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Tech & Technique for 911 & 311 (Customer Service via Technology)

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1 Tech & Technique for 911 & 311 (Customer Service via Technology)

2 9-1-1 Is Obvious?; Not So! (The “411” on N-1-1) Emergencies and “Response” Emergencies and “Response” 9-1-1and 10-digits 9-1-1and 10-digits Phone calls only; text and video soon Phone calls only; text and video soon Call Center and dispatch functions Call Center and dispatch functions Almost all are public Almost all are public Gov’t non-emergency Information/services Phone and Web chat and text Call Center & business improvement catalyst Big city/county Customer service!!!

3 Added Perspective ~6000 in U.S. ~6000 in U.S. Consolidating is done Consolidating is done –City/county/region –Police/fire/EMS Industry is ~30 years old Industry is ~30 years old isn’t ubiquitous, but is nearly so isn’t ubiquitous, but is nearly so Good service = life- and property-saving Good service = life- and property-saving FCC assigned # in ’97 VERY popular for: –Residents (ease) –Electeds (residents) –Enlightened mgrs –Gov’t magazines in U.S. now Some just public safety non-emergency Good service = votes & maybe better government…less hassle

4 911 on Left; 311 on Right (Basic Process Flow) Receive the call w/info Receive the call w/info Get info fm caller Get info fm caller Handle call properly Handle call properly Pass info to correct responder(s) Pass info to correct responder(s) Monitor responders Monitor responders Capture historical info Capture historical info QA QA Receive the call/msg Classify the call Use the right process Answer ?s (~70%) Do work-order (15%) Talk to legacy systems Track and report

5 Customer Service Opportunities –Caller; PD ~85% »er…lots to –Internal customers; PD, Fire, EMS –Deaf and HoH –Limited English users –Data queriers –Public safety to “all” –Callers; questioners, reporters, & demanders –Live via phone; self- service via web –Chat –Hand-held/portables –Every citizen a sensor –Social networking

6 9-1-1 Receive call w/info Receive call w/info Get info fm caller Get info fm caller Handle call properly Handle call properly Pass to responder(s) Pass to responder(s) Monitor responders Monitor responders Capture history info Capture history info QA QA E-911 phone system CACH/protocols CAD Mobile data/voice radio RMS AQUA

7 Enhanced (E911) Typically CPE; customized phone switch Typically CPE; customized phone switch Enhanced refers to selective routing and provision of ALI/ANI Enhanced refers to selective routing and provision of ALI/ANI –ALI = automated location information »“easy” for landline…database maintenance issues »Estimates for cellular »Self-entry for VoIP –ANI = automated number information »Database (good within ~24 hours)…”all” TNs –Customer Service (C.S.) focus: SR gets caller to the correct Center

8 Computer-aided Calling Handling (CACH) and Protocols Dumps ANI/ALI from E-911 into CAD Dumps ANI/ALI from E-911 into CAD Provides “scripting” for call classifying Provides “scripting” for call classifying Protocols for law enforcement (LE), Fire, and EMS Protocols for law enforcement (LE), Fire, and EMS –Started as “flip-cards”…now computerized and usually integrated with the CAD software pkg –LE is pretty new and not widely used (85%) –EMD is very mature; Fire protocol is adolescent C.S. foci are caller and responder safety C.S. foci are caller and responder safety

9 Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) Configurable SW Configurable SW Takes in ALI/ANI Takes in ALI/ANI “Forces” classification (incident type) “Forces” classification (incident type) Recommends responding dept/unit(s) Recommends responding dept/unit(s) SOP might be appended SOP might be appended Collects remarks Collects remarks Some sophisticated CAD combine like-calls; Some sophisticated CAD combine like-calls; C.S. focus is getting correct (closest, if needed) responder(s) to incident C.S. focus is getting correct (closest, if needed) responder(s) to incident

10 Mobile Data “Voiceless” dispatch and/or added remarks to brief voice dispatch “Voiceless” dispatch and/or added remarks to brief voice dispatch Received on MDTs or MDCs Received on MDTs or MDCs Transmitted through public networks maintained by gov’t entities Transmitted through public networks maintained by gov’t entities More commonly using air-cards, Wi-Fi; sometimes with mesh/roaming technology More commonly using air-cards, Wi-Fi; sometimes with mesh/roaming technology Future bringing access to databases from vehicles; fingerprints, videos, license plate readers, etc. Future bringing access to databases from vehicles; fingerprints, videos, license plate readers, etc. C.S. foci include radio reduction & security C.S. foci include radio reduction & security

11 Voice Radio Almost universally self-maintained public Almost universally self-maintained public Project 25 (standards based…non-proprietary) Project 25 (standards based…non-proprietary) Interoperability via P25, gateways Interoperability via P25, gateways Trunking bringing efficiency to channel usage Trunking bringing efficiency to channel usage Slow, but sure transition from analog to digital Slow, but sure transition from analog to digital FCC “narrow-banding” for spectrum efficiency FCC “narrow-banding” for spectrum efficiency Multi-band (UHF, VHF, 700/800 MHz) radios appearing Multi-band (UHF, VHF, 700/800 MHz) radios appearing C. S. focus includes up-to-the-second updates C. S. focus includes up-to-the-second updates

12 Records Management Systems (RMS) Somewhat outside, but frequently interfaced Somewhat outside, but frequently interfaced Info on incident…but, usually person-based Info on incident…but, usually person-based Federal standard on data-sharing developed Federal standard on data-sharing developed –XML Inter-jurisdictional checking far from easy Inter-jurisdictional checking far from easy –Not usually because of technological limits C.S. focus is internal (know who/what the responder is dealing with) C.S. focus is internal (know who/what the responder is dealing with)

13 Quality Assurance (e.g. AQUA) Proprietary with protocol maker Proprietary with protocol maker Recording systems (loggers) Recording systems (loggers) –Audio –Screen-scrapes –QA check-list configuration –QA reporting/compilation

14 IVR/Auto Attendant for Say what!? (just for the non-emergency #s) Say what!? (just for the non-emergency #s) Prompt callers in need (now or soon) to punch 1 or 2 or say “now” or “recently” to get a live call-taker Prompt callers in need (now or soon) to punch 1 or 2 or say “now” or “recently” to get a live call-taker Leads other needs to other departments (and /or to 311) to keep from becoming over-burdened by the 60 – 70% of calls that really don’t need a police, fire, or EMS response Leads other needs to other departments (and /or to 311) to keep from becoming over-burdened by the 60 – 70% of calls that really don’t need a police, fire, or EMS response C.S. focus ??? (might understand/appreciate) C.S. focus ??? (might understand/appreciate)

15 3-1-1 Receive call/msg Receive call/msg Classify the call Classify the call Use right process Use right process Answer ?s (~70%) Answer ?s (~70%) Do work-order Do work-order Talk to legacy sys Talk to legacy sys Track and report Track and report Call center SW/ACD CRM CaseWise (process flow) KnowledgeBase CRM SW interfaces Higher Ground CitiStat

16 Call Center/ACD Automatic call distribution assures first caller, first answered (and level distribution of labor) Automatic call distribution assures first caller, first answered (and level distribution of labor) Call center software can “pop” caller information if in previous CRM (computer telephone integration – CTI) Call center software can “pop” caller information if in previous CRM (computer telephone integration – CTI) Call center software can queue s and web-chats Call center software can queue s and web-chats C.S. focus all about quick answers C.S. focus all about quick answers

17 KnowledgeBase (KB) This first since the majority of calls can be handled with this tool (70% in Minneapolis) This first since the majority of calls can be handled with this tool (70% in Minneapolis) Can simply be indexing existing web pages (recommended) or could be compilation of documents tailor/custom-made for/by 311 Can simply be indexing existing web pages (recommended) or could be compilation of documents tailor/custom-made for/by 311 Ensure that “stumpers” have a process for resolution/adding Ensure that “stumpers” have a process for resolution/adding If back-office maintains, they have incentive to ensure quality If back-office maintains, they have incentive to ensure quality C.S. focus (4-1-1 for government information) C.S. focus (4-1-1 for government information)

18 Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Unlike CAD and commercial CRMs, 311 usage is usually location-based, not person-centric Unlike CAD and commercial CRMs, 311 usage is usually location-based, not person-centric Provides scripts to ensure questions from process- flow can be populated Provides scripts to ensure questions from process- flow can be populated 311 CRMs generate tracking number for caller…can check on web or call back after service level agreement time elapses 311 CRMs generate tracking number for caller…can check on web or call back after service level agreement time elapses KnowledgeBase is sometimes bolted on/in KnowledgeBase is sometimes bolted on/in C.S. focus includes tracking duplicates C.S. focus includes tracking duplicates

19 Process Documentation (e.g. CASEWISE) GIGO GIGO Don’t pave the cowpaths Don’t pave the cowpaths Don’t automate mistakes Don’t automate mistakes Internal customers (process users) can/should inform on how to tweak/reengineer before configuring the process (in the form of scripts) into the CRM Internal customers (process users) can/should inform on how to tweak/reengineer before configuring the process (in the form of scripts) into the CRM C.S. focus is to avoid the “rabbit trail” or inefficient process flows C.S. focus is to avoid the “rabbit trail” or inefficient process flows

20 CRM to Legacy Systems CRM can replace some, but not all work- order and/or case management systems CRM can replace some, but not all work- order and/or case management systems When not replacing, consider interfaces (carefully);1-way or 2-ways (recommended) When not replacing, consider interfaces (carefully);1-way or 2-ways (recommended) CRM better than a cigar box or clipboard CRM better than a cigar box or clipboard CRMs are starting to become more sophisticated (case mgt for human services) CRMs are starting to become more sophisticated (case mgt for human services) C.S. focus involves 311 Agents knowing status C.S. focus involves 311 Agents knowing status

21 Recording (e.g. Higher Ground) QA and legal review is needed for 911 and handy for 311 QA and legal review is needed for 911 and handy for 311 Also provides quick reference (IRR) if needed Also provides quick reference (IRR) if needed Audio and screen-scrapes already mentioned Audio and screen-scrapes already mentioned C.S. focus is internal (legal, QA, training) C.S. focus is internal (legal, QA, training)

22 Business Improvement (e.g. “Citistat”) Data from CRM can help inform management improvement efforts Data from CRM can help inform management improvement efforts –Who calls on what…where/when –How long does case resolution take (on target?) Data from CRM can be analyzed for trends Data from CRM can be analyzed for trends –GIS tools (pin-mapping) are useful Customer service focus is overall better tax dollar usage…frequently reported via web Customer service focus is overall better tax dollar usage…frequently reported via web

23 Miscellaneous Goodies* –“Reverse 9-1-1” (high- speed citizen notification)* –NG9-1-1 coming soon »Text and video; IP911 –MUM; AVL; inter- operable radio –TextNet (web TTY)* –Data analytics –Out-bound calling* –Revenue collection –Mobile data distribution/dispatch * = a clear customer service winner

24 GIS Deserves a Special Word Closest unit (CAD) & routing…speeds response Closest unit (CAD) & routing…speeds response Consolidated 911 Center employees don’t have to be experts on their service area geo Consolidated 911 Center employees don’t have to be experts on their service area geo 311 Agents can use aerial photos to help spot which light pole is burned out or what building has been “slimed” with graffiti 311 Agents can use aerial photos to help spot which light pole is burned out or what building has been “slimed” with graffiti “Pictometry” (oblique-angle photos) for all “Pictometry” (oblique-angle photos) for all 911 & 311 are location-based…GIS crucial 911 & 311 are location-based…GIS crucial

25 Ancillary Systems RETAINS RETAINS –Erlang-C Radio saturation via recording software Radio saturation via recording software Staff forecasting –Erlang-C –E-WFM Reports Virtual Agent

26 More Information From… U.S. DOJ web-site (311 center reports) U.S. DOJ web-site (311 center reports) ICMA (city-county mngt assoc…311) ICMA (city-county mngt assoc…311) ICMI (311 and other call center info) ICMI (311 and other call center info) Rutgers & Harvard (next gen 311 studies) Rutgers & Harvard (next gen 311 studies) NENA (911…professional association) NENA (911…professional association) APCO (911…professional association) APCO (911…professional association) NAED (911…academy of emerg dispatch) NAED (911…academy of emerg dispatch)

27 Questions/Ideas to Share?? (war stories, myth-busting, brainstorms)

28 Thanks! John E. Dejung Dane County Director


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