TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD (TNB) – 1996 BLACKOUT - A comment passed on by an opposition leader in Malaysia stated that “is Malaysia going to have a super corridor utilizing the edge high-tech or a corridor of darkness? ” (AsiaWeek, 16 August, 1996). - The former chief executive officer of TNB, Tan Sri Ani Arope once mentioned to the press “people said TNB (acronym for Tenaga Nasional Berhad) stands for Total National Blackout” (Business Times, 21, August, 1996). - The former prime minister of Malaysia, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad was asked by the press on whether the government would release a white paper on the blackout, and he sarcastically answered “the colour of the paper is not important, what is important is the report and this will be released” (The Star, 22 August, 1996)
MASSIVE LANDSLIDE, BUKIT ANTARABANGSA, KUALA LUMPUR - 6 DEC 2008 - Thundering Nightmare: Four dead, 15 injured, one missing, 14 houses buried or damaged, thousands of residents evacuated. It was a tragedy waiting to happen (New Sunday Times, 7 December 2008) - All state governments are to review hillside projects to prevent another Bukit Antarabangsa tragedy. It’s time to walk the talk (New Sunday Times, 8 December 2008) - IF ONLY THEY HAD LISTENED ….warnings…and more warnings over the years of a catastrophe waiting to happen…but they fell on deaf ears. “ The government has to take responsibility by enforcing regulations and legislation ”, Geotechnical Engineer Datuk Dr Ramli Mohamad (New Sunday Times, 8 December 2008)
MASSIVE LANDSLIDE, BUKIT ANTARABANGSA, KUALA LUMPUR - 6 DEC 2008 - Aftermath of the Bukit Antarabangsa Tragedy: So who takes the Rap? (New Sunday Times, 9 December 2008) (pictures of the former and the present Chief Minister of Selangor was printed and defending the state government actions on hillsides development) - Khalid and Khir trade blows over hillside projects: The blame game has begun (New Sunday Times, 9 December 2008) - Residents: We plan to sue. “we have very strong evidence, but we will leave it to our legal team.. I don’t want to reveal what it is now, but we have photographs and copies of complaints made to the local authority.” Datuk N. Muneandy, Bukit Antarabangsa Action Committee Chairman (New Sunday Times, 9 December 2008)
MASSIVE LANDSLIDE, BUKIT ANTARABANGSA, KUALA LUMPUR - 6 DEC 2008 Developers and buyers responsible too, says Shabery “It is unfair to say the Government did not act. We cannot put the blame on just one authority. After all, you need two to tango, but this time there are three – the Government, developers and buyers,” he said yesterday. (Star Online, 10 December 2008) Bukit Antarabangsa: Residents hit out at Shabery statement. Ahmad Shabery reportedly told residents not to point fingers solely at the Government as both developers and housebuyers who chose to live in highland areas were equally to be blamed and should accept responsibility for what happened. “Are you saying we should blame the mother for giving birth to the thief?” he told reporters Wednesday, adding that residents had invested millions of ringgit to purchase homes there. (Star Online, 10 December 2008)
OTHERS - Thai Turmoil: Airport under siege, general tells government to call fresh elections (Star, 27 November 2008) - Bangkok Stand off: Chaos as protesters force airport to close, thousands of western tourists and other travellers stranded, airport blast injures two, grenade attacks elsewhere in the city (New Straits Times, 27 November 2008)
OTHERS - Massacre in Mumbai: Rampaging gunmen on killing spree in India’s financial capital. Attacks leave more than 100 dead, many foreigners taken hostage ( New Straits Times 28 November 2008) - 60 Hour terror rampage: Mumbai siege ends. Malaysian credit cards found on terrorists. Malaysia woman among dead (New Straits Times 30 November 2008)
CRISIS Resemble the doomsday Tarnish image/reputation Damage products, employees, financial condition Unpredictable Create Panic Surprise Insufficient Information Caused Injury/Death Rapid Speed Tendency To Act Irrationally Press Everywhere Chaos in Internal Communication
1. Wake Up Call – a Phenomenon Was Not Attended to Proactively 2. Crisis originally from the Greek krinien means DECIDE- preparation in managing and responding to crisis before, during and the aftermath 3. Sun Tzu in the Strategy of War, crisis means "wei ji", a combination of danger and opportunity.
Heath (in Gaunt, P. & Ollenburger, J. 1995:202) defined crisis communication as an enactment of control (at least its appearance) in the face of high uncertainty in an effort to win external audiences’ confidence in ways that are ethical.
Crisis communication is the ability to communicate effectively during a difficult situation or emergency to a variety of internal and external stakeholders (Tenaga Nasional Berhad, 22 september 1997)
According to Peter V. Stanton (2002), crisis communication plan is more than a system for responding to circumstances. It is also a method for planning and thinking about situations in day-to-day operations, business and company communities, and preparing company people to understand and respond to the special demands of crisis conditions
1. Crisis communication refers to the communication actions executed as strategies with the purpose of preventing or overcoming a catastrophe 2. Crisis communication is a communication strategy engineered by persons as a catalyst to a solution in gaining the trust of publics and enhancing the credibility and reputation of an organization
Restore Image And Reputation Protect Affected Publics Gained Trust/Loyalty From Various Publics
According to the IABC survey of over 600 communicators, one in three companies did not have a formal crisis communication plan in 2005 (Communication World Bulletin, IABC 2006)
After experiencing a crisis with no plans in place, 46 percent of respondents said their organizations were beginning to develop crisis communication plans While 42 percent said their organizations were still taking no action. 54 percent said they didn’t have plans because of lack of senior management support
1. There is no crisis…..it is only problems 2. Why waste money unnecessarily 3. We can use public relations program if crisis happens 4. We did not get the support from top level management 5. We have risk communication 6. We have media relations 7. We have 2 pages of media guidelines in our SOP 8. Crisis management is sufficient
9. Crisis communication manual is difficult to prepare thus waste of time preparing one 10. Not all employees read the manual 11. Crisis communication manual is too rigid 12. It takes time to manage crisis
Crisis management is designed to reduce threats and lessen damage. It identifies the situations, plans and outlines the contingency plans. Responsible for resolving the underlying problems that create crisis situations Determine what actions their organizations should take.
Role is to communicate with the organizations' publics about decisions and any subsequent actions that are taken in the crisis management. Responsible in explaining its various publics' reactions to the organization Crisis has occurred
Crisis communications gathers guidelines, procedures, policies, steps, techniques and tactics of communication to be managed strategically and delivered accordingly to the needs of the targeted publics. Crisis communications is a guide to manage crisis systematically and provides ability to communicate to the publics truthfully and show concerns to the happenings Uses communications as strategies (Specialized) Elements of source, message, channels, audience (Model Laswell, 1948 – who says what through what channels to whom with what effects) Techniques of persuasion, dyadic communication
Verbal or written exchange that attempts to communicate information regarding risk Projection of what might occur An interactive process of exchange of information and opinion among individuals, groups, and institutions. It involve multiple messages that express concerns, opinions, or reactions to risk messages or to legal and institutional arrangements for risk.
Attack the Accuser Denial Excuse Justification Ingratiation Corrective Action Full Apology
Tylenol, Johnson & Johnson – Fall,1982 Bhopal, India at Union Carbide Corporation – December 1984 Space Shuttle Challenger Explode, NASA – January 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Accident – April 1986 Exxon Valdez – March 1989 Bosnia Genocides – 1992-1995 Pepsi-Cola’s Syringe – 1993 World Trade Center, New York – September 2001 Bali Bombing, Indonesia – October 2002 SARS, China - 2003 Tsunami, Aceh, Indonesia – December 2004 Melamine Milk Crisis, China – September 2008 Mumbai Attack, India – November 2008
Highland Towers, Selangor – December 1993 Tragedy Fokker 50, MAS – September 1995 National Blackout, TNB – August 1996 Reformasi, Malaysia - 1998 Merapoh Accident, Pahang – November 2003 Nuri Crash, RMAF – July 2007 Hindraf, Malaysia – October 2007 Tsunami, Penang/Kuala Selangor – December 2004 Highland Towers, Selangor 2008
Crisis Communication - Art (Observation, experience, knowledge) - Confidence earned when you are prepared - Team work - Activated - Blue Print - Reputation Management
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