Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Etken Olarak Norovirüs Saptanan Akut Gastroenteritli Çocuklarda Hastalığın Klinik ve Laboratuvar Bulguları Ö. Küçük 1, D.Çöl 1, S. Biçer 1, Gülay Çiler.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Etken Olarak Norovirüs Saptanan Akut Gastroenteritli Çocuklarda Hastalığın Klinik ve Laboratuvar Bulguları Ö. Küçük 1, D.Çöl 1, S. Biçer 1, Gülay Çiler."— Presentation transcript:

1 Etken Olarak Norovirüs Saptanan Akut Gastroenteritli Çocuklarda Hastalığın Klinik ve Laboratuvar Bulguları Ö. Küçük 1, D.Çöl 1, S. Biçer 1, Gülay Çiler Erdağ 1, T.Giray 1, Y. Gürol 2, İ. Acuner 2, Gülden Yılmaz 2, Ayça Vitrinel 1 1 Yeditepe Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları, 2 Yeditepe Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Tıbbi Mikrobiyoloji

2 Akut gastroenteritler,gelişmekte olan ülkeler başta olmak üzere; tüm dünyada her yıl 3–5 milyon insanın ölümüne yol açan büyük bir sağlık sorunudur.

3 AGE’e neden olan birçok patojen olup, calicivirüsler (noro ve sapovirüs) başta olmak üzere rotavirüs, enterik adenovirüs ve astrovirüsler viral etiyolojiyi oluştururlar.

4 Semptomlar çok çeşitli, klinik tablonun ağırlığı değişik - GI semptomlar: bulantı, kusma, diyare, karın ağrısı, kramp -Jeneralize semptomlar: ateş, yorgunluk, başarısı, miyalji

5 Norovirüsler, tüm dünyada non- bakteriyal gastroenteritlerin en yaygın nedenlerindendir.

6 İlk kez 1968 yılında Amerika’nın Ohio eyaletine bağlı Norwalk’ta ortaya çıkan bir akut gastroenterit salgınından dört yıl sonra, immunoelektron mikroskop ile identifiye edilmiştir.  Adler JL, Zickl R. Winter vomiting disease. J.Infect Dis 1969; 119:668–673.  Kapikian AZ, Gerin JL, Wyatt RG, et al: Density in cesium chloride of the Norwalk agent: Determination by ultracentrifugation and immune electron microscopy. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1973; 142: Density in cesium chloride of the Norwalk agent: Determination by ultracentrifugation and immune electron microscopy.  Dolin R, Blacklow NR, DuPont H, et al: Biological properties of Norwalk agent of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1972; 140: Biological properties of Norwalk agent of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis.

7 Noroviruslar Ufak tek iplikli RNA virusları Dirençli viruslar Su ve gıda ile fekal-oral yolla Sporadik ve epidemik gastroenterit Genellikle 48 saatte iyileşir 2-3 hafta (nadiren aylarca)virus atımı sürebilir İmmünsuprese hastalarda uzar

8 Noroviruslar -epidemik gastroenteritlerin 90%’ı -sporadik çocukluk çağı gastroenteritlerin 30%’u (2. en sık neden) 5 genogrup, 25 genotip İnsanlarda infeksiyonları :GI,II, IV (GII.4) Düşük infeksiyöz doz( vp) Yüksek ikinci atak hızı Uzun süre atılım Yüksek genetik değişiklik, uzun süre bağışıklık yok

9 Noroviruslar Ani başlayan diyare, kusma, abdominal kramp,ateş Kanlı diyare yapmaz:  Sulu,mukussuz ve lökositsiz

10 Virüsün ve genotiplerinin saptanması için moleküler yöntemlerin kullanımı giderek artmaktadır.

11 Norovirus RT-PCR için Örnek: Dışkı Kusmuk İçme suyu, kontamine gıda

12 “Immunokromatografi”, NoroVirus tanısında kullanılan basit ve hızlı bir metoddur.

13 AMAÇ

14 Akut gastroenterit tanısı alıp, gaita örneğinde Norovirus saptanan olguların;  insidans, mevsimsel dağılım ve klinik karakteristiklerinin, NoV genotiplerinin gözden geçirilmesi

15 YÖNTEM

16 Ocak Ocak 2010 tarihleri arasında akut gastroenterit tanısı almış ve etken olarak Norovirus saptanmış hastalar retrospektif olarak değerlendirildiler.

17 Taze gaita örneklerinin mikroskopik muayenesi ve viral antijen testleri Yeditepe Üniv.Tıp Fak Mikrobiyoloji Lab.’da bir saat içinde çalışılmış; Norovirus tespitinde immuno-chromatographic assay (RidaQuick NoV, biopharm, Germany) yöntemi kullanıldı. Pozitif saptanan olguların 28’inde multiplex-PCR yöntemi ile (Seeplex Diarrhea ACE Detection kit -Seegene, Korea) genogrup çalışması yapılmıştır.

18 BULGULAR

19 YAŞ GRUPLARI NoV (n) AÇISINDAN İNCELENEN GAİTA ÖRNEĞİ NoV (n, %) SAPTANAN GAİTA ÖRNEKLERİ 0-5 YAŞ 0-24 AY AY % 13.2% 8.5% 6-16 YAŞ % TOPLAM %

20 Hastaların semptom ve klinik bulguları SemptomlarN% İshal44100 Kusma İştahsızlık Huzursuzluk Dehidratasyon2659 İntravenöz sıvı tedavi ihtiyacı2659 Ateş (>38°C) 1125 Toplam44100

21 Norovirus saptanan olguların aylara göre dağılımı

22 Genogrup çalışılan 28 olgunun tamamı NoV Genogup II olarak saptanmıştır.

23 Scand J Infect Dis.Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41(9): Frequency of norovirus in stool samples from hospitalized children due to acute gastroenteritis in Anatolia, Turkey, Altindis MAltindis M, Bányai K, Kalayci R, Gulamber C, Koken R, Yoldas Y, Aykurt P, Martella V.Bányai KKalayci RGulamber CKoken RYoldas YAykurt PMartella V Source Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. Abstract Noroviruses are among the most common causes of sporadic enteritis in childhood. In this pilot study, the frequency of norovirus infection in children in mid-western Turkey was investigated from November 2006 to June Noroviruses were detected in 17% of samples (15/88) by a combination of 2 different RT- PCR assays, both targeting an overlapping region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene. By sequence analysis, most strains were characterized as GIIb/Hilversum. One strain was characterized as GII.4/2006a, a variant that appeared worldwide in 2006, while another strain was characterized as a rare genotype, GII.6. This study demonstrates the importance of norovirus in paediatric diarrhoea and suggests the heterogeneity of circulating strains in Turkey.

24 Mikrobiyol Bul.Mikrobiyol Bul Oct;42(4): [ Evaluation of laboratory diagnosis of the first norovirus outbreak in Turkey in 2008]. [Article in Turkish] Uyar YUyar Y, Carhan A, Ozkaya E, Ertek M.Carhan AOzkaya EErtek M Source Refik Saydam Hifzissihha Merkezi Başkanliği, Viroloji Tani ve Araştirma Laboratuvari, Ankara Norovirus (NoV) is one of the most prominent agents of gastroenteritis and water/food-borne outbreaks affecting all of the age groups in the world. As the identification of the etiologic agent is important during gastroenteritis outbreaks, it is recommended to combine two different methods for rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of NoV. Although NoV outbreaks have been observed in many different countries of the world, there was no report on "NoV outbreak" in Turkey till 2008 due to the absence of a regular surveillance system for non-bacterial gastroenteritis. This study aimed to present the laboratory results for "the first NoV outbreak" in Turkey in A number of cases with diarrhea and nausea/vomiting initially emerged in Aksaray (located at the southern part of central Anatolia) in May 2008, followed by cases from Sereflikochisar, Kirsehir, and Adana provinces (located at central and southern Anatolia; geographically closer regions). However, regional laboratories declared that no known bacterial (Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli), viral (Rotavirus, Adenovirus) and parasitic agents were detected. A total of 50 stool samples were sent to the Virology Reference Laboratory (Refik Saydam Hygiene Center, Ankara) for further investigations including NoV. For the investigation of NoV, the samples were analysed by using antigen-ELISA (Ridascreen, R-Biopharm, Germany) and real- time polymerase chain reaction(PCR) (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Germany) methods. Of the samples, 26% (13/50) were found antigen positive, whereas 33% (13/40) were positive for viral nucleic acids. The positivity rates determined by ELISA and PCR were as follows, respectively; 57% (4/7) and 71% (5/7) in Aksaray, 25% (1/4) and 25% (1/4) in Sereflikochisar, 28% (7/25) and 40% (6/15) in Kirsehir, 7% (1/14) and 7% (1/14) in Adana. Nine (69.2%), and 4 (30.8%) out of 13 positive samples were genotyped as NoV GI and GII, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of antigen-ELISA method were found as 61.5% and 100%, respectively, when compared with real-time PCR. In conclusion, further epidemiological studies and genomic analysis are needed for the detection and control of circulating strains in Turkey, since NoV outbreaks spread rapidly and cause serious economical and workforce loss..

25 J Clin Virol.J Clin Virol Jul;51(3): Epub 2011 May 17. Frequency and phylogeny of norovirus in diarrheic children in Istanbul, Turkey. Ozkul AAOzkul AA, Kocazeybek BS, Turan N, Reuter G, Bostan K, Yilmaz A, Altan E, Uyunmaz G, Karak ö se AR, Muratoglu K, Elevli M, Helps CR, Yilmaz H.Kocazeybek BSTuran NReuter GBostan KYilmaz AAltan EUyunmaz GKarak ö se ARMuratoglu KElevli MHelps CRYilmaz H Source Başkent University Hospital, Clinic of Child Health and Diseases, Altunizade, Istanbul, Turkey. BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is recognised as one of the most common causes of foodborne infections. Contaminated shellfish, food, water and hospitals are well documented sources of the virus. OBJECTIVE: NoV in diarrheic children has not previously been investigated in Istanbul, Turkey, hence the aim of this study was to detect and investigate the frequency and phylogeny of human NoV genogroups I and II in children with acute gastroenteritis. STUDY DESIGN: 238 stool samples were collected from diarrheic children from 2 hospitals (Cerrahpasa Medical School and Haseki) in Istanbul and analysed by ELISA, RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR using both SYBR Green and probe-based assays for human NoV. Primers targeting the RNA-polymerase gene were used for RT-PCR to allow DNA sequencing of Turkish NoV strains and phylogenetic analysis to be performed. RESULTS: NoV GII was detected in 36 (15.1%) of 238 samples by SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR, 10.9% by a probe- based real-time RT-PCR and 10.5% by ELISA (Ridascreen). Genogroup II (GII) the Turkish NoVs clustered with including GII4 (72.2%), GII16 (5.5%), GIIb (16.7%) and GIIe (5.5%). Two variants of GII4 (GII4-2006b and GII ), GII16 and recombinant noroviruses (GIIb and GIIe) were identified. CONCLUSION: This study shows a high frequency and genetic diversity of NoV GII infections in children with acute gastroenteritis in Istanbul, Turkey.

26 Teşekkür Ederim


Download ppt "Etken Olarak Norovirüs Saptanan Akut Gastroenteritli Çocuklarda Hastalığın Klinik ve Laboratuvar Bulguları Ö. Küçük 1, D.Çöl 1, S. Biçer 1, Gülay Çiler."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google