Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PARASITOLOGY IN THE CLINIC DEPARTMENT OF PARASITOLOGY FACULTY OF MEDICINE PADJADJARAN UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PARASITOLOGY FACULTY OF MEDICINE PADJADJARAN.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PARASITOLOGY IN THE CLINIC DEPARTMENT OF PARASITOLOGY FACULTY OF MEDICINE PADJADJARAN UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PARASITOLOGY FACULTY OF MEDICINE PADJADJARAN."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 PARASITOLOGY IN THE CLINIC DEPARTMENT OF PARASITOLOGY FACULTY OF MEDICINE PADJADJARAN UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PARASITOLOGY FACULTY OF MEDICINE PADJADJARAN UNIVERSITY

3 INTRODUCTION PARASITIC DISEASE IN ASIA (A VERY COMMON DISEASE)  Asia is in the tropic area  Low grade of Social Economic  Low grade of education  The bad habit of the people PARASITIC DISEASE IN ASIA (A VERY COMMON DISEASE)  Asia is in the tropic area  Low grade of Social Economic  Low grade of education  The bad habit of the people

4 PARASITIC PROTOZOA  BALANTIDIASIS  CRYPTOSPORIDIASIS  GIARDIASIS  PNEUMOCYSTOSIS  SARCOSPORIDIOSIS  TOXOPLASMOSIS

5 PARASITIC HELMINTHES  ANGYOSTRONGYLIASIS  ASCARIASIS DIPYLIDIASIS  DIROFILARIASIS  FASCIOLIASIS  HYDATIDOSIS  HYMENOLEPIASIS  LARVA MIGRANS  LINGUATULIASIS  PHYSALOPTERIASIS  SCHISTOSOMIASIS  SPARGANOSIS  STRONGYLOIDIASIS  TAENIASIS SAGINATA  TRICHINOSIS  TRICHSTRONGYLIDIASIS

6 Cases found in Surgical clinic a.Ascariasis – as emergency cases : intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation b.Severe Trichuriasis – prolapsus ani c.Trichinelliasis d.Filariasis – elephantiasis e.Cysticercosis cellulosae f.Hydatid cyst g.Coenuriasis h.Sparganosis i.Amoebic abscess, amoeboma j.Parasitic Pneumonia caused Pneumocystis carinii a.Ascariasis – as emergency cases : intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation b.Severe Trichuriasis – prolapsus ani c.Trichinelliasis d.Filariasis – elephantiasis e.Cysticercosis cellulosae f.Hydatid cyst g.Coenuriasis h.Sparganosis i.Amoebic abscess, amoeboma j.Parasitic Pneumonia caused Pneumocystis carinii

7

8 Cases likely found in Neurosurgery examination a.Cysticercosis cellulosae in the brain b.Hydatidosis in the brain c.Coenuriasis in the brain d.Sparganosis in the brain e.Amoebic abces in the brain a.Cysticercosis cellulosae in the brain b.Hydatidosis in the brain c.Coenuriasis in the brain d.Sparganosis in the brain e.Amoebic abces in the brain

9 INTERNAL MEDICINE MAY BE FOUND a.Ascariasis b.Trichuriasis c.Hookworm infektion d.Strongyloidiasis e.Enterobiasis (rare in adult age) f.Trichostrongyliasis g.Capillariasis (find in Philippines and Thailand, never yet find in Indonesia) a.Ascariasis b.Trichuriasis c.Hookworm infektion d.Strongyloidiasis e.Enterobiasis (rare in adult age) f.Trichostrongyliasis g.Capillariasis (find in Philippines and Thailand, never yet find in Indonesia)

10 h.Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM) i.Diphyllobothriasis j.Taeniasis saginata k.Taeniasis solium l.Hymenolepsiasis Nana m.Diphylidiasis caninum n.Echinococcosis h.Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM) i.Diphyllobothriasis j.Taeniasis saginata k.Taeniasis solium l.Hymenolepsiasis Nana m.Diphylidiasis caninum n.Echinococcosis INTERNAL MEDICINE MAY BE FOUND

11 CASES COMMONLY FOUND IN PEDIATRIC WARD a.Ascariasis b.Trichuriasis c.Hookworm infection (rare ini the children) d.Strongyloidiasis e.Enterobiasis f.Trichostrongyliasis g.Capillariasis (find in Philippines and Thailand, never yet find in Indonesia) a.Ascariasis b.Trichuriasis c.Hookworm infection (rare ini the children) d.Strongyloidiasis e.Enterobiasis f.Trichostrongyliasis g.Capillariasis (find in Philippines and Thailand, never yet find in Indonesia)

12

13 h.Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM) i.Diphyllobothriasis j.Taeniasis saginata k.Taeniasis solium l.Hymenolepsiasis nana m.Hymenolepsiasis diminuta n.Diphylidiasis caninum o.Echinococcosis h.Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM) i.Diphyllobothriasis j.Taeniasis saginata k.Taeniasis solium l.Hymenolepsiasis nana m.Hymenolepsiasis diminuta n.Diphylidiasis caninum o.Echinococcosis CASES COMMONLY FOUND IN PEDIATRIC WARD

14 a.Cutaneous Larva Migrans (Creeping Eruption) b.Trichinelliasis c.Ground Itch d.Swimmer's Itch e.Cutaneous Amoebiasis f.Sarcosporidiosis caused by Sarcocystis sp. g.Arthropod infection : Cutaneous Myiasis; Scabies; Pediculosis a.Cutaneous Larva Migrans (Creeping Eruption) b.Trichinelliasis c.Ground Itch d.Swimmer's Itch e.Cutaneous Amoebiasis f.Sarcosporidiosis caused by Sarcocystis sp. g.Arthropod infection : Cutaneous Myiasis; Scabies; Pediculosis CASES LIKELY FOUND DURING SKIN EXAMINATION

15

16 OPHTHALMOLOGIST MAY FIND a.Toxoplasmosis b.Disturbance of the eye by Acanthamoeba sp. c.Case never reported in Indonesia : loaiasis (worm in subconjunctiva); blinding filariasis or river blindness by Onchocerca volvulus a.Toxoplasmosis b.Disturbance of the eye by Acanthamoeba sp. c.Case never reported in Indonesia : loaiasis (worm in subconjunctiva); blinding filariasis or river blindness by Onchocerca volvulus

17 PARASITES MAY BE FOUND IN OBSTETRIC WARD a.Toxoplasmosis b.Trichomoniasis vaginalis a.Toxoplasmosis b.Trichomoniasis vaginalis

18 PARASITES MAY BE FOUND IN NEUROLOGICAL CLINIC a.Trichinosis b.Angiostrongyliasis c.Gnathostomiasis d.Schistosomiasis e.Paragonimiasis f.Cysticercosis g.Hydatidosis h.Draconcoliasis a.Trichinosis b.Angiostrongyliasis c.Gnathostomiasis d.Schistosomiasis e.Paragonimiasis f.Cysticercosis g.Hydatidosis h.Draconcoliasis

19  Coenuriasis  Amebic Brain Abscess  Toxoplasmosis  Cerebral Malaria  Trypanosomiasis  Primary Amebic Meningo- encephalitis (PAM)  Tick paralysis  Coenuriasis  Amebic Brain Abscess  Toxoplasmosis  Cerebral Malaria  Trypanosomiasis  Primary Amebic Meningo- encephalitis (PAM)  Tick paralysis PARASITES WHICH MAY BE FOUND IN NEUROLOGICAL CLINIC

20  Parasites living inside the tissue or blood circulation of sensitive/ hypersensitive person, may induce allergic reaction or even anaphylactic reactions  Example : – Larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichinella spiralis – Bursting of hydatid cyst (larva of Echinococcus granulosus), – Bursting of nodule of Dracunculus medinensis – Nephritis by Plasmodium malariae – Black Water Fever by Plasmodium falciparum CHARACTERISTIC OF DISEASES CAUSED BY PARASITE

21  The course of disease caused by parasite is usually chronic mixed with periods of latency without symptoms and sometimes with acute exacerbation – Example : quartan malaria by Plasmodium malariae  The course of disease caused by parasite is usually chronic mixed with periods of latency without symptoms and sometimes with acute exacerbation – Example : quartan malaria by Plasmodium malariae

22 SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF PARASITIC DISEASE  ABDOMINAL PAIN – CRAMPY ABDOMINAL PAIN : AMEBIC COLITIS – INTESTINAL OR BILLIARY OBSTRUCTION : A. lumbricoides – DUODENAL ULCERS : Strongyloides stercoralis  DIARRHEA: INTESTINAL PROTOZOA – BULKY AND HAS AN OFFENSIVE ODOR : AMEBIASIS – BULKY AND FATTY : GIARDIASIS – WATERY DIARRHEA : CRYPTOSPORIDIASIS – MINIMAL GASTRO INTESTINAL SYMPTOMS : INTESTINAL HELMINTH INFECTION – BLOODY DIARRHEA : AMEBIASIS, TRICHURIASIS, SCHISTOSOMIASIS GASTRO INTESTINAL SYMPTOMS

23 SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF PARASITIC DISEASE  COUGH AND WHEEZE – MIGRATION OF Ascaris lumbricoides THROUGH THE LUNGS – PNEUMOCYSTIS INFECTION – PARAGONIMIASIS WESTERMANI – HOUSE DUST MITES RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS  CYSTICERCOSIS CELLULOSAE  TOXOPLASMOSIS  MALARIA TROPICA  EOSINOPHILIC MENINGITIS  P.A.M. (Naegleria fowleri) NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS

24 SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF PARASITIC DISEASE  PRURITUS ANI  GROUND ITCH  SWIMMER’S ITCH  CREEPING ERUPTION CUTANEUS SYMPTOMS  MALARIA  VISCERAL LARVA MIGRAN  TOXOPLASMOSIS HEPATOSPLENOMEGALI

25

26

27 SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF PARASITIC DISEASE  MALARIA  ANCYLOSTOMIASIS  ASCARIASIS  DIPHYLLOBOTHRIASIS ANEMIA  GIARDIASIS STEATORRHEA

28 SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF PARASITIC DISEASE  KERANDEL’S SIGN – AFRICAN SLEEPING SICKNESS  ROMANA’S SIGN – INFECTION WITH Trypanosoma cruzi  WINTER BOTTOM’S SIGN – AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS  KERATITIS – Acanthamoeba sp. – Onchocerca volvulus  RETINOCHOROIDITIS – Toxoplasma gondii

29 DIAGNOSIS  Clinical manifestations caused by parasitic infection are commonly very unspecific, therefore laboratory examination is necessary for definite diagnosis  The aim of laboratory examination is to look for any stages of parasite life cycle in the examination materials  Clinical manifestations caused by parasitic infection are commonly very unspecific, therefore laboratory examination is necessary for definite diagnosis  The aim of laboratory examination is to look for any stages of parasite life cycle in the examination materials  To do accurate laboratory examination, requires decision on: –Correct selection of type of sample material (according to parasite life cycle) –Accurate laboratory technique  To do accurate laboratory examination, requires decision on: –Correct selection of type of sample material (according to parasite life cycle) –Accurate laboratory technique

30 TREATMENT  Mass treatment  Mass treatment  Individual  Type of treatment  Type of treatment

31 Things to observe during therapy :  Efficacy of drugs against parasite vs. side effect against the host  Sometimes surgery is needed to maximize result of treatment  Consider also the patient’s general condition and immunity status  Also important with treatment of parasite is the improvement of environmental sanitation Things to observe during therapy :  Efficacy of drugs against parasite vs. side effect against the host  Sometimes surgery is needed to maximize result of treatment  Consider also the patient’s general condition and immunity status  Also important with treatment of parasite is the improvement of environmental sanitation TREATMENT

32 PREVENTION The prevention against parasitic disease may be done by the following steps  Source reduction: to reduce the source of infection by treating all infected patients  Health education: to prevent the distribution of parasite  Eradication of host reservoir and vector control  Increase of biological immunity against infection  Control of hygiene and sanitation The prevention against parasitic disease may be done by the following steps  Source reduction: to reduce the source of infection by treating all infected patients  Health education: to prevent the distribution of parasite  Eradication of host reservoir and vector control  Increase of biological immunity against infection  Control of hygiene and sanitation

33 IMMUNITY TWO MECHANISM OF IMMUNITY  Humoral immunity produces antibodies  Cellular immunity (Cell Mediated Immunity/CMI) is the response produced by specific immune cells (T cells) TWO MECHANISM OF IMMUNITY  Humoral immunity produces antibodies  Cellular immunity (Cell Mediated Immunity/CMI) is the response produced by specific immune cells (T cells)

34 Beneficial Parasites Medicinal maggots are being used to clean wounds that contain dead tissue. This photo shows the healthy pink tissue after maggots have been used Medicinal leeches are being used to decrease swelling and improve blood flow in surgery sites including skin grafts and reattachments.

35 Thank you …………………. April 2005


Download ppt "PARASITOLOGY IN THE CLINIC DEPARTMENT OF PARASITOLOGY FACULTY OF MEDICINE PADJADJARAN UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PARASITOLOGY FACULTY OF MEDICINE PADJADJARAN."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google