4WaterWater is the solvent, the medium and the participant in most of the chemical reactions occurring in the environment.On earth, water is found as a liquid, as a solid (ice) or as a gas (water vapor).Water molecules are attracted to each other, creating hydrogen bonds.These strong bonds determine almost every physical property of water and many of its chemical properties.
5Why does the electron stay in orbit around the nucleus? The Properties of WaterAn atom’s positively charged protons and neutral neutrons make up the nucleusThe negatively charged electrons are outside the nucleus in an electron cloudElectrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleusWhy does the electron stay in orbit around the nucleus?
6The Properties of Water A molecule consists of two or more atoms held together by chemical bondsChemical bonds occur between two atoms in a molecule that share electronsWater is a molecule made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom that are bonded together by shared electrons
7In a water molecule, the two hydrogen atoms each share one electron with the oxygen. This gives each hydrogen atom two electrons in their outer shell (the ideal number for shell 1), and the oxygen atom eight in its outer shell (the ideal number for shell 2).
8The Properties of Water Oxygen is more electronegative (electron-pulling) than hydrogenThe electrons in water spend more time near the nucleus of the oxygen atom than near the nuclei of the hydrogen atomsδ- symbolizes a partial negative chargeδ+ symbolizes a partial negative charge
9Figure 2.3 Polarity in a water molecule. Water is a polar molecule because its atoms do not share electrons equally.
10The Properties of Water The unequal sharing of electrons makes water a polar molecule, since different regions (poles) of the molecule have different chargesWhen atoms of a molecule carry no charge, they are nonpolar (do not have differing charges)
11The Properties of Water Water molecules tend to orient themselves so that the partially positive charged hydrogen atom of one molecule oxygen atom (with partial negative charge) of another molecule
12Figure 2.4 Hydrogen bonding between water molecules. The weak attraction between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms of different molecules is an example of hydrogen bonding.
13The Properties of Water The weak attraction between the hydrogen atom and the oxygen atom is a hydrogen bondHydrogen bonding is a weak chemical bond occurring between hydrogen and another atom based on the attraction of partial charges for each other
14Figure 2.4 Hydrogen bonding between water molecules. The weak attraction between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms of different molecules is an example of hydrogen bonding.
15Cohesion Water molecules stick to each other. The attraction between the water molecules is greater than the attraction between water and air.creates a surface tension (film)permits water to hold up substances heavier and denser than itself.steel needle carefully placed on the surface of a glass of water will float.
16Cohesion of water molecules permits the flow of water in streams and rivers. Surface tension is essential for the transfer of energy from wind to water to create waves which are necessary for rapid oxygen diffusion in lakes and seas.Some aquatic insects such as this water strider (predators on smaller invertebrates) rely on surface tension to walk on water.
17AdhesionWater molecules bind to many other substances such as glass, cotton, plant tissues, and soils.For example, in a thin glass tube, when the molecules at the edge reach for and adhere to the molecules of glass just above them, they tow other water molecules along with them due to cohesion. The water surface, in turn, pulls the entire body of water to a new level until the downward force of gravity is too great to be overcome. This process is called capillary action.
18AdhesionAdhesion allows the flow of water through the vascular tissues of plants and the flow of blood through blood vessels.
19Adhesion Adhesion also produces viscosity Water flows in layers Laminar viscosity: friction between layersFlow is fastest in middleSlowest near edges of stream and bottom due to friction of layers
21Laminar viscosity: friction between layers of water Laminar viscosity: friction between layers of water. Flow is fastest in middle, and slowest near edges of stream and bottom due to friction between layers.
22The Properties of Water Water is called the universal solventMany things (solutes) dissolve in waterChemical reactions occur when the reactants (starting materials) are converted into products (end materials)Dissolving facilitates chemical reactions
23The Properties of Water Salt water is a solution of the salt sodium chlorideWater is able to dissolve sodium chloride, which is a direct result of its polarityPolar molecules are hydrophilic (water loving) because of their ability to dissolve in water
24Figure 2.5 Water as a solvent. (b) Salty water, such as seawater on Earth and the water that may have existed on Mars, is rich in sodium chloride. Each molecule of sodium chloride is composed of one sodium (Na+) and one chloride (Cl-). In this polar molecule, the shared electrons associate more closely to chlorine, giving chlorine a negative charge and sodium a positive charge. When salt is placed in water, the positively charged regions of the water molecules surround the negatively charged chlorine, and the negatively charged regions of the water molecules surround the positively charged sodium, breaking the bond holding sodium and chloride together and dissolving the salt.
25The Properties of Water Salts are produced by the reactions of an acid (a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution) with a base (a substance that reduces the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution)The pH scale is a measure of the relative amounts of these ions in a solution
26The Properties of Water pH measures the amount of H+ ions in a solutionAcids have a lot of H+ ions in solutionBases have less H+ ions in solutionThe pH scaleLow numbers (1-6) acidic7 is neutralHigh numbers (8-14) basic
27Figure 2.6 The pH scale.The pH scale is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration. The more acidic a solution is, the higher the H+ concentration is relative to the OH- ions. Basic solutions have fewer H+ ions relative to OH- ions. The scale ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic). Each pH unit actually represents a tenfold (10x) difference in the concentration of ions. For example, a substance with a pH of 5 has 100 times more H+ ions than a substance with a pH of 7 does. Water has a pH of 7 and is therefore neutral; that is, it has as many H+ ions as OH- ions. The pH of most cells is very close to 7.
28The Properties of Water Nonpolar molecules, such as oil, do not contain charged atomsThese atoms are called hydrophobic (water hating)Figure 2.7 Oil and water.Oil is nonpolar and will not mix with water.
29Water’s High Specific Heat The specific heat is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of that substance to change its temperature by 1oCTherefore, the specific heat of water is defined as1cal/gram/oC
30How Water Stabilizes Temperature Water’s high specific heat is linked to hydrogen bonding.Much of the heat energy is used to disrupt the hydrogen bonds before the water molecules can begin moving faster.When the temperature of the water drops slightly, many hydrogen bonds form, releasing a considerable amount of energy in the form of heat.
31High Heat CapacityWater absorbs or releases more heat than many substances for each degree of temperature increase or decrease.Warms slowlyCools slowlyEvaporative cooling: sweating, evapo-transpiration in plants
32High Heat CapacityDifferences in temperature between lakes and rivers and the surrounding air may have a variety of effects.Local fog or mist is likely to occur if a lake cools the surrounding air enough to cause saturation; small water droplets are suspended in the air.
33High Heat CapacityWater vapor forms a kind of global "blanket" which helps to keep the earth warm.Heat radiated from the sun-warmed surface of the earth is absorbed and held by the vapor.Water vapor contributes to global warmingIs it a greenhouse gas?
34High Heat CapacityLarge bodies of water, such as the oceans or the Great Lakes, have a profound influence on climate.Heat reservoirs and heat exchangersSources of moisture that falls as rain and snow over adjacent land masses.When water is colder than the air, precipitation is curbed, winds are reduced, and fog banks are formed.
35Freezing and BoilingPure water at sea level boils at 100°C and freezes at 0°C. At higher elevations (lower atmospheric pressures) water's boiling temperature decreases.Takes longer to boil an egg at higher altitudesDoesn’t get high enough to cook the egg properlyIf a substance is dissolved in water, the freezing point is lowered.Spread salt on streets in winter to prevent ice formation.
36Biological Antifreeze Must prevent formation of ice crystals inside cells.Insects cells replace water with glycerolPlants use sugars and proteins to increase solutes in the cytoplasmAntarctic fish use glycoproteins
37Water Vapor Absolute humidity: actual mass of water vapor in the air Relative humidity: % of max. water vapor for a particular temperatureDew point: saturation point for a particular temperature
38Air Temp. and Humidity Warm air holds more water vapor than cold air. This explains why indoor air is so dry in winter.Cold air outside holds little water.Air coming into house is dry.Heating dries it further.
41Chicago’s WeatherThere are two geographical factors that contribute to Chicago's weather.Lake Michigan: 450 miles long, 80 miles wide, 900 feet deep.Location: there really aren’t any major geographical features to the west or south of Chicago for nearly a thousand miles (1600 kilometers).
42Location effectOnce weather events start heading to Chicago, there is nothing in the geography to stop them.This means that there are usually two to three days warning before any major weather systems hit Chicago.This also means that any weather system that happens to head to Chicago tends to get there.This makes Chicago weather very variable in the long term.But it also tends to be predictable in the short term.
43Lake effectAs any huge mass of water does, Lake Michigan makes a dandy thermal mass.It tends to be much warmer that the air over it in winter, and much cooler than the air in summer.In winter, this bring lake effect snows that can drop six inches of snow on downtown while leaving the suburbs dry.In summer, this brings the lake breeze, which can drop the temperature dramatically downtown, while it’s broiling hot in the western ‘burbs.
45This also explains why NW Indiana, SE Michigan, and Buffalo, N. Y This also explains why NW Indiana, SE Michigan, and Buffalo, N.Y. are hit so hard by snowstorms in the winter.As air passes over the warm lake water, it picks up moisture.Then as it passes over the land, it cools and drops its moisture in the form of snow.