1Ch. 9: Stoichiometry Stoichiometry – pronounced stoy-key-ah-meh-tree. A balanced chemical equation can be interpreted on a molecular level, a mole level, or a mass level.Ex) N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3The relationship between N2 and H2 is:1 molecule of N2 = 3 molecules H2Or:
2StoichiometryWe can also establish similar relationships between the product and the reactants.This allows us to convert any amount of N2, H2, and NH3 into a quantity of the others.Analogy: Making a bicycle.1 frame + 2 wheels 1 bicycleWhat if you had 40 frames?What if you made 75 bicycles?
3Stoichiometry Fill in the table below. Amount of N2 H2 NH3 1 molecule 3 molecules2 molecules18 molecules120 molecules5,400 molecules
4StoichiometryIt is impractical to do most reactions in terms of molecules.The coefficients can be viewed as “moles.”Thus, 1 mole of N2 plus 3 moles of H2 will produce 2 moles of NH3.
5Stoichiometry Fill in the table below. Amount of N2 H2 Amount of NH3 2.4 moles0.015 moles6.4 moles27.3 moles
6StoichiometryFinally, we can calculate any mass from a mole amount using the molar mass of each compound.Amount ofN2H2NH31 mole3 moles2 moles0.040 moles0.12 moles0.080 moles
7StoichiometryConverting a mass-to-mass of any reactant or product involves three steps.Mass of AMass of BDivide by Molar Mass of AMultiply by Molar Mass of BMoles of AMoles of BMultiply by the ratio of B / A
8StoichiometryWhat mass, in grams, can be produced by the complete reaction of 3.40grams of N2?
9StoichiometryWhat mass of PH3 is possible from the complete reaction of 150.grams of Ca3P2? The balanced reaction is:Ca3P H2O 3 Ca(OH) PH3What three pieces of information will we need?
10StoichiometryWhat mass of Br2 is required to react with 0.185grams of Al? The balanced reaction is:2 Al Br2 2 AlBr3
11StoichiometryLimiting reactant – amounts used in a reaction may have one (or more) reactant in excess and one in a lesser amount – this is the limiting reactant.Ex) Back to our bicycle assembly – what if the warehouse included 200 frames and 350 wheels. How many bicycles could you make? What is the limiting “reactant”?
12StoichiometryMole-amounts require the application of the mole-to-mole amounts.Using the reaction: 6 Na + N2 2 Na3NAmount ofNaN2Limiting?Amount of Na3N18 moles6.0 moles1.5 moles0.22 moles0.54 moles0.12 moles3.6 moles0.55 moles
13StoichiometryMass amounts require application of the three-step process.In the reaction below, 4.55g of Fe2O3 and 2.85g of CO are allowed to react. What mass of Fe metal is possible? Fe2O CO 2 Fe CO2
14StoichiometryThe amount of product possible based on the limiting reactant is sometimes called the theoretical yield.The percent yield is then the actual yield divided by the theoretical yield times 100.
15StoichiometryWhen 100.g of CS2 reacts with 100.g of Cl2, 65.0g of CCl4 are produced. Calculate the percent yield of this reaction.