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Chapter 8 The Presidency

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1 Chapter 8 The Presidency
What is the main job of the Executive Branch? The main job is to EXECUTE the law. " I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States." The President is sworn into office on January noon.

2 As of January 20, 2009, Barack Obama is the forty-fourth President.
He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from January 2005 until November 2008, when he resigned following his election to the presidency. Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School.

3 John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the youngest man, the first Roman Catholic to be elected president, the first to win a Purple Heart, the 4th president to be assassinated, and the first Pulitzer Prize winner John F. Kennedy's father gave him $1,000,000 when he turned twenty-one. (Each of his nine brothers and sisters got a million dollars too!) Assassination video


5 Franklin D. Roosevelt was the only person who was elected President to four terms: 1932, 1936, 1940, 1944. Franklin Roosevelt had three Vice Presidents during his terms: John Nance Garner ( ) Henry A. Wallace ( ) Harry S Truman (1945)

6 Harrison's inaugural address was the longest of any president
Harrison's inaugural address was the longest of any president. (one hour and 40 minutes in the cold, he caught a cold that led to his death.) (some sources say his speech was 105 minutes.) President Harrison had a billy goat at the White House during the short period he was there.

7 Reagan was the only professional actor to be elected President.
President Reagan was the oldest president in history; he was just shy of his 78th birthday on leaving office. Reagan was the only professional actor to be elected President. Reagan's would-be assassin, John Hinkley wanted to assassinate the President to impress actress Jodie Foster. After the assassination attempt he was put in a mental institution. Assassination attempt video

8 Formal Qualifications
Qualifications for the Presidency of the United States Constitution: Article II, Section I, Paragraph 5: No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen years a Resident within the United States. Must be a natural born citizen of the U.S. Minimum Age: 35 Resident for at least 14 yrs of the U.S.

9 Unwritten Qualifications
Government experience Importance of money Political beliefs Most take moderate positions Personal characteristics Most have been white, married, Protestant, and wealthy

10 President’s Term Term: 4 years Washington set precedent of 2 terms
FDR was elected to 4 terms 22nd amendment (1951) Limits a President to 2 terms or 10 years Late 20th /21st century – Push for single 6-year term and/or an unlimited # of terms

11 Salary & Benefits 1789 - $25,000/year Currently - $400,000
$50,000 expense account $120,000 travel & entertainment Access to jets, helicopters, limos, etc Air Force One Marine One Camp David

12 James Polk, the 11th President, was the first President to have his photograph taken. Theodore Roosevelt was the first President to ride in a car while in office. His fifth cousin and the 32nd President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, was the first to ride in an airplane.



15 Once in the White House, each President made his mark in different ways. In fact, before Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President, came to office, the White House wasn't even called the White House! People called the building the President's Palace, President's House, and the Executive Mansion. Roosevelt officially named it the White House in 1901.

16 Oval office The White House has:
A main residence and architectural wings on the east and west sides 4 stories, plus a basement and sub-basement 55,000 ft² (5,100 m²) of floor space (67,000 ft² including the wings) 132 rooms and 35 bathrooms 412 doors 147 windows 28 fireplaces 8 staircases 3 elevators (main, pantry, and a lower-levels elevator under the Grand Staircase) several gardens a tennis court, basketball court, putting green, a bowling alley, a movie theater, a jogging track, and a swimming pool Oval office


18 Since the time of Franklin D
Since the time of Franklin D. Roosevelt, when it was known as "Shangri-la," this isolated camp in the hills of western Maryland has served as an official Presidential retreat. Heavily guarded, it may not be visited by the public. In March 1942 President Roosevelt directed the National Park Service to investigate locations reasonably close to the Washington area for use as a Presidential retreat. In July 5 the President inspected the retreat, which he had named "Shangri-la" in April. Roosevelt's successor, Harry S Truman, used the retreat only a few times. President Eisenhower, however, was a frequent visitor and renamed it Camp David in honor of his grandson. Their most famous guest, in 1959, was Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union.

19 Salary & Benefits Free medical, dental and other health care
Residence at the White House 132 rooms on 18.3 acres Lifetime pension of $148,400/year If President dies, spouse receives $20,000/year

20 Vice President 25th Amendment
V.P. may temporarily take office if the President requests so Congress has to authorize by majority vote In case of a vacancy of the V.P. the President nominates a new V.P. w/ Congressional approval 18 times

21 The Vice President Formal Duty:
Preside over the Senate Make decisions in cases of Presidential disability Ambassador for the US Most not looked up to as having qualities to become President “Balancing the ticket” Salary: $187,500

22 Presidential Succession & Vice Presidency
Harry Truman signed the Presidential Succession Act of 1947. Lyndon B Johnson swearing in

23 Presidential Succession 25th Amendment
# Office and Current Officer 1Vice President Joe Biden 2 Speaker of the House of Representatives John Boehner 3 President pro tempore of the Senate Robert Byrd 4 Secretary of State Hillary Clinton 5 Secretary of the Treasury Timothy Geithner 6 Secretary of Defense Robert Gates 7 Attorney General Eric Holder 8 Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar 9 Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack 10 Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke 11 Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis 12 Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius 13 Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Shaun Donovan 14 Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood 15 Secretary of Energy Steven Chu 16 Secretary of Education Arne Duncan 17 Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric Shinseki 18 Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano Vice President Speaker of the House President Pro Temp Secretary of State Secretary of the Treasury Secretary of Defense Attorney General

24 US Presidents Who Died in Office
William H. Harrison, 1841 Zackary Taylor, 1850 Abraham Lincoln, 1865 (Assassinated) James Garfield, 1881 (Assassinated) William McKinley, 1901 (Assassinated) Warren G. Harding, 1923 Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1945 John F. Kennedy, 1963 (Assassinated)

25 Section II Electing the President
Initially, at the Constitutional Convention, the founders proposed that Congress choose the president w/o a popular or an electoral vote. They gave up the idea because it violated the principle of separation of powers. Founders feared a direct election, because they thought citizens could not make a wise decision.

26 Electoral College The founders settled on a compromise that Alexander Hamilton introduced. This compromise set up an indirect method of election called the Electoral College. Article II, Section 1 established the Electoral college. It provided that each state would chose electors according to a method the state legislatures set up. Each state would have as many electors as it does senators and representatives.

27 Original Plan Most votes became President
Runner-up became Vice President A tie would allow the House of Representatives to choose the President or Vice President. After President Washington retired, political parties began to play an important role in national elections. The 12th Amendment was later added-it required that electors cast separate ballots for President and Vice President.

28 Electoral College System
Millions of voters go to the booths not to vote for the candidates but rather to vote to elect Presidential electors (Dem & Rep) Each state has as many electors as it has members of Congress Electors almost automatically vote for their party’s candidate for President Not the original intent of the Constitution

29 Electoral College System
In order to win an election a candidate must receive 270 out of 538 electoral votes (Washington D.C. has 3) The least number of presidential electors a state can have is 3. The electoral college system was set up under article II of the constitution and amended by the 12th amendment in 1804. While state laws determine how electors are chosen, they are generally selected by the political party committees within the states. Should none of the candidates win 270 electoral votes, the 12th amendment kicks in and the House of Representatives decides who wins. This has happened twice-Thomas Jefferson in 1801 and John Quincy Adams in 1825 Formal election of President does not take place until Jan 6th When all votes are counted President takes noon on January 20th Chief Justice swears the president into office

30 Electoral Votes Electors meet at their State capitol on the Monday after the second Wednesday in December Cast their vote Signed, sealed, and sent to Washington D.C.

31 Criticisms of Electoral College
Winner Take All It is possible to win the popular vote but lose the election 1824, 1876, 1888, 2000 Constitutional Flaw Does not require the electors to vote for the candidate favored by the popular vote in their state

32 Criticisms of Electoral College
Ties Determined by the House of Representatives Chances increase when there is a strong 3rd party candidate

33 Proposed Reforms District Plan
Electors would reflect Congressional districts Two electors would reflect the state as a whole The remaining electors would represent individual districts Proportional Plan Candidates would receive same share of a states electoral votes as they received of state popular votes Ex. If a candidate won 40% of votes cast in a state with 20 EV, they would receive 8 electoral votes

34 Proposed Reforms Direct Popular Election
Do away with the electoral college all together. Candidate with the most popular votes wins.

35 Proposed Reforms National Bonus Plan
102 electoral votes would go to the winner of the popular vote 102 EV would be added to the electoral votes that the candidate won 321 EV votes needed to win

36 Executive Departments Ch. 8 Section 3
President’s Cabinet

37 Presidential Cabinet Abraham Lincoln's son Tad once fired on the Cabinet after receiving a pretend military commission. Illustration by Bob Brugger

38 The Cabinet The tradition of the Cabinet dates back to the beginnings of the Presidency itself. Established in Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution, the Cabinet's role is to advise the President on any subject he may require relating to the duties of each member's respective office. The Cabinet includes the Vice President and the heads of 15 executive departments — the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs, as well as the Attorney General. This is NOT an elected position. The President nominates and the Senate approves!

39 The Cabinet During a meeting of the President's Cabinet, members are seated according to the order of precedence, with higher ranking officers sitting closer to the center of the table. Hence, the President and Vice President sit directly across from each other at the middle of the oval shaped table. Then, the Secretaries of State and Defense are seated directly to the right and left, respectively, of the President and the Secretary of Treasury and the Attorney General sit to right and left, respectively, of the Vice President. This alternation according to rank continues, with Cabinet-rank members (those not heading executive departments, the Vice President excluded) sitting at the very ends, farthest away from the President and Vice President.

40 Job Qualifications Expertise Party loyalty
Acceptability to interest groups Managerial ability Gender representation Geographical balance.

41 Purpose 15 major executive departments
Implement policies within own department Serve as the advisory board to the president The Cabinet has expanded as the responsibilities of the president has increased. The workload of the federal government expanded as the country grew.

42 Department of State Major Responsibilities Sub-agencies
Negotiates treaties Develops foreign policy Protects citizens abroad Terrorist alerts Establish foreign policy goals for areas that geographically significant to the U.S. Sub-agencies Passports Agency Diplomatic Security Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs Bureau of Intelligence Hillary Rodham Clinton

43 Department of Treasury
Sub-Agencies IRS Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms U. S. Mint Major Responsibilities Pays federal bills Borrows money Collects Federal Taxes Prints and coins money Timothy Geithner

44 Department of Defense National Guard Manages the Armed Forces
Joint Chiefs of Staff Departments of Air Force, Navy, Army Manages the Armed Forces Operates military bases Responsible for civil defense Intelligence Capable Re Leon E. Panetta

45 Department of Justice FBI Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
Bureau of Prisons U. S. Marshals Furnishes legal advice to president Enforces federal criminal laws Supervises the federal prisons Attorney General Eric Holder

46 Department of Interior
U. S. Fish and Wildlife National Park Service Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Mines Bureau of Land Management Supervises federally owned land and parks Federal hydroelectric power facilities Native American Affairs Ken Salazar

47 Department of Agriculture
Oil conservation Agricultural research Food and Safety inspections Federal Crop Insurance Provides assistance to farmers and ranchers Research to improve agriculture Protect forest from fires and disease Research to prevent plant disease Tom Vilsack

48 Department of Commerce
Bureau of Census Bureau of Economic Analysis Patent and Trademark U. S. Travel and Tourism Grants patents and trademarks Conducts National Census Monitors the weather Protects the interest of Business John Bryson

49 Department of Labor OSHA Bureau of Labor
Minority Business Development Administers Federal Labor Laws Promotes the interest of workers Workers Health Benefits Improve Employers Insurance Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis

50 Department of Health and Human Services
Social Security Administration Family Support Administration Office of Human Development Public Health Service FDA Administers the Social Security programs (Medicare) Promotes public health Enforces pure food and drug Laws Kathleen Sebelius(is nominated for the position)

51 Department of Housing & Urban Development
Fair housing and Equal Opportunity Minority Grant Assistance Program Emergency Shelter Grant Concerned with nation’s housing needs Develops & rehabilitates urban communities Promotes improvements in city streets and parks Shaun L.S. Donovansing

52 Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Adm. Federal Highway Adm. Maritime Safety Urban Mass-Transit Adm. Finances improvements in mass transit Develops & Administers programs for highways, railroads, and aviation Involved with offshore maritime safety Ray LaHood

53 Department of Energy Energy Information Adm.
Office of Nuclear Energy Office of Conservation & Renewable Energy Involved in conservation of energy resources Analyzes energy data Conducts research and development Clean up of Nuclear waste sites Steven Chu

54 Department of Education
Coordinates Federal programs and policies for education Administers aid to education Promotes educational research Office of special education Office of elementary and secondary ed. Office of Vocational and Adult education Arne Duncan

55 Department of Veterans Affairs
Promotes the welfare of Veterans of U. S. armed forces Health of Veterans Benefits to Veterans Health Care Service Benefit Programs Memorial Affairs Medical Training Eric Shinseki

56 Department of Homeland Security
Border Security National Defense Protect Nation Security Aviation Security This department was created as a direct response to 911 terrorist attacks in 2001. Immigration and Customs Enforcement ICE Transportation Security Office FEMA Secret Service Janet Napolitano

57 The Executive Office It consists of individuals and agencies that directly assist the President.
The Office of Management and Budget-prepares the national budget that the president proposes to Congress. The Council of Economic Advisors-offers advice to the President in areas such as unemployment and inflation. National Security Council-Aids the President in coordinating the military and foreign policy. The Homeland Security Council-helps to coordinate all federal agencies working to counter terrorism.

58 Presidential Nominations & National Conventions

59 Campaigns There are two campaigns for the Presidency every four years
Republicans v. Democrats Battle for convention delegates

60 National Convention Usually takes place in mid-summer (July) Purpose
Nominate a candidate for office Adopt a party platform Basic principles, stands on political matters, objectives for the campaign Gain support for candidate chosen Site is chosen by a national committee “Up in the air”

61 National Convention Lasts 4-5 days
Party nominee is not selected until the last day Conventions built on hype Attempt to show the nation the strength of their party Parties try to nominate the most non-controversial person possible

62 Characteristics of Nominees
Parties look for the “electibility” of candidates Appearance Happily married Family values Great speaking ability Portray the “correct” image

63 Up to a dozen or so candidate vie for position
If an incumbent President is not in the field of candidates, the battle for nomination can be intense Up to a dozen or so candidate vie for position No more than 2 or 3 have a realistic chance Candidate that receives the most delegate votes win their party’s nomination Next step – the National Election

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