critically endangered, and there are only about 30 of them left. They are skillful hunters that feed on deer, hares, and small rodents.

16 The Problem- Poaching The Amur Leopard is largely poached for its beautiful, spotted, fur. Since agriculture and villages surround the forests where the leopards live, hunting is more frequent and the leopards are more accessible. People in the southeast of Primoryeare forced to rely on local forest products, because of the poor economy (which encourages poaching). In general: People kill animals for their fur, oil, body parts, and many other things in order to fatten their wallet. These things then, are turned into fur coat, cosmetics, perfume, oil for lamps, and traditional medicines.

17 Poaching occurs mostly in Africa Wildcats- People poach for their nice fur to sell, since Africa is mostly in poverty and people need the money. Elephants- People kill an elephant for their ivory tusks and teeth, that are worth a lot of money. Rhinos- People kill rhinos for their tusks and teeth, as well, which are also worth a lot of money. As for the Amur Leopard, most of the hunting is done in the Primorye region of southeastern Russia. As previously discussed, they used to be common in China and Korea too, but are now extinct in those parts, due to poaching an other reasons.

18 Outcomes? If not stopped or prevented.. More animals will become close to extinct. Environmental Impacts? The food chain will be disturbed because there will be more prey than predators. A definciency in predators disrupts the balance that is essential to matter cycles.

19 Ways you can help :) Educate so that people are more aware of the situation Fundraise so that larger organizations can work to save the Amur Leopard's habitat Tell your very own local politicians to reject budject proposals that would cut funding for endangered species

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21 Carbon Cycle if the bones are left to rot, they will make fossil fuels poaching CAN lead to the increase or decrease (amount) of carbon in the atmosphere then plants take in the carbon and allow us to get oxygen and glucose after the process of photosynthesis the amount of O2 and C6H12O6 depends IN PART on the amount of poaching that is done

22 Water Cycle less animals alive COULD lead to less animals drinking the water in the ecosystem less competition living animals circulate the amount of nutrients that are being returned back to the ecosystem, and if many die, than there will be an imbalance

23 A little break!

24 Climate Change/ Pollution

25 Ringed Seals are one of the most common seals in the Arctic, and live in the Northern Hemisphere’s circumpolar oceans Ringed Seals gather on the sea ice to breed, molt, and rest On the sea ice, they build snow caves where they give birth, raise their pups, and go to for protection Ringed Seals Recently, three subgroups of Ringed Seals-Arctic, Okhotsk, and Baltic, were placed on the endangered species list due to climate change The Ringed Seals are the first species to be placed on the list since the polar bear due to climate change threats

26 The Problem The reason Ringed Seals are placed on the endangered species list is because of climate change Due to climate change, the snow caves the Ringed Seals built are collapsing and the amount of sea ice is decreasing, leaving the pups vulnerable to cold temperatures and predators I f the Earth’s climate continues to warm, all of the sea ice will melt, and the death of the seals will increase. Eventually, the ringed seal will become extinct and the animals that prey on the Ringed Seals (arctic foxes, birds, walruses, polar bears, and other animals) will also decrease, causing problems within the ecosystem

27 Climate Change Climate change is any significant change in climate over a period of time, such as temperature, wind patterns, and precipitation Climate change affects the entire world, but is more evident in places such as the ice caps and oceans Humans are mostly responsible for climate change. By burning fossil fuels to produce energy, large amounts of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gasses and released into the atmosphere

28 Greenhouse Gases These gases can be released in multiples of ways, such as by burning fossil fuels (coal, natural gas and oil), trees and wood products, remains of animals, and also as a product of some chemical reactions (ex, cement production) When greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane are released, they trap energy in the atmosphere causing it to warm. Even though this process is necessary to support life, a buildup of these gases will cause changes in the Earth’s climate and will damage ecosystems and human health

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30 How we can Stop Climate Change Switch off the lights when not in use/ change light bulbs to compact fluorescents or LEDs Recycle paper, plastic, etc. Instead of driving, walk to your destination if it's within walking distance Compost food and yard waste to reduce the amount of garbage sent to landfills Spread the word and get others to help reduce climate change

31 Websites Used For Content "What CAUSES Endangered Species?" Weblog post. ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 29 May 2013.. The Wildlife Conservation Society, comp. ThinkQuest. Rep. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 30 May 2013.. Darlington, Meredith. MNN - Mother Nature Network. Digital image. MNN - Mother Nature Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013.. "Red Panda." National Geographic. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 28 May 2013.. "Basics." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 30 May 2013. Gannon, Megan. "Ice Seals Get Endangered Species Protection." LiveScience.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 May 2013.. Fiset, Nathalie. "8 Basic Ways of Preventing Deforestation." Web log post. EzineArticles. N.p., n.d. Web.. "Basics." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 02 June 2013. Berwyn, Bob. "Citing Shrinking Sea Ice, Feds List Several Arctic Seal Species As Threatened And Endangered." ThinkProgress RSS. Center for American Progress Action Fund, n.d. Web. 02 June 2013. Gannon, Megan. "Ice Seals Get Endangered Species Protection." LiveScience.com. N.p., 26 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 June 2013. "Amur Leopard | Species | WWF." WWF - Endangered Species Conservation | World Wildlife Fund. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2013.. "AMUR LEOPARD." Top 10 Endangered Species & Wild Animal Facts — All About Wildlife. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2013.. "Conservation Biology: WHY CONSERVE THE AMUR LEOPARD?." Conservation Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2013.. "carbon cycle." Edurite.com : Online Shopping: Buy Cds Online: CBSE, ICSE, State board. edurite, n.d. Web. 3 June 2013.. "Fossil Fuels - Carbon Cycle." Elmhurst College: Elmhurst, Illinois. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2013. { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/10/2792626/slides/slide_31.jpg", "name": "Websites Used For Content What CAUSES Endangered Species? Weblog post.", "description": "ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 29 May 2013.. The Wildlife Conservation Society, comp. ThinkQuest. Rep. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 30 May 2013.. Darlington, Meredith. MNN - Mother Nature Network. Digital image. MNN - Mother Nature Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 May 2013.. Red Panda. National Geographic. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 28 May 2013.. Basics. EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 30 May 2013. Gannon, Megan. Ice Seals Get Endangered Species Protection. LiveScience.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 May 2013.. Fiset, Nathalie. 8 Basic Ways of Preventing Deforestation. Web log post. EzineArticles. N.p., n.d. Web.. Basics. EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 02 June 2013. Berwyn, Bob. Citing Shrinking Sea Ice, Feds List Several Arctic Seal Species As Threatened And Endangered. ThinkProgress RSS. Center for American Progress Action Fund, n.d. Web. 02 June 2013. Gannon, Megan. Ice Seals Get Endangered Species Protection. LiveScience.com. N.p., 26 Dec. 2012. Web. 02 June 2013. Amur Leopard | Species | WWF. WWF - Endangered Species Conservation | World Wildlife Fund. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2013.. AMUR LEOPARD. Top 10 Endangered Species & Wild Animal Facts — All About Wildlife. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2013.. Conservation Biology: WHY CONSERVE THE AMUR LEOPARD?. Conservation Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2013.. carbon cycle. Edurite.com : Online Shopping: Buy Cds Online: CBSE, ICSE, State board. edurite, n.d. Web. 3 June 2013.. Fossil Fuels - Carbon Cycle. Elmhurst College: Elmhurst, Illinois. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 June 2013.

32 Websites Used For Pictures http://www.cuteheaven.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/amur-leopard-cub.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/1328101972_Arrow-Down.png http://4.bp.blogspot.com/- 3n7sqgC_Lok/Ta5wyrHjrrI/AAAAAAAAAMM/CNIT_x_E8g8/s400/idea_lightbulb_cartoon2.jpeg http://www.elkspringsresort.com/images/military-discount-on-cabins.jpg http://tiedebasaari.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/amur-leopard-photo-credit-www-personal-psu- edu.jpg http://thumbnails.visually.netdna-cdn.com/amur-leopard-35-left-in-the-wild_5029158fb6185.jpg http://www.greenvillezoo.com/images/Adopt/AmurLeopard.png http://www.traffic.org/storage/thumbnails/1467551-2827078- thumbnail.jpg?__SQUARESPACE_CACHEVERSION=1239124237514 http://serendipity4molly.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/amur-leopard-104.jpg http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/19/ringed-bearded-seals-endangered- species_n_2909248.html http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/19/ringed-bearded-seals-endangered- species_n_2909248.html 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