Presentation on theme: "The Ottoman Empire. During the 1060s the Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan allowed his Turkish allies to migrate towards Armenia and Asia Minor, where they sacked."— Presentation transcript:
The Ottoman Empire
During the 1060s the Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan allowed his Turkish allies to migrate towards Armenia and Asia Minor, where they sacked cities and plundered farmland. In 1064 they destroyed the Armenian capital at Ani. In 1068 Romanus IV led an expedition against them, but his slow-moving infantry could not catch the speedy Turkish cavalry, although he was able to capture the city of Hierapolis. In 1070 Romanus led a second expedition towards Manzikert, a city in eastern Turkey's province of Mus, now known as Malazgirt, a Byzantine fortress that had been captured by the Seljuks, and offered a treaty with Arslan – Romanus would give back Hierapolis if Arslan gave up the siege of Edessa. Romanus threatened war if Arslan did not comply, and prepared his troops anyway, expecting the sultan to decline his offer, which he did.
Manzikert At the battle of Manzikert, the Muslim Seljuk Turks attacked the Byzantines at noon and then feigned a retreat by retreating to higher ground to catch the Byzantine army in the valley from where the Turkish Archers picked off the Byzantine troops at will. But the Byzantines kept up the attack, and by sunset the Battle was still undecided. Romanus, the Byzantine emperor, decided to retire to his camps, after the Turks sounded the bugle, heralding the end of the day’s hostilities, as was the Turkish custom to do so to announce the beginning and end of a day’s battle. But the Turks had decided on subterfuge to ensnare the Byzantines who trusted the age old Turkish custom. Once the Byzantine army began disengaging and withdrawing to its camp, the Turks attacked from the rear after an encircling cavalry advance. The Byzantine army was caught between two pincers of attack and by midnight, their fate was sealed with the capture of the Byzantine emperor Romanus by Alp Arslan the chieftain of the Seljuk Turks.
Early Ottomans The first Ottomans were Turkish soldiers Ghazis – warriors for Islam- sword of God From Anatolia (Asia Minor) Late 1200’s a ghazi leader named Osman was successful at frightening the Byzantines Captured Bursa and Edirne As they expanded the spoils and revenues grew 1300’s- Ottomans took over most of Anatolia
1396 – First Ottoman Sultan Janissaries – slave soldiers that served the sultan for life From yeni cheri (new troops) Christian slaves from Europe Were converted, schooled in Islamic law and trained Reputation for loyalty and ready to use new technology
Timur - Tamerlaine Timur claimed to be the descendant of Genghis Khan Turko-Mongol – now Uzbekistan 1402 invaded Anatolia and defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara – captured sultan Made the Ottomans give back land they had taken from other ghazi rulers
Who would be the next sultan? Murad II 1444 – Defeated European crusaders at Battle of Varna Mehmed II – conquered Constantinople in 1453 – renamed it Istanbul – made it the Ottoman capital
Ottoman Government Sultans Viziers
Sultan Military Bureaucracy Religious and Judicial Grand Vizier
Ottoman Society Small ruling class Reaya “protected flock”
Separate Religious Communities Millets Muslim Turks – Anatolia Christians and Jews Balkans Muslim Arabs Fertile Crescent and N. Africa
Millets were Under control of sultan Had own laws Own customs Own Courts Collected taxes Responsible for education, health and safety
Suleyman the Lawgiver Suleiman “the Magnificent” Conquered Hungary in killed King of Hungary Empire at its height Laid siege to Vienna Became major naval power Khayr al Din Barbarossa Pasha- corsair placed pirate fleet under Ottoman flag
Suleyman After Suleyman’s death in 1566 – slow decline of empire
Decline of the Empire By the 1600’s lost control of the silk and spice trade Europeans had new sea routes – Bypassed Turks Government became corrupt Rebellions among Janissaries 1700’s lost Crimean Peninsula, Black Sea and Sea of Azov to Russians French invaded Egypt in 1798 – Had been Ottoman 1923 – Ottoman Empire ended when Turkey established itself as a republic