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Approach to HIV Associated Neurocognitive disorders (HAND) Dinesh Singh MB ChB (Natal), M Med (Psych) (Natal), F CPsych (SA), MS (epi) (Columbia, USA),

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Presentation on theme: "Approach to HIV Associated Neurocognitive disorders (HAND) Dinesh Singh MB ChB (Natal), M Med (Psych) (Natal), F CPsych (SA), MS (epi) (Columbia, USA),"— Presentation transcript:

1 Approach to HIV Associated Neurocognitive disorders (HAND) Dinesh Singh MB ChB (Natal), M Med (Psych) (Natal), F CPsych (SA), MS (epi) (Columbia, USA), PhD (candidate UKZN) F CPsych (SA), MS (epi) (Columbia, USA), PhD (candidate UKZN) 2 October 2009 ICC, Durban

2 Overview Neurobiology Neurobiology Classification of HANDs Epidemiological evidence to use HAART Screening tools Screening tools Brief neuropsychiatric batteries Treatment of HANDs

3 Primary CNS Infection by HIV Asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment Asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment Minor neurocognitive disorder Minor neurocognitive disorder HIV-associated dementia HIV-associated dementia Delirium Delirium Aseptic meningitis Aseptic meningitis Vacuolar myelopathy Vacuolar myelopathy Psychotic and mood disorders due to a general medical condition Psychotic and mood disorders due to a general medical condition

4 Secondary CNS Diagnoses Due to Systemic Immunosuppression Non-viral opportunistic infections Non-viral opportunistic infections Viral opportunistic infections Viral opportunistic infections Neoplasms Neoplasms Cerebrovascular disorders Cerebrovascular disorders B. Peripheral nervous system disorders

5 HIV neuropathogenesis HIV does not infect neurones and oligodenrocytes but the monocytes, microglia, astrocytes and endothelial cells. HIV does not infect neurones and oligodenrocytes but the monocytes, microglia, astrocytes and endothelial cells. Once in the CNS the virus persist and evolves into different strains independent of the systemic reservoir. Once in the CNS the virus persist and evolves into different strains independent of the systemic reservoir. HIV is not evenly distributed in the CNS. It has a predilection for the basal ganglia. HIV is not evenly distributed in the CNS. It has a predilection for the basal ganglia. CSF HIV RNA levels do not correlate with the peripheral circulation, especially in the advanced stages. CSF HIV RNA levels do not correlate with the peripheral circulation, especially in the advanced stages.

6 NIMH Panel Diagnostic Classification of HAND Antinori A, Arendt G, Becker JT, Brew BJ, Byrd DA, Cherner M, Clifford DB, Cinque P, Epstein LG, Goodkin K, Gisslen M, Grant I, Heaton RK, Joseph J, Marder K, Marra CM, McArthur JC, Nunn M, Price RW, Pulliam L, Robertson KR, Sacktor N, Valcour V, Wojna VE. Updated research nosology for HIV- associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology 2007;69:

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8 NIMH Panel Diagnostic Classification of HAND Antinori A, Arendt G, Becker JT, Brew BJ, Byrd DA, Cherner M, Clifford DB, Cinque P, Epstein LG, Goodkin K, Gisslen M, Grant I, Heaton RK, Joseph J, Marder K, Marra CM, McArthur JC, Nunn M, Price RW, Pulliam L, Robertson KR, Sacktor N, Valcour V, Wojna VE. Updated research nosology for HIV- associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology 2007;69:

9 6 domains to be assessed Attention-information processing; Attention-information processing; Language; Language; Abstraction- executive; Abstraction- executive; Complex perceptual motor; Complex perceptual motor; Memory Memory Sensory perceptual/motor skills Sensory perceptual/motor skills

10 Asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) 1 SD 1 SD Two domains Two domains No impairment No impairment

11 Minor neurocognitive Disorder Old defintion:Two or more of the following for > 1 month: Old defintion:Two or more of the following for > 1 month: –Impaired attention or concentration –Mental slowing –Impaired memory –Slowed movements –Incoordination –Personality change, irritability or emotional lability New definition: 2 domains, 1 SD, mild impairment

12 HIV Associated Dementia Old definition: Acquired abnormality in at least two of the following cognitive abilities for at least one month: Old definition: Acquired abnormality in at least two of the following cognitive abilities for at least one month: –Attention/concentration –Speed of information processing –Abstraction/reasoning –Visuospatial skill –Memory/learning –Speech/language New definition: 2 domains, 2 SD, marked impairment

13 Table 1. Criteria for HIV ASSOCIATED NEUROCOGNITVE IMPAIRMENT ( summarized from Antori et al (3)) Asymptomati c Neuro cognitive impairment (ANI) Minor neurocognitive disorder (MND) HIV- dementia (HAD) Level of impairment noneMild everyday activities: reduced mental acuity, inefficiency in work, homemaking or social activities Marked impairment in day-to-day activities at work, home or social functioning Number SD below population norm on neuropsycholo gical test 12 Number of domains impaired 2 (Attention/working memory; verbal/language; Abstraction/executive; Complex perceptual motor; Memory (learning and recall); speed of information processing; Sensory perceptual/motor skills) Exclusion criteria Absence of criteria for delirium or other causes for dementia. The condition cannot be explained by another comorbid condition e.g. substance abuse, infections, pre-existing neurological condition.

14 Significance of NCI ARVS decrease incidence ARVS decrease incidence Better QoL Better QoL Improved Adherence Improved Adherence Poor prognostic sign Poor prognostic sign HIV-D- WHO stage 4 disease- Qualify for ARVs HIV-D- WHO stage 4 disease- Qualify for ARVs

15 HIV-D PRE-HAART MOST STUDIES PRIOR TO HAART SHOWED SOME CORRELATION BETWEEN DEMENTIA AND- MOST STUDIES PRIOR TO HAART SHOWED SOME CORRELATION BETWEEN DEMENTIA AND- – CD4 LEVEL –PLASMA VIRAL LOAD –CSF VIRAL LOAD VIRAL LOAD MAY ALSO HAVE PREDICTIVE VALUE

16 Declining incidence of HIV dementia in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: This reflects the increasing use of HAART (large arrow) in this population of homosexual men and probably represents a best-case scenario in that other population groups, particularly, injection drug users, may be unable to achieve such good virological control, and may therefore continue to be at risk for HIV-D.

17 HAART TREATMENT GENERALLY RAPID REDUCTION IN CSF HIV RNA GENERALLY RAPID REDUCTION IN CSF HIV RNA –Particularly in naïve BUT CSF VIROLOGICAL FAILURES FAIRLY COMMON BUT CSF VIROLOGICAL FAILURES FAIRLY COMMON

18 HAART TREATMENT HOWEVER HOWEVER –STILL SIGNIFICANT DEFICITS IN TREATED POPULATIONS –PROGRESSIVE DEFICITS REPORTED IN SOME TREATED SUBJECTS

19 PROGRESSION MOVEMENT IN BOTH DIRECTIONS MOVEMENT IN BOTH DIRECTIONS NEAD COHORT AT JHU NEAD COHORT AT JHU –44% OF DEMENTED HAD PROGRESSED FROM NON-DEMENTED TO DEMENTED IN 6MTH –37.5 OF DEMENTED IMPROVED TO NON- DEMENTED IN 6 MTH

20 Effect of HAART on cognition in Africa Sacktor et al (2009)- ‘Benefits and risks of stavudine therapy for HIV- associated neurologic complications in Uganda’ Sacktor et al (2009)- ‘Benefits and risks of stavudine therapy for HIV- associated neurologic complications in Uganda’

21 Summary New classification incorporates milder asymptomatic phase New classification incorporates milder asymptomatic phase Emphasis on neuropsych testing!! Emphasis on neuropsych testing!! Functional assessment Functional assessment

22 Problem with diagnosis of NCI Research criteria available Research criteria available HIV screens unreliable, unproven HIV screens unreliable, unproven Screening tools need neuro-battery, insensitive to milder forms Screening tools need neuro-battery, insensitive to milder forms Neuro-psych batteries: resources, specialists, time consuming Neuro-psych batteries: resources, specialists, time consuming Norms derived from well educated Caucasians Norms derived from well educated Caucasians SKILLS, EQUIPMENT SKILLS, EQUIPMENT Even with skills: no local norms, African population, tests are biased to Western constructs Even with skills: no local norms, African population, tests are biased to Western constructs

23 Clinical Work-up for CNS Disorders in HIV Infection General medical work-up General medical work-up Psychiatric work-up and differential diagnosis Psychiatric work-up and differential diagnosis Cognitive screening/neuropsych work- up Cognitive screening/neuropsych work- up Functional status assessment Functional status assessment

24 Cognitive Screening Work-up Mini-Mental Status Exam Mini-Mental Status Exam –Insensitive –Higher cut offs may be useful (<26/30 should be suspect) HIV Dementia Scale HIV Dementia Scale –Concerns regarding reliability and validity –Not proven useful for MCMD –Cut off <10 of total 16 points- –Gansen et al – tested in SA Mental Alternation test Mental Alternation test Executive interview Executive interview IHDS IHDS

25 Cognitive-Motor Screening Work-up Neurological examination Neurological examination –Timed Gait Neuropsychological screening tests Neuropsychological screening tests –Trails Making Test A & B –Figural Visual Scanning Task –California Verbal Learning Test –Digit-Symbol Task (WAIS-R)

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29 Trail making test A

30 Trail making test B E D B I 3 A C

31 Age Educ <10yrs 1 SD 2 SD memory33 DSF53 DSB32 TMT A 6480 TMT B

32 Normative scores for a brief neuropsychiatric battery for the detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits (HANDS) among South Africans ( BMC research notes) Developed at McCord Developed at McCord 4 neuropsych tests: DSB, DSF, TMT A, TMT B 4 neuropsych tests: DSB, DSF, TMT A, TMT B No special equipment, mins No special equipment, mins Lay counsellors with training tested patients. Lay counsellors with training tested patients. Reference tables: age and sex. Reference tables: age and sex. Implemented battery in clinic- starting ARVs irrespective of CD4. Implemented battery in clinic- starting ARVs irrespective of CD4.

33 Neuropsycholo gical Test DescriptionDomains assessed Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Recall as many words from a list of 15 wordsmemory Grooved peg- board motor Digit span forward Patient is given an increasing number of random digits. They must repeat digits in the same order Attention and concentration Digit span backward Patient is given an increasing number of random digits. They must repeat the digits in reverse order Attention, concentration and working memory Trail making Test A Join 25 circles with numbers in the correct sequence as quickly as possible. The numbers are distributed across the page and are not in order Motor and speed of information processing Trail making Test B Join 25 circles with numbers and letters in alternating sequence. i.e. Join 1, A, 2, B, 3, C as quickly as possible Motor and speed of information processing and executive function Singh D.;HIV neurocognitive impairment HIV Journal; September 2009

34 Functional Status Assessment (continued) Assessment instruments Assessment instruments –Karnofsky Performance Scale –The Global Assessment of Function –The Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale –The Sickness Impact Profile –The Direct Assessment of Functional Status

35 Pharmacotherapy of HIV Associated Cognitive-Motor Disorders Antiretroviral medications Antiretroviral medications Immunostimulants and inflammatory mediators Immunostimulants and inflammatory mediators Neurotransmitter manipulation Neurotransmitter manipulation Nutritional interventions Nutritional interventions

36 WHY HAART MAY NOT STOP CNS PROGRESSION ARVs HAVE POOR PENETRANCE ACROSS THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER ARVs HAVE POOR PENETRANCE ACROSS THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER POTENTIAL FOR VIRAL SEQUESTRATION IN THE BRAIN POTENTIAL FOR VIRAL SEQUESTRATION IN THE BRAIN MAY CAUSE CONTINUING NEUROLOGICAL DECLINE MAY CAUSE CONTINUING NEUROLOGICAL DECLINE MAY INCREASE POTENTIAL FOR RESISTANCE WITH RESEEDING OF SYSTEMIC COMPARTMENT MAY INCREASE POTENTIAL FOR RESISTANCE WITH RESEEDING OF SYSTEMIC COMPARTMENT

37 CNS PENETRANCE OF ARVs GENERALLY POOR NRTI PENETRANCE MEDIATED BY ORGANIC ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEMS PROTEASE INHIBITORS ELIMINATED VIA P-GLYCOPROTEINS, WHICH ARE LOCATED AT THE BBB

38 CSF PENETRANT ARVs SOME STUDIES SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENT IN SOME FEATURE OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING OTHERS SHOWED NONE THEREFORE- MIXED RESULTS BUT INCREASING EVIDENCE PENETRANCE HAS A SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON NEUROLOGICAL FUNCTIONING

39 WOULD EARLY TX PROTECT THE CNS PRE- HAART INCIDENCE OF DEMENTIA PRE- HAART INCIDENCE OF DEMENTIA –0.4% IN ASYMPTOMATIC STAGES –16% WITH SYMPTOMATIC DISEASE MORE DEMENTIA WITH ADVANCING AGE MORE DEMENTIA WITH ADVANCING AGE –POSSIBLY DUE TO AGE-INDUCED LOSS OF NEURONAL RESERVE MCMD IS PREDICTIVE OF DEMENTIA MCMD IS PREDICTIVE OF DEMENTIA

40 WOULD EARLY TX PROTECT THE CNS HIGH BASELINE PLASMA VIRAL LOAD PREDICTS DEMENTIA HIGH BASELINE PLASMA VIRAL LOAD PREDICTS DEMENTIA –CSF NOT ADEQUATELY STUDIED STRUCTURED TREATMENT INTERRUPTION LEADS TO ELEVATED CSF LYMPHOCYTE COUNT AND VIRAL LOAD STRUCTURED TREATMENT INTERRUPTION LEADS TO ELEVATED CSF LYMPHOCYTE COUNT AND VIRAL LOAD

41 Classify as normal, ANI, MND or HAD Assess all newly diagnosed HIV positive patients with Neuropsychological subtests (TMT-A, TMT-B, DSF, DSB) ANI and MND HAD Start ARVs, Monitor and reinforce adherence Monitor Repeat in six months If progress to HAD start ARV Treat depression and other medical conditions CD4 <200 CD4 >200 Baseline investigation e.ge.g. FBC, U& E, LFT – CT and LP (if indicated) Singh D.;HIV neurocognitive impairment HIV Journal; September 2009

42 Clinical challenges in busy ARV clinic We are systematically screening people and starting HAART We are systematically screening people and starting HAART BUT BUT No guidance on regimes No guidance on regimes What happens to people with persistent or progressive HAD What happens to people with persistent or progressive HAD

43 Help and contact info Up coming article in HIV Journal Up coming article in HIV Journal Reference tables: BMC research notes Reference tables: BMC research notes Easier tools Easier tools ?? Accepted into ARV rollout ?? Accepted into ARV rollout Durdoc hospital Durdoc hospital


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