Presentation on theme: "AIA Iowa #A203 Course Title Ensuring compliance of FENESTRATION WITH TODAY’S ENERGY."— Presentation transcript:
1 AIA Iowa#A203Course Title Ensuring compliance of FENESTRATION WITH TODAY’S ENERGY CODES and green standardsSpeaker: David WardenDate September 26, :15 PM
2 Credit(s) earned on completion of this course will be reported to AIA CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request.This course is registered with AIA CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.___________________________________________Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
3 Copyright MaterialsThis presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited.
4 39,000 Employees/Team Members Fastening Products6.4 Billion $ in Sales111 Companies71 Countries39,000 Employees/Team Members1,760 Employees in the USAArchitectural ProductsZippersWebbingsMetal Snaps & ButtonsPlastic Buckles & NotionsHook & Loop (Self Closing Tape)Commercial Glazing SystemsEntrancesCurtain WallsWindows & Balcony DoorsResidential Glazing SystemsWindows & Patio DoorsYou may not realize it, but the majority of you in this room today are probably wearing a YKK product. YKK produces approximately 70% of all the zippers sold in the United States.YKK is truly a global company….. (Click slide and Globe disappears to reveal the facts) with sales in excess of 6 billion dollars.We operate a total of 111 companies in 71 countries and employ 39,000 team members. 1,760 of the team members are employed in the USA.YKK Corporation of America consists of two main groups, Fastening Products and Architectural Products and represents companies in North, Central, & South America.The Fastening Products group manufactures and distributes a variety of products to the clothing and automotive industry.The Architectural Products group in made up of the commercial group which manufactures and supplies complete glazing systems for schools, office buildings, hospitals, government facilities, and condominium projects throughout the United States and the residential group which is starting its 5th year in the United States and has a full line of new construction windows and patio doors as well as a full replacement line for the home building industry.
5 CourseDescriptionUnderstanding energy code changes and green standards as they relate to energy performance of Aluminum commercial fenestration systems specifically thermal performance characteristics of an elevation and using these products effectively in green strategies.
6 LearningObjectivesUnderstand recent changes to energy codes and the new green standardsLearn how to pre-qualify thermal performance for a projectDetermine when to use performance results based on NFRC sizes and project specific sizesWork toward sustainable performance with aluminum commercial fenestration
7 What are the recent Energy Code and Green Standard changes and requirements? ASHRAEASHRAE 90.1 – 2007ASHRAE 90.1 – 2010ASHRAE 90.1 – 2013ASHRAE – 2009ASHRAE – 2011
8 Energy Code Map Status update as of August 2014 code-status-commercialThe United States currently favors the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) or the ASHRAE 90.1 Standard as the primary energy code choices for the built environment. Each state has the jurisdiction to adopt any energy code or develop there own, and they can elect to enforce that code as they deem necessary for their specific climate. Many states have elected to adopt and enforce these codes for uniformity. Some states have left it to their local jurisdictions within the state to decide. This makes it important to check with the local inspections office for the most recent adoptions and amendments during the design phase of a project. A couple of websites to obtain information on code adoptions are iccsafe.org and energycodes.gov. With this said let us investigate the recent changes in these energy codes and the role of green standards as they relate to fenestration systems on the envelope of the building.
9 www.bcap-ocean.org/ code-status-commercial Bcap-ocean basis everything on the ASHRAE 90.1 Standard adopted for state energy code enforcement
10 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) International Code Council (ICC) shows the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) adoptions by state.Click Mouse ant the International green Construction Code (IgCC) has been adopted in a few states as well.
12 Fixed Fenestration Curtain Wall Window Wall Storefront Fixed Windows (ASHRAE Only)U-Factor Requirements of (Non-Residential Heated Space) Fixed FenestrationBased on Vertical Glazing of 0-40%CodeZone 1Zone 2Zone 3Zone 4Zone 5Zone 6Zone 7Zone 8Standard CodesASHRAE1.220.570.46ASHRAE1.200.700.600.500.450.40ASHRAEASHRAE0.420.382006 IECC2009 IECC2012 IECC10.360.292015 IECC1Green Codes2012 IgCC10.410.340.320.26ASHRAE0.350.30ASHRAEASHRAE K-1220.560.331 Based on Vertical Glazing of 0-30%2 Based on Vertical Glazing of 0-35%3 Vertical Glazing less than 40%Thermal performance is one of the most important subjects not only for human comfort, but also for building energy use and reducing operating costs during a building’s life cycle. America’s built environment consumes 72% of all the electricity and 39% of all the energy produced. Therefore it makes sense to decrease energy use by requiring more stringent thermal performance within the energy codes. The recent changes and future changes of these requirements as they relate to thermal performance of fenestration products are shown in this U-factor chart in (IP) units for the 8 different climate zones the energy codes divide the United States into. These changes have been somewhat moderate recently from 2004 to but the new 2012 IECC U-factors are the most stringent to date and also reduce the Window to Wall Ratio (WWR) to 30% down from 40%. (Note: In climate Zones IECC can allow for WWR of 40% provided that no less than 50% of the conditioned floor area is within the daylight zone, automatic daylighting controls are installed in the daylight zones, and the Visible Transmittance (VT) of the vertical fenestration is greater than or equal to 1.1 times Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC).) The green standard ASHRAE is a benchmark improvement over ASHRAE by 24% and can be adopted by states as a green code. California already as adopted their homemade green code that is similar to ASHRAE K-12 was a guide that was published before to help school building officials make decisions and better understand how to incorporate green practices and standards in their schools. The International Code Council is working on publishing the IgCC International Green Construction Code to be adoptable for enforcement to help green America’s built environment. LEED Certification will still be a target as LEED plans on staying ahead of the codes with its future versions. Green Globes is another green certification program that is gaining ground and is listed as an alternative for many state building green certification requirements. (Best to explain the climate zones within the scope of the architect’s region in this case Hauppauge, New York would focus on Zone 4). At time of presentation 2009 IECC is current energy code (New York cities are famous for amendments to energy codes so call the inspections office for any deviations.)
13 Operable Fenestration Operable WindowsFixed Windows ( )Sliding Glass DoorsTerrace DoorsU-Factor Requirements of (Non-Residential Heated Space) Operable WindowsBased on Vertical Glazing of 0-40%CodeZone 1Zone 2Zone 3Zone 4Zone 5Zone 6Zone 7Zone 8Standard CodesASHRAE1.270.670.47ASHRAE1.200.750.650.550.45ASHRAEASHRAE0.600.500.402006 IECC2009 IECC2012 IECC10.430.372015 IECC1Green Codes2012 IgCC10.590.540.410.390.33ASHRAE0.35ASHRAEASHRAE K-1220.560.421 Based on Vertical Glazing of 0-30%2 Based on Vertical Glazing of 0-35%3 Vertical Glazing less than 40%Operable fenestration excluding swing doors do not typically have as stringent U-factor requirements. So the recent and proposed changes as you can see are moderate. (Focus on Zones 4,5 and 6) At time of presentation 2009 IECC is current energy code
14 Glazed Entrances Swinging Entrance Doors U-Factor Requirements of (Non-Residential Heated Space) Glazed Entrance DoorsBased on Vertical Glazing of 0-40%CodeZone 1Zone 2Zone 3Zone 4Zone 5Zone 6Zone 7Zone 8Standard CodesASHRAE1.270.670.47ASHRAE184.108.40.2060.850.80ASHRAEASHRAE0.830.772006 IECC2009 IECC2012 IECC12015 IECC1Green Codes2012 IgCC10.990.750.69ASHRAE0.70ASHRAEASHRAE K-1220.501 Based on Vertical Glazing of 0-30%2 Based on Vertical Glazing of 0-35%3 Vertical Glazing less than 40%Glazed Entrances are very moderate based. These present an opportunity for improved energy performance with new products in the market today, which will look at briefly. At time of presentation 2009 IECC is current energy code
15 SHGC Requirements All Fenestration SHGC: PF < 0.25 PF < 0.20 for 2015 IECCSolar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) requirements of (Non-Residental Heated Space) Vertical FenestrationBased on Vertical Glazing of 0-40%CodeZone 1Zone 2Zone 3Zone 4Zone 5Zone 6Zone 7Zone 8Standard CodesASHRAE0.250.390.400.49NRASHRAE0.45ASHRAEASHRAE2006 IECC2009 IECC2012 IECC12015 IECC10.25/0.330.40/0.530.45/NRGreen Codes2012 IgCC10.230.360.41ASHRAE0.35ASHRAEASHRAE K-1221 Based on Vertical Glazing of 0-30%2 Based on Vertical Glazing of 0-35%3 Vertical Glazing less than 40%Solar Heat Gain Coefficient or SHGC requirement changes are moderate, but effect zones 3, 4, 5 & 6 the most.The VT/SHGC or LSG or Effective Aperture requirements were rescinded, but may become part of ASHRAESHGC adjustments can be made based on projection factor (PF) of an elevation. (2009 IECC only Climate Zones 1 thru 3)2012 IECC are as follows:0.2 < or = PF < 0.5 then times SHGC by 1.1 for all fenestration within 45 degrees of true North otherwise SHGC times 1.2.PF < or = 0.5 then times SHGC by 1.2 for all fenestration within 45 degrees of true North otherwise SHGC times 1.6.Note: In Climate Zones 1 thru is the maximum SHGC within 6 feet of the finished floor.At time of presentation 2009 IECC is current code (May 31,2012)
16 Fenestration Industry’s response Fixed Framing Extra Thermally Enhanced Storefronts and Curtain Walls with U-factors under 0.39 Btu/hr.ft2.oF (W/m2.oC)Now for the new technologies of commercial fenestration systems. Many manufacturers are now offering extra thermal Storefront and Curtain Wall systems that achieve much lower U-factors to meet and exceed codes without exotic glass, but most importantly save energy. Great choices for your next green project.
17 18% Better U-factor performance 18% better performance using the same IGU a traditional single thermally broken system
18 Thermal Comparisons Dual Thermal Thermal shots of the typically verticals of a 2” x 4-1/2” Storefront with a 0.29 COG U-factor. From left to rightNon-Thermal, Thermally Broken and Dual Thermally Broken.Dual Thermal
19 0° 70° Thermal Break Vs Dual Thermal Break (THERMALLY BROKEN) Surface 42.4°Surface 4.8°Typical thermally broken Storefront Horizontal with a 0.29 COG U-factor… Coldest exterior frame temperature is 4.8 degrees F and the warmest interior temperature is 42.4 degrees F based on simulation performed using Therm 6.3.
20 0° 70° Thermal Break Vs Dual Thermal Break (DUAL THERMAL BREAK) Surface 48.1°Surface 3.8°Typical dual thermally broken Storefront Horizontal with a 0.29 COG U-factor… Coldest exterior frame temperature is 3.8 degrees F and the warmest interior temperature is 48.1 degrees F based on simulation performed using Therm 6.3. That is a one degree better protection of heat flow out and a 5.7 degree temperature increase on the warmest exterior temperature.
21 0° 70° Thermal Break Vs Thermally Improved (THERMALLY IMPROVED) Surface 10.1°Surface 49.2°Typical thermally improved Curtain Horizontal with a 0.29 COG U-factor… Coldest exterior frame temperature is 10.1 degrees F and the warmest interior temperature is 49.2 degrees F based on simulation performed using Therm 6.3.
22 (THERMALLY IMPROVED & BROKEN) Thermal Break Vs Thermally Improved(THERMALLY IMPROVED & BROKEN)0°70°Surface 6.6°Surface 57.4°Typical thermally improved and thermally broken Curtain Horizontal with a 0.29 COG U-factor… Coldest exterior frame temperature is 6.6 degrees F and the warmest interior temperature is 57.4 degrees F based on simulation performed using Therm 6.3. That is a 3.5 degree F better protection on heat flow and an 8.2 degree increase to the warmest exterior frame temperature.
23 18 to 20% Better U-factor performance 18 to 20% better performance then a traditionally thermally improved Curtain Wall System using the same IGU
24 Fenestration Industry’s response Operable Windows Extra Thermal Window designs achieving U-factors in the 0.40 to 0.35 range with C.O.G. U-factors of 0.29More efficient fixed and operable windows to meet and exceed code requirements and be energy conscious.
25 29% to 31% Better U-factor performance 29% to 31% better performance than traditional thermally broken windows with the same IGU
26 Fenestration Industry’s response Entrances Exterior doors are one of the leading energy loss areas in a buildingThermal doors are also being offer to the table for performance specifications to exceed code requirement and aid in energy savings. Another possible strategy in meeting green objectives.Thermal Doors achieving U-factors in the 0.50 to 0.60 range with C.O.G. U-factors of 0.29
27 30 to 37% Better U-factor performance 30 to 37% better performance then non-thermal doors using the same IGU.
28 How much can extra thermal systems Improve Thermal Performance? Explain graph briefly with emphasis on improving the frame as the first step and use the next graphs to justify that with storefront and curtainwall it is more economical to change the frame then to fill the glass with argon.EXTRAEXTRAEXTRAEXTRAEXTRA
29 High Performance Storefront System Analysis (Performance vs Price) Performance is better and cost is better to change the frame instead of up grading the glass reference 13.2% increase to go to argon and only a 3.5% increase to upgrade the frame.Glass makes up a bigger square footage than framing.29
30 High Performance CW System Analysis (Performance vs Price) Explain Frame improvement to glass improvement and what is the best way to spend within your budget to minimize the occupancy cost.A 4% savings over upgrading the framing to adding argon to the glass. And a 19.6% performance increase versus the 8.7% by adding argon.Remember the acceptable standard for argon is a 1% loss per year and argon is typically a gas mixture of 10% Air to 90% argon. This means that after 15 years at1% leakage the gas mixture of 25% air to 75% argon performs just like air. The argon benefit is gone, but if the frame was upgraded to an extra thermal fenestration system. The thermal benefit is there for the life of the building.30
31 High Performance Window System Analysis (Performance vs Price) Windows do not hold true to cost benefits of Storefront and Curtain Wall framing upgrades in terms of argon IGU upgrades, but the performance is there for the money.If look at the 2.9% increase expense for argon versus the 24.3% increase in framing it seems like a lot, but look at the thermal performance change of from 3.8% to 32.7%.So if the strategy is green this might be a possible avenue to be budgeted into the project.31
32 High Performance Window System Analysis (Performance vs Price) Fixed windows about the same increase, but performance is excellent with standard 0.29 COG U-factor32
33 High Performance Entrance System Analysis (Performance vs Price) Doors come at a premium due to design, but give an alternative possibly eliminated the need for a vestibule or great for up grading a older entrance that does not have a vestibule.And a special note is that these extra thermal frames benefit even more form these high thermal performance IGU’s.33
34 Code RequirementsFenestration product rating. U-factors of fenestration products (windows, doors and Skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 100 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Products lacking such a labeled U-factor shall be assigned a default U-factor from Table (1) or (2). The solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of the glazed fenestration products (windows, glazed doors and skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Products lacking such a labeled SHGC shall be assigned a default SHGC from table (3).2009 IECCASHRAE 90.1 – 2007 & 2010Fenestration and DoorsLabeling of fenestration Products. All manufactured fenestration products shall have a permanent nameplate, installed by the manufacturer, listing the U-factor, SHGC, and air leakage rate also requires “Visible Transmittance (VT)”Exception: When the fenestration product does not have a nameplate, the installer or supplier of such fenestration shall provided a signed and dated certification for the installed fenestration listing the U-factor, SHGC, and the air leakage rate.It is important to understand the code requirements. Both The 2006 & 2009 IECC and the ASHRAE require a label and manufacturer’s certification of the U-factor, SHGC and the Air Leakage (AL) of the fenestration system. Note: The exception in ASHRAE and 2010 now. Typically Curtain Wall and Storefront are shop fabricated and stick assembled on site. Most manufacturers provide test reports for Air leakage code requirements. Typical submittals include the Air, Water and Structural test report with air tested in accordance to ASTM E 283 in lieu of NFRC 400, which is asked for in ASHRAE NFRC 400 is just ASTM E 283 tested at 1.57 PSF for air infiltration. Most manufacturer’s test to both 1.57 PSF and 6.24 PSF as suggested in ASTM E 283. This method primarily satisfies code, But let me ask you.2006 & 2009 IECC - Require Air Leakage labeling, but site –constructed windows and doors do not require labels. Curtain Wall and Storefront can be handled with ASTM E 283 Test Reports
35 How do we pre-qualify thermal performance of a fenestration system? AAMA 507Standard Practice for Determining the Thermal Performance Characteristics of Fenestration Systems Installed in Commercial BuildingsPurposeA standard method for determining the thermal performance of building specific fenestration systems – The specific elevationScopeThermal Characteristics to be discussed:Thermal Transmittance (U-factor)Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)Visible Transmittance (VT)Air Leakage (AL)Does not effect energy useCondensation Resistance Factor (CRF)“How do we pre-qualify the products thermal performance?” “If you choose a product for the basis of design, do you know how it is going to perform based on the glass proposed? Are you going for LEED certification? Is your client seeking energy modeling for estimated cost of ownership? “The trade has developed a tool to determine Thermal Performance based on the glass chosen. This way you will know that you meet code requirements and if you want to know actual performance per your design you can determine that as well.AAMA 507 was developed to meet the requirements of the energy codes by offering a “Certificate of Compliance”. This certificate contains a matrix, which is determined in accordance with NFRC 100 and 200 by an independent laboratory accredited by the NFRC, and based on a validated simulation. The U-factors and SHGC of the glass in the matrix are set in a reasonable range of available IGU products. Then the product is simulated thru out this range to get the performance of the Frame and Glass assembly, which is referred to as the overall rating. The “Certificate of compliance” focuses on qualifying the U-Factor and SHGC. As you see in the scope of AAMA 507 Visible Transmittance (VT), Air Leakage (AL), and although it does not affect energy use CRF are briefly discussed. So, before we move on to the “Certificate of Compliance” let us review these thermal characteristics.
36 Defining the thermal characteristics of fenestration systems U-Factor: Rate of heat loss. The lower the U-factor the better the fenestration’s resistance to heat flow.U-Factor is denoted as BTU/hr.ft2.oF (W/m2.oC)U-factor is the inverse of R-ValueFrom our previous example: 1 / 0.46 = 2.2 R-valueSolar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC): Ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration product to the incident solar radiation. The lower the SHGC, the less solar heat it transmits, and the greater its shading ability.SHGC is denoted as a value between 0 and 1 without units.It is important to be able to define the thermal performance characteristics of fenestration system. What is U-Factor? What is SHGC? What is VT? Well U-factor is a rate of heat loss. It is the number of BTU’s lost over an hour thru a fenestration system compounded by the temperature difference across the system form inside to outside. For example, if the assembly U-factor is 0.41 and the elevation was 100 square feet and the outside temperature was 70 degrees F and the inside was 0 degrees F, then (0.41 x 100)*70 = 2870 BTU per hour lost. U-factor is the inverse of R-Value and you have probably heard R-5 windows in the news. The government is striving to make window assemblies with a U-factor of 0.20 economical in residential and commercial fenestration industries. This glass technology for commercial fenestration is very expensive, but with volume it may become more reasonable.Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) is the ratio of solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration product to the incident solar radiation. To simplify SHGC it is the percentage of heat that is not reflected by the glass you feel when the sun penetrates the glass, the carpet will be warmer the interior frame will be warmer.SHGC is unit less and is a value between 0 and 1 and like U-Factor lower is better. (Northern Climates such as Zones 6, 7 and 8 can sometimes benefit form higher SHGC.)VT is Visible Transmittance. This is the amount of light that the human eye can see coming in thru the fenestration system. The higher the quality of daylight the higher the VT so higher is better. VT is typically a value between 0.30 and 0.80 without units.Visible Transmittance (VT): Optical property that indicates the amount of visible light transmitted. The higher the VT the better the quality of daylight allowed thru the fenestration system. Note: The framing blocks all daylight.VT is denoted as a value between 0 and 1, but most VT values fall between 0.30 and 0.80.
37 Defining the thermal characteristics of fenestration systems Air Leakage (AL): Rate of air infiltration thru a fenestration system. Energy efficiency is lost as air passes thru a fenestration system therefore the lower the AL value the better. Choose systems with a 0.30 cfm/ft2 or preferably better.AL is denoted as cubic feet per minute per square feet of opening - cfm/ft2Referenced in AAMA 507 although it does not effect energy use, but is still an important thermal performance characteristicCRF Prediction FormulasCRF (g) = CRF GlassCRF (f) = CRF FrameCondensation Resistance Factor (CRF): Is a ratio of the difference between an average inside surface temperature and the outside air temperature, and the difference between the inside air temperature and the outside air temperature. The higher the CRF, the higher the resistance to condensation.CRF is denoted as a dimensionless rating number between 0 and 100 obtained under standard test conditions as prescribed in AAMAgT = Glass Temperature Warm SidefT = Frame Temperature Warm SideTI = Warm Side Air TemperatureWhat is AL? What is CRF?AL is Air Leakage, which is the rate of air infiltration thru a fenestration system. Energy is lost as air passes thru a fenestration system. AL is denoted as cubic feet per minute per square foot of opening (elevation). For example, if you had an AL of 0.30 and your elevation was 100 square feet the air passage thru the system would be 30 cubic feet per minute. The lower the AL the better and the more energy efficient the fenestration system.AAMA 507 references CRF or Condensation Resistance Factor although it does not effect energy use it is important to understand. CRF is a predictor of when condensation may or may not form on the glass or frame. As you can see in the formulas CRF can be predicted with design conditions or with actual conditions on the completed project. You can determine the required CRF by taking the ratio of the difference between an average inside surface temperature and the outside air temperature, and the difference between the inside air temperature and the outside air temperature. CRF is denoted as a unit less number between 0 and 100 and the higher the better.TII = Cold Side Air TemperaturegT – TIITI - TIICRF (g) = X 100fT – TIITI - TIICRF (f) = X 100
38 AAMA 507 Develops a “Certificate of Compliance” Pre-qualifies a Products ability tomeet & exceed code requirementswith a variety of glazing options.Submit for Code ComplianceConsultative Sales* Estimating performance* Glass Spec checkNow here is the “Certificate of Compliance” this can be used to pre-qualify performance based on the glass specified. This matrix is based on NFRC gateway sizes for that particular product. As you see here this is a storefront with a gateway size of 2000mm x 2000mm. These are generic numbers in the overall U-Factor and Overall SHGC columns for reference. The “Certificate of Compliance” can be filled in and submitted to meet code with the glass specified. For example we could take a COG U-factor of 0.30 and a COG SHGC of 0.40 and then get an overall U-factor of and SHGC of The Certificate is then filled out and these values are entered. The code charts early in the presentation are based on these NFRC Gateway sizes. therefore if the thermal performance for the gateway size meets the code then you have pre-qualified thermal performance. Let us recap what this certificate can do - Demonstrate the products ability to meet or exceed code depending on glazing choices, for code compliance, and Consultative selling – estimating performance or check the glass spec with the desired performance. What else can we do with this AAMA 507 standard?
39 Why is Thermal Performance of specific elevations important? AAMA 507 PurposeA standard method for determining the thermal performance of building specific fenestration systems – The specific elevationWhy is Thermal Performance of specific elevations important?Energy Software analysis and modeling – Energyplus, OpenStudio, Energy-10, Radiance, DOE-2 etc.Determine % over LEED Baseline (LEED projects)Payback analysisHVAC sizing requirementsAnnual energy costs predictionsComparisonsWell lets read the purpose.Why do architect’s and building engineers want to know how the fenestration system performs for the specific elevations on a project?Energy modeling using energy software analysis tools to determine:% over Baseline for LEED creditsPayback analysisHVAC sizingAnnual energy costs predictionsComparisons (System T versus System XT)
40 Determining the Elevations Performance Calculating a Storefront ElevationDetermining the Elevations PerformanceInformation Required:Request Elevation DrawingsDetermine Proper SystemRequest Proposed Glass or Glass Spec.Request “Center of Glass” (COG) U-Factor and “Center of Glass” Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)Proper AAMA 507 test report*Understand that AAMA 507 test reports will be different for windows (Fixed, Awning, Casement) and Hurricane Products (Wet, Dry, LMI or SMI) .Let us look at how to calculate a storefront (Window Wall) elevation. There are five questions or pieces of information you need to begin the calculation.The elevation drawing with dimensionsDetermine proper systemRequest Proposed Glass or Glass Spec.Request “Center of Glass” (COG) U-factor and COG SHGCProper AAMA 507 test reportThe test report for a system will change if it is Fixed or operable (Casement, Awning, Single-hung, Double-Hung, Etc.) and if the system is Wet or Dry glazed in the case of LMI or SMI. Typical Insulated Glass Units (IGU’s) are used with Aluminum spacers and air space.Sometimes it is necessary to visit the glass manufacturer’s website in order to get the glass information.What you need is the COG – “Winter Night Time” U-factor for this example we will use a COG –”Winter Night Time” of and the COG= SHGC of 0.38Elevation 1Typical Storefront
41 Storefront or Window Wall Elevation Calculating a Storefront ElevationNational Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Technical Interpretation (TI)Storefront or Window Wall ElevationThe intermediate mullion is consider a jamb that contributes equally to the left and right litesNow that we have the all basic information we require including the glass. We can begin the calculation, but before we move to the first step it is important to understand how storefront is simulated. NFRC uses a “Technical Interpretation” (TI) regarding how to calculate a storefront or window wall elevation. The TI states that the simulation of a storefront or window wall product should be a 2000mm x 2000mm (Approximately 78-3/4” x 78-3/4”) two lite opening seperated by an intermediate vertical without any intermediate horizontals. The reason for this TI is the limitations of the Window and Therm programs to simulate the entire elevation. It also states that the intermediate mullions on the right and left become jambs, which will be halved on either side as if they are shared equally by the additional lites in the elevation see the red dotted lines above splitting the jambs. This understanding will aid in the calculation using AAMA 507 test reports.
42 Calculating a Storefront Elevation The test report contains the dimensions of the frame members so you can accurately divide to get your areas correct that we are going to calculate. Also the there is a reference note on the test report giving the percentage of vision area / total area percentage for the gateway size, so you could calculate at the gateway to check yourself.
43 Information Required: Calculating a Storefront ElevationInformation Required:Elevation is ShownStorefront System1” Insulated Glass Unit (IGU), ½” Aluminum spacer, air infillCOG U-factor = 0.29 COG SHGC = 0.38AAMA 507 test report for storefront systemVisionTIThe calculation is to determine the vision to wall ratio.For simplicity of this model we will just assume the frame sightline is 2”Starting with the first step the vision area. (Click Mouse) We take the 48” x 78” top vision lite and count how many we have. In this case we have three and we see three 48” x 24” lites below as well. So our formula becomes 3 times the 48” x 78” lite plus the 3 times the 48” x 24” lite all divided by 144 square inches to convert to square feet. Solving gives square feet. (Click Mouse) The Second Step is to solve for total area. Simply take the width less half the jambs and since the typical vertical in 2” wide we subtract 2” form the 152” width giving us 150” times the height of 108-3/8” divided by the 144 square inches to convert to square feet. Solving gives square feet. The Third step is to divide the vision area in the first step with the total area in the second step to get the “Vision Area to Total Area percentage” of 90.35%. Let us just use 90% for simplicity.First Step is to find the vision area: ((3(48”x78”))+(3(48”x24”)))/144 = ft2Second Step is to find total area: (150” x 108-3/8”)/144 = ft2Third Step is to find the Vision Area/ Total Area (%):( / ) x 100 = 90.35%
44 Determining the U-factor by using the AAMA 507 Test Report AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the GraphsFourth StepDetermining the U-factor by usingStorefront Systemthe AAMA 507 Test ReportRequired Information:COG U-Factor = 0.29Vision Area / Total Area (%) = 90 %Use the Graph to find the U-Factor of a Storefront systemThe fourth step is to take the proper AAMA 507 Test report and find the U-factor Graph. Notice the Center of Glass (COG) U-factors are on the left, theVision Area to Total Area % is on the bottom, and the assembly U-factor for the fenestration system is on the right. So taking the COG U-factor of 0.29 and the Vision area to Total Area percentage of 90% we can solve.
45 AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the Graphs 0.42Draw a line between and parallel to the COG of 0.28 and (click mouse). Then draw a line up from 90% (Click Mouse) to the U-factor line of 0.29 (interpolation is allowed) and at that intersection we draw a line perpendicular to the right (Click Mouse) to find a Assembly U-factor for this fenestration system using this glass of 0.42.0.29
46 Assembly U-Factor = 0.42 Btu/hr.ft2.oF AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the GraphsFourth StepDetermining the U-factor by usingStorefront Systemthe AAMA 507 Test ReportRequired Information:U-Factor (COG) = 0.29Vision Area / Total Area (%) = 90%Using the Graph to find the U-Factor of the Storefront SystemWe Get!0.29The storefront elevation in this example with the COG U-Factor of 0.29 has an assembly U-factor of 0.42Assembly U-Factor = 0.42 Btu/hr.ft2.oF0.42
47 Determining the SHGC by using the AAMA 507 Test Report AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the GraphsStorefront SystemFifth (Last ) StepDetermining the SHGC by usingthe AAMA 507 Test ReportRequired Information:SHGC (COG) = 0.38Vision to Wall Ratio = 90%Use the Graph to find the SHGC of the Storefront SystemThe fifth and final step is to find SHGC Graph in the same AAMA 507 Test report (typically the next page). Notice the COG SHGC values are on the left, the Vision Area to Total Area % is on the bottom and the assembly SHGC for the fenestration system is on the right. So taking the knows the COG SHGC of 0.38 and the Vision area to Total Area percentage of 90% we can solve.
48 AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the Graphs Storefront System0.380.35By drawing a line up from 90% to the SHGC line of 0.38 (interpolation is allowed) and at that intersection we draw a line perpendicularTo the right to find a Assembly SHGC of 0.35.
49 Assembly SHGC = 0.35 Fifth (Last ) Step Determining the SHGC by using AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the GraphsFifth (Last ) StepStorefront SystemDetermining the SHGC by usingthe AAMA 507 Test ReportRequired Information:SHGC (COG) = 0.38Vision to Wall Ratio = 90%0.380.35Using the Graph to find the SHGC of the Storefront SystemWe get!The elevation in this example with the COG SHGC of 0.38 has an assembly SHGC of 0.35.Assembly SHGC =0.35
50 Curtain Wall Elevation Calculating a Curtain Wall ElevationNational Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Technical Interpretation (TI)Curtain Wall ElevationThe intermediate horizontals are considered the head and sill and contribute equally to the lites above and belowThe intermediate mullion is considered a jamb that contributes equally to the left and right litesNow let us look at a curtain wall elevation. The same information is required as a storefront or window wall. We will need the five pieces of information to begin the calculation. However before we move to the first step. We need to review the TI for a curtain wall elevation. The “Technical Interpretation” (TI) by NFRC regarding how to calculate a curtain wall elevation states that the simulation of a curtain wall product should be a 2000mm x 2000mm two lite opening, separated by a vertical only. Because the limitations of the Window and Therm programs to do the entire elevation. It also states that the intermediate Verticals will be considered jambs and the intermediate horizontals will be considered head and sill. Each will be halved on either side as if they were shared equally by the additional lites in the elevation see the red dotting lines above splitting the jambs and the head and sill. It is important to know how the stimulations for the AAMA 507 test report graph were done to understand how to calculate the elevation properly. Note: the AAMA 507 test report has the frame dimensions to be used in these calculations, but for simplicity we will assume the frame sightline is 2.5”
51 Information Required: Calculating a Curtain Wall ElevationInformation Required:Elevation is ShownCurtain Wall1” Insulated Glass Unit (IGU), ½” Aluminum spacer, Air infillCOG U-factor = 0.29 COG SHGC = 0.38AAMA 507 test report for Curtain WallWith this information let us now calculate this curtain wall elevation.Starting with the first step the vision area. We take the typical bay and then we take the two 60” x 36” vision lites plus the two 60” x 84” lites Plus the 60” x 45” at the top. So our formula becomes 2 times the 60” x 36” lite plus the 2 times the 60” x 84” lites plus the 60” x 45” top lite all divided by 144 Square inches to convert to square feet. Solving gives square feet of vision area. The Second Step is to solve for total area. Simply take the width less half the jambs and since the typical vertical in 2-1/2” wide we subtract 2-1/2” form the 65” width giving us 62-1/2” times the height of 325” less half the head and sill which would be 297.5” and then we divide by the 144 square inches to convert to square feet. Solving gives square feet of total area. The Third step is to divide the vision area in the first step with the total area in the second step to get the “Vision Area to Total Area percentage” of 91.96%. Let us just use 92% for simplicity.The calculation is to determine the vision to wall ratio.First Step is to find the vision area: (((2(60”x36”))+(2(60”x84”))+(60”x45”)))/144 = ft2Second Step is to find total area: (62.5” x 297.5”)/144 = ft2Third Step is to find the Vision Area / Total Area (%):( / ) x 100 = 91.96%
52 Determining the U-factor by using the AAMA 507 Test Report AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the GraphsFourth StepDetermining the U-factor by usingCurtain Wall Systemthe AAMA 507 Test ReportRequired Information:COG U-Factor = 0.29Vision Area / Total Area (%) = 92%Use the Graph to find the U-Factor of the Curtain Wall SystemThe fourth step is to take the proper AAMA 507 Test report and find the U-factor Graph. Notice the COG U-factors are on the left theVision Area to Total Area % is on the bottom and the assembly U-factor for the fenestration system is on the right. So taking the knows the COG U-factor of 0.29 and the Vision area to Total Area percentage of 92% we can solve.
53 AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the Graphs 0.420.29By drawing a line up from 92% to the U-factor line of 0.29 (interpolation is allowed) and at that intersection we draw a line perpendicularTo the right to find a Assembly U-factor for this fenestration system using this glass of 0.42.
54 Assembly U-Factor = 0.42 Btu/hr.ft2.oF AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the GraphsFourth StepDetermining the U-factor by usingCurtain Wall Systemthe AAMA 507 Test ReportNeed the values:U-Factor (COG) = 0.29Vision Area / Total Area (%) = 92%Using the Graph to find the U-Factor of the Curtain Wall SystemWe Get!0.29The elevation in this example with the COG of 0.29 has an assembly U-factor of 0.42Assembly U-Factor = 0.42 Btu/hr.ft2.oF0.42
55 Determining the SHGC by using the AAMA 507 Test Report AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the GraphsFifth (Last ) StepCurtain Wall SystemDetermining the SHGC by usingthe AAMA 507 Test ReportRequired Information:SHGC (COG) = 0.38Vision to Wall Ratio = 92%Use the Graph to find the SHGC of the Curtain Wall SystemThe fifth and final step is to find SHGC Graph in the same AAMA 507 Test report (typically the next page). Notice the COG SHGC values are on the left, the Vision Area to Total Area % is on the bottom and the assembly SHGC for the fenestration system is on the right. So taking the knows the COG SHGC of 0.38 and the Vision area to Total Area percentage of 92% we can solve.
56 AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the Graphs Curtain Wall System0.380.36By drawing a line up from 92% to the SHGC line of 0.38 (interpolation is allowed) and at that intersection we draw a line perpendicularTo the right to find a Assembly SHGC for this fenestration system using this glass of 0.36.
57 System SHGC = 0.36 Fifth (Last ) Step Determining the SHGC by using AAMA 507 Test Report: Using the GraphsFifth (Last ) StepDetermining the SHGC by usingCurtain Wall Systemthe AAMA 507 Test ReportNeed the values:SHGC (COG) = 0.38Vision to Wall Ratio = 92%0.380.36Using the Graph to find the SHGC of the Curtain Wall SystemWe get!The elevation in this example with the COG SHGC of has an assembly SHGC of 0.36.System SHGC =0.36
58 Review “Certificate of Compliance” Pre-qualify during submittals Code ComplianceConsultative sellingAAMA 507 Test ReportsFind actual performance as designed:For accurate energy modelsProper HVAC SizingPayback analysisProduct comparisonsPerformance based on the NFRC Test Sizes meets the code so the matrix on the “Certificate of Compliance” allows for pre-qualifying and meeting the code. Actual Performance gives accurate energy modeling information to better predict the building’s cost of ownership, and its energy savings, which leads us to sustainability of aluminum commercial fenestration products.
60 Commercial fenestration products can have a big effect Potentially impacts 57% of the building’s energy consumption to envelope relationship
61 Brick Street Mutual Insurance Co., Charleston, West Virginia Architect: Associated Architects, Inc.Building LayoutThe small perimeter to floor area ratio makes it an efficient building to heat and cool.Maximize the envelope by usingExtra thermal framing with lowE glassSunshadesLight ShelvesCan Save additional energy, but this building layout does not benefit as much using sustainable strategies.EA Credit 1
62 Work toward achieving sustainable performance with aluminum commercial fenestration What sustainable strategies are most effective when integrating aluminum commercial fenestration into the building design?LEED 2009Energy and AtmosphereEA Credit 1 Optimize Energy Performance (1-19 points)Building LayoutBuilding OrientationOpening sizesSun ControlWhat sustainable strategies are most effective when integrating aluminum commercial fenestration into the building design?NC and Schools 1 point at 12% and then an additional point for every 2% increase (Max 19 Points)Existing buildings CS (Core and Shell) 3 point at 8% and then an additional point for every 2% increase (Max 21 Points)
63 Architect: Metro Architects Energy Savings over a baseline buildingBuilding Orientation can save 11.5%Incorporating the proper Sunshades strategy can save 15%Utilizing Light Shelves can save 25% (Based on 50% reduction in day time lighting)Thermal Framing and LowE glass can save 13%Integrating all these strategies could save 34% PlusBased on an energy plus model study San Francisco, CAA tower structure is not as energy efficient with a higher perimeter to floor ratio, so using sustainable strategies yield larger benefits with this building layout.This building with a large southern facing incorporating Sunshades can save 15%. The north side may benefit with a higher SHGC and east and west sides could benefit by going with smaller punched opens with blinds to control glare and SHGC. Thermal framing can save 13%, but extra thermal framing is reducing U-factor by minimum of 7% percent or better, so if this model were run again with these new systems we would expect the 13% to increase to 20% + depending on the glazing choice. Based on this energy plus software model integrating these strategies can save 34% + depending on your varibles.NORTHEA Credit 1
64 Extracted, harvested or recovered Achieve sustainable performance with aluminum commercial fenestrationMaterials and ResourcesMR Credit 4 Recycled Content (1-2 points)MR Credit 5 Regional Materials (Cannot qualify)Post ConsumerExtracted, harvested or recoveredPre-ConsumerAluminum is one of the most recyclable materials on earth and many manufacturers of aluminum architectural products use recycling practices in their production processes
65 Recycled Content – Post Consumer Aluminum Fenestration can contain Post Consumer recycled content, but due to quality issues with extrusions meeting tempering tolerances and finish post consumerpercentages are typically limited to 35%. Some manufacturers avoid post consumer recycled content because of these quality issues.LEED will give you full value for post consumer recycled content as a percentage of the weight of the product. Post consumer recycled content is defined a materials that have served there purpose to the consumer such as a coke can after the coke is consumed, wheels form a junk yard, or gutters removed from homes and buildings. Some manufacturers of commercial fenestration use post consumer recyclables in their products, but due to some quality issues that can arise they typically limit this percentage.MR Credit 4
66 Recycled Content – Pre-Consumer (1/2) Aluminum Fenestration can contain pre-consumer recycled content of 0% to 100% depending on the manufacturer and the requirements of the project“Discarded materials fromone manufacturing processthat are used as constituentsin another manufacturingprocess are pre-consumerrecycled materials.”AIA MASTERSPEC 2005LEED gives Pre-Consumer half the value of the post consumer. For example if you had 100 pounds of aluminum that had a 30% pre-consumer recycled content Then the value of the 30 pounds of per-consumer content would be divided in half. Using recycled aluminum requires only 5% the energy to make new aluminum making the use of recycled aluminum a more sustainable practice. Pre-consumer is defined as discarded materials from one manufacturing process that are reused as constituents in another manufacturing process.Recycled aluminum requires only 5 percent of the energy required to make "new" aluminum. Blending recycled metal with new metal allows considerable energy savings, as well as the efficient use of process heat.MR Credit 4
67 Regional Materials – Extracted Aluminum is a by product of Bauxite mining and would not qualify due to the fact that there are no architectural grade aluminum Bauxite mines operating in the United StatesRegional materials has been surrounded by controversy and LEED has told me that they may delete it from future versions, but if you look at the credit for the definition aluminum is extracted form a bauxite mine. These extraction points are outside the united states therefore architectural aluminum fenestration would not meet these requirements. LEED version 2009 will allow credit for recycled content when the scrap is recovered from within the five hundred radius of the project site and manufactured within that same radius.Use the location of the recycling center or collection facility as the point of extraction.Bauxite output in 2005 shown as a percentage of the top producer (Australia- 59,969,000 tonnes)MR Credit 5
68 Work toward sustainable performance with aluminum commercial fenestration Indoor Environmental QualityIEQ Credit 2 Increased Ventilation (1 point)IEQ Credit 6.2 Controllability of Systems – Thermal Comfort (1 point)IEQ Credit 8.1 Daylight and Views – Daylight (1 point) Schools (1-2 points)IEQ Credit 8.2 Daylight and Views - ViewsLEED gives credit for enhancing the Indoor environmental quality. We spend nearly 90% of our life now indoors so improving the indoors makes us healthier and more efficient.
69 Indoor Environmental Quality – Increased Ventilation Operable Windows can be used if the naturally ventilated option is explored.This strategy can sometimes be used meeting the IEQ Credit 6.2 credit as well to eliminate or reduces HVAC energy demands in some climates.Operable windows can be used to increase fresh air flow within the building and in some climates can save energy by eliminating the need for HVAC.IEQ Credit 2
70 20’ x 20’ = 400 sq. ft. x 4% = 16 sq. ft. of ventilation Indoor Environmental Quality – Controllability of Systems Thermal ComfortASHRAE standard paragraph 5.1 Natural VentilationNatural ventilation is important to individuals thermal comfort. Operable windows may be used in lieu of HVAC controls. Note the calculation that is used to determine open area square footage required.20’ x 20’ = 400 sq. ft. x 4% = 16 sq. ft. of ventilationIEQ Credit 6.2
71 Indoor Environmental Quality – Daylight and Views - Daylight 25 fc minimum500 fc maximumMeasured on September 21 between 9 am and 3 pmfc = foot-candleAchieve daylight illuminance levels of a minimum of 25 footcandles (fc) and a maximum of 500 fc in a clear sky condition on September 21 at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. to (NC) 75% of the regularly occupied spaces Schools 75% 1 point and 90% an additional point. Most of you are probably wondering what a foot candle is? Foot candle is a instant measure of light and to give you some reference 25 fc would be your TV room in your house with a table lamp on. Your typical office would be about 125 fc. The direct sunlight coming thru the window pane would be 500 to 800 fc and direct sunlight if you standing outside is about 10,000 fc. Humans are drawn to natural light and science is trying to understand this by doing studies and finding that natural light makes the workforce more positive and productive. Light Shelves can be used to project natural light deeper into a room to aid in meeting these green requirements. Many tools are available to assist with this strategyIEQ Credit 8.1
72 Sun angles at Solar Noon Calculating sun anglesDec oLight ShelfMar/Sep oDuluth, MN46.8° Latitude3’ Sunshade3’ Light Shelf 10’ GlazingSouth ElevationSun angles at Solar NoonHere we can see the effects of a light shelf and sunshade on a South elevation at different times of the year for 27.97° Latitude in Tampa, FL for example. Other latitudes will have different sun angles, lower in the north, higher in the south. Here’s how to calculate sun angles for your latitude: Subtract your latitude from 90°, in this case it would 90° minus 27.97° resulting in 62.03°, which is the sun’s angle on March and September 21st. Add 23.5° (the earth’s tilt) to 62.03° and the sun’s angle on June 21st will be 85.53°. Subtract 23.5° from 62.03° and 38.53° will be the sun angle on December 21st. September am to 3 pm is the key to measuring the footcandles of illuminance per LEED.June oIEQ Credit 8.1
73 Remember that light reflects at the same angle it is received Also, remember that light reflects at the same angle as it is received. As you see here light comes in at 65 degrees and reflects out at 65 degrees.
74 Daylighting Resources and Software Tools Formulas and strategiesSoftware Tools and guidesThere are several excellent sources for calculating daylighting during this time period. Here are a few.Radiance Simulation SoftwareIEQ Credit 8.1
75 Daylighting Resources and Software Tools DIALux SoftwareCan incorporate Sketch-Up models.Some Architects use Sketch-Up for quick 3-D renderings and DiaLux can be used with these sketch-up models.
76 Indoor Environmental Quality – Daylight and Views - Views By using more interior glazed areas 90% of the regularly occupied spaces can maintain a direct line of sight to the out door spacesDaylight views are important to human stress relief – studies have shown the views of natural spaces help employees recover faster from stressful situation at work. People who have these views tend to be more creative as well. Outdoor courtyard designs could be incorporated to create more natural views.IEQ Credit 8.2
77 Indoor Environmental Quality – Daylight and Views - Views Open space designs can also achieve this design. Vision area typically needs to be at least between 30” to 90” above the finish floorIEQ Credit 8.2
78 Indoor Environmental Quality IEQ Credit 9 – Enhanced Acoustical Performance (1 Point)For Schools only!STC Sound Transmission ClassI think it is worth mentioning that LEED requires all windows to meet a Sound Transmission Class of 35 minimum for schools only, which in all cases will require a laminated glazing.
79 MARKET DEMAND for EPD’s is coming LEED V4 – LCA … EPD … HPDMARKET DEMAND for EPD’s is comingEnvironmental Product DeclarationsIn the Life Cycle Analysis an EPD is a standardized way of quantifying the environmental impact of a product or system.Industry EPD Scope is Cradle to Gate (Gate is defined as installed)
80 Product Category Rules LEED V4 – LCA … EPD … HPDProduct Category RulesLife Cycle Analysis6 main measurement for comparison categories. Could be more.
81 Learning ObjectivesUnderstand recent changes to energy code and the new green standardsLearn how to pre-qualify thermal performance for a projectDetermine when to use performance results based on NFRC sizes and project specific sizesWork toward sustainable performance with aluminum commercial fenestrationGo over the learning objectives
82 Local Representative: ??? I hope you enjoyed this training session.Questions?David WardenCell:Local Representative: ???Cell: ???URL:I hope you enjoyed this training presentation. Any Questions!Update with your info or direct them to me as an additional resource.