Presentation on theme: "Perianal abscess & Anal fistulae"— Presentation transcript:
1Perianal abscess & Anal fistulae ByRajeev SuryavanshiDept of General Surgery.
2Perianal abscess Definition - Infection of the soft tissue surrounding the anal canal, with formation of discrete abscess cavity.Often cavity is associated with fistulous tract.
3Anorectal anatomy Rectum develops from hind gut at 6 weeks Anal canal formed at 8 weeks – ectoderm.Dentate line transition from endo to ecto.Rectum has inner – circular.outer – longitudinal.Anal canal – 4cm, pelvic diaphragm to anal verge.
4Anatomy External Sphincter- - U shaped , continuation of levator ani - deep segment is continuous with puborectalis muscle and forms anorectal ring felt on DRE.- striated muscle- voluntary control- 3 components - sub mucous, superficial and deep.
5Anatomy- Internal sphincter- - smooth muscle - autonomic control - extension of circular muscles of rectum.- contracted at rest.
6Anatomy 4-8 anal glands drained by respective crypts, at dentate line. Gland body lies in intersphincteric plane.Anal gland function is lubrication.Columns of Morgagni8-14 long mucosal fold.
7PathophysiologyInfection starts in crypto glandular epithelium lining the anal canal.Internal anal sphincter a barrier to infection passing from gut to deep perirectal tissue.Duct of Anal gland penetrate internal sphincter into intersphincteric space.Once infection sets in intersphincteric space it can spread further.
9Frequency Common in 3rd and 4th decade of life Male > female (2:1) 30% present with previous episodes.Increase incidence during summer and spring.Common in infants , poorly understood mechanism , fairly benign and majority settle with simple drainage.
10EtiologyAbscess initially forms in the intersphincteric space and spreads along adjacent potential spaces.Common organisms-* E.Coli* Enterococcus species* Bacteroides species.
11Etiology Less common causes - Crohn’s Disease. Cancer. Tuberculosis. Trauma.Leukemia.Lymphoma.
12Clinical features Symptoms- Pain Perianal movement ↑ pressure ↑ PruritisGenerally unwell.FeverChill and rigor.Signs-SwellingCellulitisindurationFluctuationSubcutaneous mass, near Perianal orifice.DRE- fluctuation at times in ischorectal.
13Classification of Anorectal abscesses Perianal %Ischiorectal %Intersphincteric 5%Supralevator %Submucosal %
14ClassificationPerianal – pus underneath skin of anal canal, do not traverse external sphincter.Ischiorectal – suppuration traversing external sphincter into Ischiorectal space.Intersphincteric – suppuration between external and internal sphincter.Horse shoe abscess - uncommon circumferential infiltration of pus with in intersphincteric space.
15Investigation & Imaging No specific test requiredPatients with diabetes , immunosuppresed will need lab evaluation.Imaging – role in only deep seated, Supralevator or intersphincteric abscesses.CT Scan , MRI or Anal ultrasonography.
16Management Mainly surgical Antibiotics in diabetics & immunocompromised individuals.Early drainage is indicated as delay can cause-* prolong infection* tissue destruction ↑* chances of sphincter dysfunction ↑* Promote fistula formation.
17ManagementPerianal abscess - superficial ones can be drained in office under L.AIncisionPus culture & sensitivityPacking with iodophor gauge.Laxative & Sitz bath.Review & follow up 2-3 weeks to see for healing & fistula formation.
18Management Organism culture is important. Abscess with intestinal organisms have a 40% chance of forming fistula.Cultures growing Staphylococcus species –Perianal skin infection and have no risk of subsequent fistula formation.2. Ischiorectal abscess -GACruciate incision over max swelling.
19Management Pus drained and cultured Disrupt loculi Drain placed. 3. Intersphincteric abscess -Transverse incision in anal canal below the dentate line, posteriorly.Abscess opened, leave drain, prevents premature closure.
20Management Supralevator abscess - Location & etiology determines its drainage technique.Evaluation with CT Scan & MRI .Abdominal pathology –deal with causeIf extension of Ischiorectal –drainage through the space indicated.Anterior Supralevator are superficial and more common in females.- transanal or transvaginal approach can be used.
21Anal fistula- “Fistula-in-ano” Definition -Hollow tract, lined with granulation tissue connecting a primary opening inside the anal canal to a secondary opening in the Perianal skin.Treatment of fistula-in-ano can be challenging.
22Fistula-in-ano Magnitude of problem- Prevalence rate / 100,000 population.Male : Female = 2 : 1Mean age = 38 Years.
23Etiology * Following Anorectal abscess. * Other causes - Sec. to trauma- Crohn’s disease- Anal fissures- Carcinoma- Radiation therapy- Tuberculosis, Actinomycosis.
25Clinical presentation History – Recurrent Swelling, Discharge, Pain and Surgery for an Abscess.Symptoms –- Perianal discharge Pain- Swelling Bleeding- External opening
26Clinical presentation Past medical history-* Inflammatory bowel disease.* Diverticulitis* Previous pelvic radiation* Tuberculosis* Steroids therapy* HIV infection
27Clinical presentations Physical examination -* Look at entire perineum,* An open sinus or elevation of granulationtissue.* Discharge may be seen.* DRE- fibrous cord, or cord beneath the skin.* Voluntary squeeze pressures & sphincter tone should be assessed.
28Goodsall rule – Perianal fistula Transverse line drawn across the anal vergeAnterior external opening associated with straight tract to anal canal or rectum.Posterior ext. opening follows curved tract, entering posterior midline.Exception 3cm
31Fistula-in-ano A. Intersphincteric - Via internal sphincter to intersphincteric space then to perineum.70%B. Transsphincteric -Via internal and external sphincter into Ischiorectal fossa and then to perineum.25%
33Fistula-in-ano C. Suprasphincteric – Via intersphincteric space superiorly to above puborectalis muscle into Ischiorectal fossa then perineum.5%D. Extrasphincteric -From Perianal skin through levator ani muscles to the rectal wall completely outside sphincter mechanism.<1%
34Imaging Studies Not indicated for routine evaluation Performed when external opening is difficult to identify, recurrent or multiple fistulae.Fistulography-- involves injection of contrast via the opening and taking images in different planes.% accuracy.
35Imaging studies 2. Endo Anorectal Ultrasonography - - Transducer 7-10 MHz.- Installation of H2O2 can help location of internal opening .- not widely used.3. MRI -- Study of choice% concordance with oper.finding.- good for primary course and sec extensions.
36Imaging4. CT Scan –- Good for perirectal inflammation disease, delineating fluid pockets.- Needs oral and rectal contrast.- poor delineation of muscular anatomy.5. Barium enema / Small bowel series -- Useful in multiple fistulae or recurrent disease, also to rule out IBD.
38Other investigations Anal Manometry- Pressure evaluation of sphincter mechanism help in some cases -- Decreased tone in preop evaluation- previous fistulectomy- obstetrical trauma- high transsphincteric or suprasphincteric fistula- very elderly patient.If decreased, avoid - surgical division of any portion of sphincter.
39Diagnostic procedures A. E U A-Examination of perineum, DRE, anoscopy.To look for internal opening techniques-- Inject - H2O2, Milk, Dilute methylene blue- Traction on external opening may help- Probing gently can help.B. Proctosigmodoscopy / Colonoscopy-Rigid sigmoidoscopy to rule rectal disease.
40Management 1. Fistulotomy / Fistulectomy - - laying open technique is useful in 85-95% of primary fistulae.- overlying skin, subcutaneous tissue, internal sphincter divided with electrocautry, curette tract to remove granulation tissue.- complete fistulectomy creates bigger wound with no advantage in minimizing recurrence.- perform biopsy of firm or suggestive tissue.
41Management 2. Seton Placement – - Alone, in combination with fistulectomy or as a stage procedure-Useful in –Complex fistulaeRecurrent fistulae after fistulectomyAnterior fistulae in femalesPoor preop sphincter pressure.Immunosuppresed patients.
43Seton Single stage (cutting) Passing seton through tract and tightened down with separate silk tie.Fibrosis above sphincter muscles seen as it cuts the muscles.Tightened in office over weeks2. Two Stage (draining / fibrosis)Pass seton through deep portion of external sphincter.Seton left loose here.When superficial wound is healed , seton bound muscle is divided.Studies support 2 stage procedure using 0-nylon.
443.Mucosal Advancement Flap - In chronic high fistula , indication same as seton.Total fistulectomy , removal of primary and secondary tract with internal openingRectal mucomuscular flap is raised .Internal muscle defect is closed with absorbable suture and flap is sewn down over internal opening.Single stage procedurePoor success in Acute infection and Crohn’s.
45Follow up Sitz bath Analgesia Stool bulk agents (bran) Frequent office visits to ensure healing.Healing in 6 weeks.
47Outcome & Prognosis Following Rate of Recurrence Incontinence of stool StandardFistulotomy0 -18%3 -7 %Seton0 – 17%0 -17 %Mucosal advancement flap1- 10%6 – 8%
48Newer DevelopmentsBiotechnical advances are producing many new tissue adhesives.- some reports suggest 60% success with 1 year follow-up ,using fibrin glue in treatment of fistula-in-ano.- less invasive & ↓ postop morbidity.
49Newer developmentsRecurrent fistulous disease to rectum and perineum with Anorectal sepsis – indication for surgeryRecent reports suggest 50-60% response rate with infiximab - the monoclonal antibody to TNFα for Perianal fistulae.