Presentation on theme: "ՀԱՅԿԱԿԱՆ ՃԱՐՏԱՐԱՊԵՏՈՒԹԻԻՆ ՀԱՅԿԱՆՈՒՇ ՄԵԼՔՈՆՅԱՆ. Rockwell Kent an American painter, printmaker, illustrator, and writer said: “If you ask me, where on our."— Presentation transcript:
Rockwell Kent an American painter, printmaker, illustrator, and writer said: “If you ask me, where on our planet one can find more wonders, I would, first of all, say: Armenia”
Modern Armenia is often called a land of rocks. But it is also a wonderland where the man squeezes water out of stones. Amber veins, purple peach trees, the golden wealth of orchards - this abundance of fruits, greens and vegetables constitute a anthem to the Sun, labor and people. In Armenia you will live in the past and present at the same time.
In the realm of Armenian art, architecture takes pride of place. It was the first of the arts of Armenia to be seriously studied, and to this day Armenian architecture receives more scholarly attention than all of the other arts combined. Armenian architecture is an architectural style developed over the last 4,500 years of human habitation in the Armenian Highland. As it originates in an earthquake-prone region, tends to be built with this hazard in mind. Armenian buildings tend to be rather low-slung and thick-walled in design. Armenians never used wood or brick when building large structures.
Only in outlying regions of Armenia, where tufa is not readily available, was another stone substituted. In many respects tufa is an ideal material for construction because it is light of weight, easy to sculpt, and has the property of becoming harder and more durable with exposure to air and the passage of time.
Ուրարտու - Էրեբունի Urartian architecture was noted for its use of large, carefully-cut stones, used as foundations for wood or mud brick buildings, usually constructed in a compact manner suggest a high degree of planning and craftsmanship. Erebuni, 781 BC.
Հեթանոսութիւն The temple of Garni is the only pagan monument left in Armenia, as many others where destroyed or converted to Christian places of worship under Tiridates III.
Քրիստոնեութիւն The first Armenian churches were built between the 4th and 7th century, beginning when Armenia converted to Christianity, and ending with the Arab invasion of Armenia. By the time of the Arab invasion, most of what we now know as classical Armenian architecture had formed.
Echmiadzin Cathedral, 485, restored in the VIIth and XVIIth centuries. Ptghni, Abovyan, Armenia, VIth-VIIth century. St. Gayané, Etchmiadzin, 630-641Zvart'nots', near etchmiadzin, 641-653.
Բագրատունեանց Հայաստան From the 9th to 11th century, Armenian architecture underwent a revival under the patronage of the Bagratid Dynasty with a great deal of building done in the area of Lake Van. This included both traditional styles and new innovations. Ornately carved Armenian Khachkars developed during this time. This period was ended by the Seljuk invasion.
Talin Cathedral, VIIth century.Bjni, St. Sargis, VIIth century. Lake Sevan, Monastery of Holy Apostles and Mother of God, IXth century. Island of Aght'amar, Lake Van, Church of the Holy Cross, 915-921.
Մեր գեղեցկութիւնը աշխարհին ցոյց տալու համար է ստեղծուել Անին...
Ani is a ruined and uninhabited medieval Armenian city-site situated in the Western Armenian province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia. It stood on various trade routes and its many religious buildings, palaces, and fortifications were amongst the most technically and artistically advanced structures in the world. In 1064 a large Seljuk-Turkish army, attacked Ani and after a siege of 25 days they captured the city and slaughtered its population. Ani – some call it the City of 1001 Churches, others the City of Forty Gates. Yet no one has called it home for more than three centuries.
Կիլիկեան Հայաստան From the 12th to 14th century Armenian monasteries were built. Monasteries were institutes of learning, and much of medieval Armenian literature was written in this time period. The invasion of Timurlane and the destruction of Cilician Armenia ended architectural progression from another 250 years.
Goshavank Monastery, XIIth-XIIIth centuries. Kech'aris Monastery, XIIth centuryHaghartsin Monastery, XIth-XIIIth centuries. Noravank Monastery, Church of Mother of God, 1339.
In every town or village in Armenia you will find something from the past, no later than XIII century: a church or a monastery, a bridge or an arc, remains of the wall of fortress sculptures or khachkars. All these you can find on this land, in spite of the continuous wars and earthquakes. Entire Armenia is a museum under the open sky.
ԽԱՉՔԱՐ Khachkars (a cross-stone) have also become additional signifiers of Armenian identity. Many of these were also built as memorials by Armenian communities all over the world as memorials commemorating the Genocide of Armenians.
This influence is most evident in the sacred architecture of churches built by the Armenian community, where designs based on historic landmarks such as the cathedrals of Ani, Zvartnots and Echmiadzin have been used as inspirational templates to construct these structures in their new surroundings. This tradition still continues into the present day as Armenian immigration has shifted away from the traditional areas of outmigration in Europe and the Middle East into the Americas and Ausralia.
Contemporary examples of Armenian Architecture St. Gregory The Illuminator AAC (1928), Cairo, Egypt The Holy Mother of God Cathedral (1940) at the Catholicossate of the House of Cilicia, Anthelias, Lebanon
Holy Cross AAC, Beirut, Lebanon St. Paul AAC (1979) Fresno, California Contemporary examples of Armenian Architecture
St. Sarkis AAC (1970), Tehran, Iran St. Mary AAC (1983), Toronto, Canada Contemporary examples of Armenian Architecture
St. Gregory The Illuminator (2001), Yerevan, Armenia (the largest Armenian church in the world) St. Gregory The Illuminator (2001), Glendale, California Contemporary examples of Armenian Architecture
AAC of Holy Resurrection (1966), Sydney, Australia St. Kevork AAC, Aleppo, Syria Contemporary examples of Armenian Architecture
St. James Church in the Armenian sector, JerusalemThe Patriarchate of Constantinople Contemporary examples of Armenian Architecture
Khor Virap, Monastery of St. Gregory, at the foot of Mt. Ararat, XVIIth century