Cuneiform Clay Tablet, Mesopotamia, 5000 years old
Sumerian Cuneiform Script 4500 years old Egyptian Pyramid Text 3000 years old
Heiroglyphs from the “Papyrus of Ani,” Book of the Dead Egypt, 1292 BC – 1185 BC Papyrus fragment of a spell from the Book of the Dead written for Nes-pauti-taui, Egypt c. 1000 BC
Illustration from the Papyrus of Ani Ani and his wife bow, while the god Anubis weighs Ani’s heart against the feather of truth.
Papyrus of Nany, a woman in her seventies, chantress of Amun-Re. She holds her mouth and eyes in her hand, while her heart is weighed.
Maya Codices (Books) Heiroglyphics written on amatyl paper Yucatan, c. 1500 AD Many such records of Mayan civilization were destroyed by the Spanish Conquistadors and priests in 1562. Only three remain.
Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts “Book of Kells” Four Gospels with Latin text Ireland, c. 800 AD
Book Cover with Byzantine Icon of the Crucifixion Ivory icon carved about 1000 AD in Constantinople. Book cover gilded silver on wood backing, set with sapphires, glass and crystal, made in Spain before 1085 AD.
Hand-Written Manuscript Tempera and gold leaf with brown ink on parchment. French, c.1290 AD
“The Entombment” Tempera colors and gold leaf on parchment Attributed to Masters of Dirc van Delf, Dutch Utrecht, c. 1405-1410 AD
“Hours of Simon de Varie,” Illuminated by Jean Fouquet Tempera colors, gold leaf, gold paint, & iron gall ink on parchment, covered with red morocco (soft goatskin leather). French, 1455 AD
“Book of Hours,” 167 leaves of vellum Valencia, Spain, c. 1460
Breviary belonging to Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots Her notes can be seen in the margins Late 1400s AD
Printed Manuscripts Appear with the Renaissance Italian Bible, Book 2 Printed text with Handcolored Woodcut Illustrations
“Poliphilo’s Dream about the Strife of Love” by Colonna Woodcut illustrations with printed text, Venice, 1499
“The Dissection” by Johannes de Ketham Printed medical book with woodcut illustrations which have been colored using stencils or hand-pressed color blocks.
“Zodiac Man” Chart combining medicine and astrology, used by doctors to determine the best time to operate or let blood from certain organs. Italian, 1400-1600 AD
Modern Illustration serves many purposes Illustrated books are still used for instruction. “Gray’s Anatomy” 1977
Illustrations can be used to add information to scientific or technical texts. “Large as Life, Daytime Animals” Text by Joanna Cole Illustrations by Kenneth Lilly 1985
Photography and digital artwork is often used to illustrate products. Text is frequently treated as a graphic component, adding visual interest to illustrations, particularly in advertising.
Illustrations can be used to provide conceptual images. “Effigia okeefeae,” related to the forbears of modern crocodiles. National Geographic, March 2007
Illustrations can be used to influence. Newspaper illustration by Frederick Remington. William Randolph Hearst, owner of the paper, allegedly told Remington, “You supply the drawings. I’ll supply the war.” Such inflammatory drawings and stories influenced the decision to enter the Spanish American War in 1896.
Illustrations can add a great deal to Creative Writing. In the late 1800s, illustrators created images full of action for novels and historical fiction. “On the Irrawaddy” by G.A. Henty, 1896
“Five Little Peppers & How They Grew,” by Margaret Sidney, 1881
Text is absorbed and understood in a linear manner. In most cultures, this travels from left to right and top to bottom. The movie Ice Age features: a mammoth, a sabertooth, a squirrel Visual images are absorbed and understood all at once. and a sloth.
Text and Illustrations are both symbol systems. Language is an expression of thought. Written language is an expression of verbal language. Understanding is achieved through mastery of vocabulary, grammar and syntax. Rich mental images and emotional response are achieved through metaphor, simile, rhythm and tone. Visual images incorporate many symbols within specific cultural contexts. Illustrations provide a wide range of images, from realistic to suggestive to abstract. Through the use of color and other elements, visual images elicit emotional responses, often without engaging the language/thought process.
Congruency Faithful depiction of what is written “Under the Window” by Kate Greenaway 1879
Simplification Background and other information is excluded. “The Country Bunny and the Little Golden Shoes,” by Du Bose Heyward, Illustrated by Marjorie Flack 1939
Elaboration An extension of what is written “The Day Jimmy’s Boa Ate the Wash” by Trinka Hakes Noble Illustration by Steven Kellogg 1980
Foretelling Hinting at an event which has not happened in the story yet “Raggedy Ann and Andy and the Wishing Pebble” Illustrated by Cathy Beylon 1987
Deviation When the illustrator adds visual information beyond what is written, the story can be enhanced or expanded. If the illustrator chooses to create images which are in opposition to what is written, the story can become a farce or satire.
Continuous Narration Simplest type of illustration A series of pictures depict the action of the narrative. “There’s a Nightmare in My Closet” Written and illustrated by Mercer Mayer 1968
Continuous Narrative Illustration is often used in books for young children who cannot read.
“Owl At Home” Written & illustrated by Arnold Loble, 1975