Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Presidency"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 8 The Presidency What is the main job of the Executive Branch?The main job is to EXECUTE the law." I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."The President is sworn into office on January noon.
2As of January 20, 2009, Barack Obama is the forty-fourth President. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from January 2005 until November 2008, when he resigned following his election to the presidency.Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School.
3John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the youngest man, the first Roman Catholic to be elected president, the first to win a Purple Heart, the 4th president to be assassinated, and the first Pulitzer Prize winnerJohn F. Kennedy's father gave him $1,000,000 when he turned twenty-one. (Each of his nine brothers and sisters got a million dollars too!)Assassination video
5Franklin D. Roosevelt was the only person who was elected President to four terms: 1932, 1936, 1940, 1944.Franklin Roosevelt had three Vice Presidents during his terms:John Nance Garner ( )Henry A. Wallace ( )Harry S Truman (1945)
6Harrison's inaugural address was the longest of any president Harrison's inaugural address was the longest of any president. (one hour and 40 minutes in the cold, he caught a cold that led to his death.) (some sources say his speech was 105 minutes.)President Harrison had a billy goat at the White House during the short period he was there.
7Reagan was the only professional actor to be elected President. President Reagan was the oldest president in history; he was just shy of his 78th birthday on leaving office.Reagan was the only professional actor to be elected President.Reagan's would-be assassin, John Hinkley wanted to assassinate the President to impress actress Jodie Foster. After the assassination attempt he was put in a mental institution.Assassination attempt video
8Formal Qualifications Qualifications for the Presidency of the United States Constitution: Article II, Section I, Paragraph 5: No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen years a Resident within the United States.Must be a natural born citizen of the U.S.Minimum Age: 35Resident for at least 14 yrs of the U.S.
9Unwritten Qualifications Government experienceImportance of moneyPolitical beliefsMost take moderate positionsPersonal characteristicsMost have been white, married, Protestant, and wealthy
10President’s Term Term: 4 years Washington set precedent of 2 terms FDR was elected to 4 terms22nd amendment (1951)Limits a President to 2 terms or 10 yearsLate 20th /21st century –Push for single 6-year termand/or an unlimited # of terms
11Salary & Benefits 1789 - $25,000/year Currently - $400,000 $50,000 expense account$120,000 travel & entertainmentAccess to jets, helicopters, limos, etcAir Force OneMarine OneCamp David
12James Polk, the 11th President, was the first President to have his photograph taken. Theodore Roosevelt was the first President to ride in a car while in office. His fifth cousin and the 32nd President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, was the first to ride in an airplane.
15Once in the White House, each President made his mark in different ways. In fact, before Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President, came to office, the White House wasn't even called the White House! People called the building the President's Palace, President's House, and the Executive Mansion. Roosevelt officially named it the White House in 1901.
16Oval office The White House has: A main residence and architectural wings on the east and west sides4 stories, plus a basement and sub-basement55,000 ft² (5,100 m²) of floor space (67,000 ft² including the wings)132 rooms and 35 bathrooms412 doors147 windows28 fireplaces8 staircases3 elevators (main, pantry, and a lower-levels elevator under the Grand Staircase)several gardens a tennis court, basketball court, putting green, a bowling alley, a movie theater, a jogging track, and a swimming poolOval office
18Since the time of Franklin D Since the time of Franklin D. Roosevelt, when it was known as "Shangri-la," this isolated camp in the hills of western Maryland has served as an official Presidential retreat. Heavily guarded, it may not be visited by the public.In March 1942 President Roosevelt directed the National Park Service to investigate locations reasonably close to the Washington area for use as a Presidential retreat.In July 5 the President inspected the retreat, which he had named "Shangri-la" in April. Roosevelt's successor, Harry S Truman, used the retreat only a few times. President Eisenhower, however, was a frequent visitor and renamed it Camp David in honor of his grandson. Their most famous guest, in 1959, was Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union.
19Salary & Benefits Free medical, dental and other health care Residence at the White House132 rooms on 18.3 acresLifetime pension of $148,400/yearIf President dies, spouse receives $20,000/year
20Vice President 25th Amendment V.P. may temporarily take office if the President requests soCongress has to authorize by majority voteIn case of a vacancy of the V.P. the President nominates a new V.P. w/ Congressional approval18 times
21The Vice President Formal Duty: Preside over the SenateMake decisions in cases of Presidential disabilityAmbassador for the USMost not looked up to as having qualities to become President“Balancing the ticket”Salary: $187,500
22Presidential Succession & Vice Presidency Harry Truman signed the Presidential Succession Act of 1947.Lyndon B Johnson swearing in
23Presidential Succession 25th Amendment # Office and Current Officer1Vice President Joe Biden2 Speaker of the House of Representatives John Boehner3 President pro tempore of the Senate Robert Byrd4 Secretary of State Hillary Clinton5 Secretary of the Treasury Timothy Geithner6 Secretary of Defense Robert Gates7 Attorney General Eric Holder8 Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar9 Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack10 Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke11 Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis12 Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius13 Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Shaun Donovan14 Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood15 Secretary of Energy Steven Chu16 Secretary of Education Arne Duncan17 Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric Shinseki18 Secretary of Homeland Security Janet NapolitanoVice PresidentSpeaker of the HousePresident Pro TempSecretary of StateSecretary of the TreasurySecretary of DefenseAttorney General
24US Presidents Who Died in Office William H. Harrison, 1841Zackary Taylor, 1850Abraham Lincoln, 1865 (Assassinated)James Garfield, 1881 (Assassinated)William McKinley, 1901 (Assassinated)Warren G. Harding, 1923Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1945John F. Kennedy, 1963 (Assassinated)
25Section II Electing the President Initially, at the Constitutional Convention, the founders proposed that Congress choose the president w/o a popular or an electoral vote. They gave up the idea because it violated the principle of separation of powers.Founders feared a direct election, because they thought citizens could not make a wise decision.
26Electoral CollegeThe founders settled on a compromise that Alexander Hamilton introduced. This compromise set up an indirect method of election called the Electoral College.Article II, Section 1 established the Electoral college. It provided that each state would chose electors according to a method the state legislatures set up. Each state would have as many electors as it does senators and representatives.
27Original Plan Most votes became President Runner-up became Vice PresidentA tie would allow the House of Representatives to choose the President or Vice President.After President Washington retired, political parties began to play an important role in national elections.The 12th Amendment was later added-it required that electors cast separate ballots for President and Vice President.
28Electoral College System Millions of voters go to the booths not to vote for the candidates but rather to vote to elect Presidential electors (Dem & Rep)Each state has as many electors as it has members of CongressElectors almost automatically vote for their party’s candidate for PresidentNot the original intent of the Constitution
29Electoral College System In order to win an election a candidate must receive 270 out of 538 electoral votes (Washington D.C. has 3)The least number of presidential electors a state can have is 3.The electoral college system was set up under article II of the constitution and amended by the 12th amendment in 1804.While state laws determine how electors are chosen, they are generally selected by the political party committees within the states.Should none of the candidates win 270 electoral votes, the 12th amendment kicks in and the House of Representatives decides who wins. This has happened twice-Thomas Jefferson in 1801 and John Quincy Adams in 1825Formal election of President does not take place until Jan 6thWhen all votes are countedPresident takes noon on January 20thChief Justice swears the president into office
30Electoral VotesElectors meet at their State capitol on the Monday after the second Wednesday in DecemberCast their voteSigned, sealed, and sent to Washington D.C.
31Criticisms of Electoral College Winner Take AllIt is possible to win the popular vote but lose the election1824, 1876, 1888, 2000Constitutional FlawDoes not require the electors to vote for the candidate favored by the popular vote in their state
32Criticisms of Electoral College TiesDetermined by the House of RepresentativesChances increase when there is a strong 3rd party candidate
33Proposed Reforms District Plan Electors would reflect Congressional districtsTwo electors would reflect the state as a wholeThe remaining electors would represent individual districtsProportional PlanCandidates would receive same share of a states electoral votes as they received of state popular votesEx. If a candidate won 40% of votes cast in a state with 20 EV, they would receive 8 electoral votes
34Proposed Reforms Direct Popular Election Do away with the electoral college all together.Candidate with the most popular votes wins.
35Proposed Reforms National Bonus Plan 102 electoral votes would go to the winner of the popular vote102 EV would be added to the electoral votes that the candidate won321 EV votes needed to win
37PresidentialCabinetAbraham Lincoln's son Tad once fired on the Cabinet after receiving a pretend military commission.Illustration by Bob Brugger
38The CabinetThe tradition of the Cabinet dates back to the beginnings of the Presidency itself. Established in Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution, the Cabinet's role is to advise the President on any subject he may require relating to the duties of each member's respective office.The Cabinet includes the Vice President and the heads of 15 executive departments — the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs, as well as the Attorney General.This is NOT an elected position. The President nominates and the Senate approves!
39The CabinetDuring a meeting of the President's Cabinet, members are seated according to the order of precedence, with higher ranking officers sitting closer to the center of the table. Hence, the President and Vice President sit directly across from each other at the middle of the oval shaped table. Then, the Secretaries of State and Defense are seated directly to the right and left, respectively, of the President and the Secretary of Treasury and the Attorney General sit to right and left, respectively, of the Vice President. This alternation according to rank continues, with Cabinet-rank members (those not heading executive departments, the Vice President excluded) sitting at the very ends, farthest away from the President and Vice President.
40Job Qualifications Expertise Party loyalty Acceptability to interest groupsManagerial abilityGender representationGeographical balance.
41Purpose 15 major executive departments Implement policies within own departmentServe as the advisory board to the presidentThe Cabinet has expanded as the responsibilities of the president has increased.The workload of the federal government expanded as the country grew.
42Department of State Major Responsibilities Sub-agencies Negotiates treatiesDevelops foreign policyProtects citizens abroadTerrorist alertsEstablish foreign policy goals for areas that geographically significant to the U.S.Sub-agenciesPassports AgencyDiplomatic SecurityHuman Rights and Humanitarian AffairsBureau of IntelligenceHillary Rodham Clinton
43Department of Treasury Sub-AgenciesIRSBureau of Alcohol Tobacco and FirearmsU. S. MintMajor ResponsibilitiesPays federal billsBorrows moneyCollects Federal TaxesPrints and coins moneyTimothy Geithner
44Department of Defense National Guard Manages the Armed Forces Joint Chiefs of StaffDepartments of Air Force, Navy, ArmyManages the Armed ForcesOperates military basesResponsible for civil defenseIntelligence CapableRe Leon E. Panetta
45Department of Justice FBI Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Bureau of PrisonsU. S. MarshalsFurnishes legal advice to presidentEnforces federal criminal lawsSupervises the federal prisonsAttorney GeneralEric Holder
46Department of Interior U. S. Fish and WildlifeNational Park ServiceBureau of Indian AffairsBureau of MinesBureau of Land ManagementSupervises federally owned land and parksFederal hydroelectric power facilitiesNative American AffairsKen Salazar
47Department of Agriculture Oil conservationAgricultural researchFood and Safety inspectionsFederal Crop InsuranceProvides assistance to farmers and ranchersResearch to improve agricultureProtect forest from fires and diseaseResearch to prevent plant diseaseTom Vilsack
48Department of Commerce Bureau of CensusBureau of Economic AnalysisPatent and TrademarkU. S. Travel and TourismGrants patents and trademarksConducts National CensusMonitors the weatherProtects the interest of BusinessJohn Bryson
49Department of Labor OSHA Bureau of Labor Minority Business DevelopmentAdministers Federal Labor LawsPromotes the interest of workersWorkers Health BenefitsImprove Employers InsuranceSecretary of LaborHilda Solis
50Department of Health and Human Services Social Security AdministrationFamily Support AdministrationOffice of Human DevelopmentPublic Health ServiceFDAAdministers the Social Security programs (Medicare)Promotes public healthEnforces pure food and drug LawsKathleen Sebelius(is nominated for the position)
51Department of Housing & Urban Development Fair housing and Equal OpportunityMinority Grant Assistance ProgramEmergency Shelter GrantConcerned with nation’s housing needsDevelops & rehabilitates urban communitiesPromotes improvements in city streets and parksShaun L.S. Donovansing
52Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Adm.Federal Highway Adm.Maritime SafetyUrban Mass-Transit Adm.Finances improvements in mass transitDevelops & Administers programs for highways, railroads, and aviationInvolved with offshore maritime safetyRay LaHood
53Department of Energy Energy Information Adm. Office of Nuclear EnergyOffice of Conservation & Renewable EnergyInvolved in conservation of energy resourcesAnalyzes energy dataConducts research and developmentClean up of Nuclear waste sitesSteven Chu
54Department of Education Coordinates Federal programs and policies for educationAdministers aid to educationPromotes educational researchOffice of special educationOffice of elementary and secondary ed.Office of Vocational and Adult educationArne Duncan
55Department of Veterans Affairs Promotes the welfare of Veterans of U. S. armed forcesHealth of VeteransBenefits to VeteransHealth Care Service Benefit ProgramsMemorial AffairsMedical TrainingEric Shinseki
56Department of Homeland Security Border SecurityNational DefenseProtect Nation SecurityAviation SecurityThis department was created as a direct response to 911 terrorist attacks in 2001.Immigration and Customs Enforcement ICETransportation Security OfficeFEMASecret ServiceJanet Napolitano
57The Executive Office It consists of individuals and agencies that directly assist the President. The Office of Management and Budget-prepares the national budget that the president proposes to Congress.The Council of Economic Advisors-offers advice to the President in areas such as unemployment and inflation.National Security Council-Aids the President in coordinating the military and foreign policy.The Homeland Security Council-helps to coordinate all federal agencies working to counter terrorism.
59Campaigns There are two campaigns for the Presidency every four years Republicans v. DemocratsBattle for convention delegates
60National Convention Usually takes place in mid-summer (July) Purpose Nominate a candidate for officeAdopt a party platformBasic principles, stands on political matters, objectives for the campaignGain support for candidate chosenSite is chosen by a national committee“Up in the air”
61National Convention Lasts 4-5 days Party nominee is not selected until the last dayConventions built on hypeAttempt to show the nation the strength of their partyParties try to nominate the most non-controversial person possible
62Characteristics of Nominees Parties look for the “electibility” of candidatesAppearanceHappily marriedFamily valuesGreat speaking abilityPortray the “correct” image
63Up to a dozen or so candidate vie for position If an incumbent President is not in the field of candidates, the battle for nomination can be intenseUp to a dozen or so candidate vie for positionNo more than 2 or 3 have a realistic chanceCandidate that receives the most delegate votes win their party’s nominationNext step – the National Election